Results for 'Michael Richard Starks'

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  1.  13
    The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics.Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Evolutionary ethics - the application of evolutionary ideas to moral thinking and justification - began in the nineteenth century with the work of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, but was subsequently criticized as an example of the naturalistic fallacy. In recent decades, however, evolutionary ethics has found new support among both the Darwinian and the Spencerian traditions. This accessible volume looks at the history of thought about evolutionary ethics as well as current debates in the subject, examining first the claims (...)
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  2.  20
    The Cambridge Companion to the 'Origin of Species'.Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin is universally recognized as one of the most important science books ever written. Published in 1859, it was here that Darwin argued for both the fact of evolution and the mechanism of natural section. The Origin of Species is also a work of great cultural and religious significance, in that Darwin maintained that all organisms, including humans, are part of a natural process of growth from simple forms. This Companion commemorates the 150th anniversary (...)
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  3.  7
    Pattern Separation in the Human Hippocampus: Response to Quiroga.Nanthia Suthana, Arne D. Ekstrom, Michael A. Yassa & Craig Stark - 2021 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 25 (6):423-424.
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  4.  12
    "The End of Metaphysics" and the Historiography of Philosophy.Michael Richard Ayers - 1985 - In A. J. Holland (ed.), Philosophy, Its History and Historiography. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel. pp. 27-40.
    No doubt most philosophers who spend time on the history of philosophy are familiar with that question asked to embarrass (and liable to be asked by scientists in particular) why the history of the subject should be thought a significant part of the subject itself. Either there is progress in philosophy, it is said, or there is not. If there is progress, why the laborious backward glances? How can the past be so important? Why aren’t philosophers like psychologists, given perhaps (...)
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  5.  23
    Vestigial Sensations.Michael Taylor, Evelleen Richards & Adrian Johns - 2002 - Metascience 11 (1):4-27.
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  6.  6
    Medical Science and the Cruelty to Animals Act 1876: A Re-Examination of Anti-Vivisectionism in Provincial Britain.Michael A. Finn & James F. Stark - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 49:12-23.
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  7. Conflict of Interest in the Professions.Michael Davis & Andrew Stark (eds.) - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Conflicts of interest pose special problems for the professions. Even the appearance of a conflict of interest can undermine essential trust between professional and public. This volume is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the ramifications and problems associated with important issue. It contains fifteen new essays by noted scholars and covers topics in law, medicine, journalism, engineering, financial services, and others.
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  8.  13
    Anisotropy and Interaction of Fields of Spatial Induction.Richard M. Michaels - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (4):235.
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  9.  23
    The Electrical Phosphene Threshold as a Measure of Retinal Induction and Visual Organization.Richard M. Michaels - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (1):21.
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  10.  99
    Towards a Philosophy of Academic Publishing.Michael A. Peters, Petar Jandrić, Ruth Irwin, Kirsten Locke, Nesta Devine, Richard Heraud, Andrew Gibbons, Tina Besley, Jayne White, Daniella Forster, Liz Jackson, Elizabeth Grierson, Carl Mika, Georgina Stewart, Marek Tesar, Susanne Brighouse, Sonja Arndt, George Lazaroiu, Ramona Mihaila, Catherine Legg & Leon Benade - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (14):1401-1425.
    This article is concerned with developing a philosophical approach to a number of significant changes to academic publishing, and specifically the global journal knowledge system wrought by a range of new digital technologies that herald the third age of the journal as an electronic, interactive and mixed-media form of scientific communication. The paper emerges from an Editors' Collective, a small New Zealand-based organisation comprised of editors and reviewers of academic journals mostly in the fields of education and philosophy. The paper (...)
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  11.  30
    Perception of Motion Affects Language Processing.Michael P. Kaschak, Carol J. Madden, David J. Therriault, Richard H. Yaxley, Mark Aveyard, Adrienne A. Blanchard & Rolf A. Zwaan - 2005 - Cognition 94 (3):B79 - B89.
  12. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature: Thirtieth-Anniversary Edition.Richard Rorty, Michael Williams & David Bromwich - 2008 - Princeton University Press.
    When it first appeared in 1979, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature hit the philosophical world like a bombshell. In it, Richard Rorty argued that, beginning in the seventeenth century, philosophers developed an unhealthy obsession with the notion of representation: comparing the mind to a mirror that reflects reality. Rorty's book is a powerful critique of this imagery and the tradition of thought that it spawned. Thirty years later, the book remains a must-read and stands as a classic of (...)
     
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  13.  46
    Reinventing Richard Goldschmidt: Reputation, Memory, and Biography. [REVIEW]Michael R. Dietrich - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4):693 - 712.
    Richard Goldschmidt was one of the most controversial biologists of the mid-twentieth century. Rather than fade from view, Goldschmidt's work and reputation has persisted in the biological community long after he has. Goldschmidt's longevity is due in large part to how he was represented by Stephen J. Gould. When viewed from the perspective of the biographer, Gould's revival of Goldschmidt as an evolutionary heretic in the 1970s and 1980s represents a selective reinvention of Goldschmidt that provides a contrast to (...)
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  14.  32
    Retention of Visual and Name Codes of Single Letters.Michael I. Posner, Stephen J. Boies, William H. Eichelman & Richard L. Taylor - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p2):1.
  15. Deference Done Right.Richard Pettigrew & Michael G. Titelbaum - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-19.
    There are many kinds of epistemic experts to which we might wish to defer in setting our credences. These include: highly rational agents, objective chances, our own future credences, our own current credences, and evidential probabilities. But exactly what constraint does a deference requirement place on an agent's credences? In this paper we consider three answers, inspired by three principles that have been proposed for deference to objective chances. We consider how these options fare when applied to the other kinds (...)
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  16. Ending the Rationality Wars: How to Make Disputes About Human Rationality Disappear.Richard Samuels, Stephen Stich & Michael Bishop - 2002 - In Renee Elio (ed.), Common Sense, Reasoning and Rationality. Oxford University Press. pp. 236-268.
    During the last 25 years, researchers studying human reasoning and judgment in what has become known as the “heuristics and biases” tradition have produced an impressive body of experimental work which many have seen as having “bleak implications” for the rationality of ordinary people (Nisbett and Borgida 1975). According to one proponent of this view, when we reason about probability we fall victim to “inevitable illusions” (Piattelli-Palmarini 1994). Other proponents maintain that the human mind is prone to “systematic deviations from (...)
     
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  17.  69
    Why Don't Concepts Constitute a Natural Kind?Richard Samuels & Michael Ferreira - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):222 - 223.
    Machery argues that concepts do not constitute a natural kind. We argue that this is a mistake. When appropriately construed, his discussion in fact bolsters the claim that concepts are a natural kind.
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  18. Richard Rorty: Pragmatism and Political Liberalism.Michael Bacon - 2007 - Lexington Books.
    Michael Bacon gives a critical presentation of Rorty's writings on pragmatism and political theory, comparing and contrasting him with pragmatists such as Hilary Putnam and Susan Haack and liberals such as John Rawls and Brian Barry. The result is an imaginative presentation of one of contemporary philosophy's most innovative and important thinkers.
     
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  19. Production and Comprehension of Gestures Between Orang-Utans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in a Referential Communication Game.Richard Moore, Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2015 - PLoS ONE:pone.0129726.
    Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing. While the ‘communicator’ could see but not obtain hidden food, the ‘donor’ could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its location for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers. However, they responded only (...)
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  20.  34
    Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise.Richard Menary & Michael Kirchhoff - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (6):1-14.
    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.
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  21.  11
    The Revolution of the Saints. A Study in the Origins of Radical Politics.Richard T. Vann & Michael Walzer - 1968 - History and Theory 7 (1):102.
  22.  73
    Richard Goldschmidt's "Heresies" and the Evolutionary Synthesis.Michael R. Dietrich - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (3):431-461.
  23.  30
    A Survey of Model Evaluation Approaches With a Tutorial on Hierarchical Bayesian Methods.Richard M. Shiffrin, Michael D. Lee, Woojae Kim & Eric-Jan Wagenmakers - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1248-1284.
  24.  13
    Inhibited Personality Temperaments Translated Through Enhanced Avoidance and Associative Learning Increase Vulnerability for PTSD.Michael Todd Allen, Catherine E. Myers, Kevin D. Beck, Kevin C. H. Pang & Richard J. Servatius - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  25.  17
    Perception of Auditory Motion Affects Language Processing.Michael P. Kaschak, Rolf A. Zwaan, Mark Aveyard & Richard H. Yaxley - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (4):733-744.
  26.  35
    Two-Year-Olds but Not Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris) Understand Communicative Intentions Without Language, Gestures, or Gaze.Richard Moore, Bettina Mueller, Juliane Kaminski & Michael Tomasello - 2015 - Developmental Science 18 (2):232-242.
    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not point, look, or extend any part of her body towards either bucket, but instead lifted and shook one via a centrally pulled (...)
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  27. Michael Ruse's Design for Living.Robert J. Richards - 2004 - Journal of the History of Biology 37 (1):25 - 38.
    The eminent historian and philosopher of biology, Michael Ruse, has written several books that explore the relationship of evolutionary theory to its larger scientific and cultural setting. Among the questions he has investigated are: Is evolution progressive? What is its epistemological status? Most recently, in "Darwin and Design: Does Evolution have a Purpose?," Ruse has provided a history of the concept of teleology in biological thinking, especially in evolutionary theorizing. In his book, he moves quickly from Plato and Aristotle (...)
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  28. The Adaptive Nature of Eye Movements in Linguistic Tasks: How Payoff and Architecture Shape Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Offs.Richard L. Lewis, Michael Shvartsman & Satinder Singh - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):581-610.
    We explore the idea that eye-movement strategies in reading are precisely adapted to the joint constraints of task structure, task payoff, and processing architecture. We present a model of saccadic control that separates a parametric control policy space from a parametric machine architecture, the latter based on a small set of assumptions derived from research on eye movements in reading (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, & Kliegl, 2005; Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). The eye-control model is embedded in a decision architecture (a (...)
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  29.  18
    A Qualitative Approach to Responsible Conduct of Research Training Development: Identification of Metacognitive Strategies.Michael D. Mumford, Elaine S. Godfrey, Sydney T. Sevier, Richard T. Marcy & Vykinta Kligyte - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (1):33-39.
    Although Responsible Conduct of Research training is common in the sciences, the effectiveness of RCR training is open to question. Three key factors appear to be particularly important in ensuring the effectiveness of ethics education programs: educational efforts should be tied to day-to-day practices in the field, educational efforts should provide strategies for working through the ethical problems people are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice, and educational efforts should be embedded in a broader program of on-going career development efforts. (...)
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  30.  20
    Beyond Mendelian Genetics: Anticipatory Biomedical Ethics and Policy Implications for the Use of CRISPR Together with Gene Drive in Humans.Michael W. Nestor & Richard L. Wilson - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):133-144.
    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats genome editing has already reinvented the direction of genetic and stem cell research. For more complex diseases it allows scientists to simultaneously create multiple genetic changes to a single cell. Technologies for correcting multiple mutations in an in vivo system are already in development. On the surface, the advent and use of gene editing technologies is a powerful tool to reduce human suffering by eradicating complex disease that has a genetic etiology. Gene drives are (...)
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  31. The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Language.Michael Devitt & Richard Hanley (eds.) - 2006 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This engaging and accessible introduction to the philosophy of language provides an important guide to one of the liveliest and most challenging areas of study in philosophy. Interweaving the historical development of the subject with a thematic overview of the different approaches to meaning, the book provides students with the tools necessary to understand contemporary analytical philosophy. The second edition includes new material on: Chomsky, Wittgenstein and Davidson as well as new chapters on the causal theory of reference, possible worlds (...)
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  32.  48
    Methods of Cheating and Deterrents to Classroom Cheating: An International Study.Richard A. Bernardi, Ania V. Baca, Kristen S. Landers & Michael B. Witek - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):373 – 391.
    This study examines the methods students use to cheat on class examinations and suggests ways of deterring using an international sample from Australia, China, Ireland, and the United States. We also examine the level of cheating and reasons for cheating that prior research has highlighted as a method of demonstrating that our sample is equivalent to those in prior studies. Our results confirm the results of prior research that primarily employs students from the United States. The data indicate that actions (...)
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  33.  69
    Three-Year-Olds Understand Communicative Intentions Without Language, Gestures, or Gaze.Richard Moore, Kristin Liebal & Michael Tomasello - 2013 - Interaction Studies 14 (1):62-80.
    The communicative interactions of very young children almost always involve language, gesture and directed gaze. In this study, ninety-six children were asked to determine the location of a hidden toy by understanding a communicative act that contained none of these familiar means. A light-and-sound mechanism placed behind the hiding place and illuminated by a centrally placed switch was used to indicate the location of the toy. After a communicative training session, an experimenter pressed the switch either deliberately or accidentally, and (...)
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  34.  5
    When One Cause Casts Doubt on Another: A Normative Analysis of Discounting in Causal Attribution.Michael W. Morris & Richard P. Larrick - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (2):331-355.
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  35.  7
    Competitive and Coordinative Interactions Between Body Parts Produce Adaptive Developmental Outcomes.Richard Gawne, Kenneth Z. McKenna & Michael Levin - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (8):1900245.
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  36.  2
    Holism in a European Cultural Context: Differences in Cognitive Style Between Central and East Europeans and Westerners.Michael Varnum, Igor Grossmann, Daniela Katunar, Richard Nisbett & Shinobu Kitayama - 2008 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 8 (3-4):321-333.
    Central and East Europeans have a great deal in common, both historically and culturally, with West Europeans and North Americans, but tend to be more interdependent. Interdependence has been shown to be linked to holistic cognition. East Asians are more interdependent than Americans and are more holistic. If interdependence causes holism, we would expect Central and East Europeans to be more holistic than West Europeans and North Americans. In two studies we found evidence that Central and East Europeans are indeed (...)
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  37.  82
    Stewardship of Natural Resources: Definition, Ethical and Practical Aspects. [REVIEW]Richard Worrell & Michael C. Appleby - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (3):263-277.
    Stewardship is potentially a usefulconcept in modernizing management philosophies. Use ofthe term has increased markedly in recent years, yetthe term is used loosely and rarely defined in landmanagement literature. The connections between thispractical usage and the ethical basis of stewardshipare currently poorly developed. The followingdefinition is proposed: ``Stewardship is theresponsible use (including conservation) of naturalresources in a way that takes full and balancedaccount of the interests of society, futuregenerations, and other species, as well as of privateneeds, and accepts significant answerability (...)
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  38. Richard Rorty : Liberalism, Irony, and Social Hope.Michael Bacon - 2011 - In Catherine H. Zuckert (ed.), Political Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Authors and Arguments. Cambridge University Press.
  39.  69
    The Ethics of Psychoactive Ads.Michael R. Hyman & Richard Tansey - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (2):105 - 114.
    Many of today's ads work by arousing the viewer's emotions. Although emotion-arousing ads are widely used and are commonly thought to be effective, their careless use produces a side-effect: the psychoactive ad. A psychoactive ad is any emotion-arousing ad that can cause a meaningful, well-defined group of viewers to feel extremely anxious, to feel hostile toward others, or to feel a loss of self-esteem. We argue that, because some ill-conceived psychoactive ads can cause harm, ethical issues must arise during their (...)
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  40.  48
    Engineering Ethics: Looking Back, Looking Forward.Richard A. Burgess, Michael Davis, Marilyn A. Dyrud, Joseph R. Herkert, Rachelle D. Hollander, Lisa Newton, Michael S. Pritchard & P. Aarne Vesilind - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1395-1404.
    The eight pieces constituting this Meeting Report are summaries of presentations made during a panel session at the 2011 Association for Practical and Professional Ethics (APPE) annual meeting held between March 3rd and 6th in Cincinnati. Lisa Newton organized the session and served as chair. The panel of eight consisted both of pioneers in the field and more recent arrivals. It covered a range of topics from how the field has developed to where it should be going, from identification of (...)
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  41.  18
    Barthes’s Punctum.Michael Fried, Robert Pippin, Michel Chaouli, Stefan Andriopoulos, Richard Menke, Carlo Ginzburg, Dragan Kujundzic, Jacques Derrida & J. Hillis Miller - 2005 - Critical Inquiry 31 (3):575-598.
  42.  21
    Can the Use of CRISPR in Humans Result in Decreased Social Justice for Future Stakeholders?Michael W. Nestor & Richard L. Wilson - 2018 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 9 (1):5-16.
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  43.  64
    Sociology and the Second Darwinian Revolution: A Metatheoretical Analysis.Richard Machalek & Michael W. Martin - 2004 - Sociological Theory 22 (3):455-476.
    Sociologists tend to eschew biological explanations of human social behavior. Accordingly, when evolutionary biologists began to apply neo-Darwinian theory to the study of human social behavior, the reactions of sociologists typically ranged from indifference to overt hostility. Since the mid-1960s, however, neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory has stimulated a "second Darwinian revolution" in traditional social scientific conceptions of human nature and social behavior, even while most sociologists remain largely uninformed about neo-Darwinian theory and research. This article traces sociology's long-standing isolation from the (...)
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  44.  23
    Beyond Mendelian Genetics: Anticipatory Biomedical Ethics and Policy Implications for the Use of CRISPR Together with Gene Drive in Humans.Michael Nestor & Richard Wilson - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal.
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  45.  33
    Standards of Practice in Empirical Bioethics Research: Towards a Consensus.Jonathan Ives, Michael Dunn, Bert Molewijk, Jan Schildmann, Kristine Bærøe, Lucy Frith, Richard Huxtable, Elleke Landeweer, Marcel Mertz, Veerle Provoost, Annette Rid, Sabine Salloch, Mark Sheehan, Daniel Strech, Martine de Vries & Guy Widdershoven - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):68.
    This paper responds to the commentaries from Stacy Carter and Alan Cribb. We pick up on two main themes in our response. First, we reflect on how the process of setting standards for empirical bioethics research entails drawing boundaries around what research counts as empirical bioethics research, and we discuss whether the standards agreed in the consensus process draw these boundaries correctly. Second, we expand on the discussion in the original paper of the role and significance of the concept of (...)
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  46. Education, Ethics and Experience: Essays in Honour of Richard Pring.Michael Hand & Richard Davies (eds.) - 2015 - Routledge.
    _Education, Ethics and Experience_ is a collection of original philosophical essays celebrating the work of one of the most influential philosophers of education of the last 40 years. Richard Pring’s substantial body of work has addressed topics ranging from curriculum integration to the comprehensive ideal, vocational education to faith schools, professional development to the privatisation of education, moral seriousness to the nature of educational research. The twelve essays collected here explore and build on Pring’s treatment of topics that are (...)
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  47.  21
    Insomnia and the Attribution Process.Michael D. Storms & Richard E. Nisbett - 1970 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 16 (2):319-328.
    Gave 42 19-26 yr. old insomniac Ss placebo pills to take a few min. before going to bed. Some Ss were told that the pills would cause arousal, and others were told that the pills would reduce arousal. As predicted, arousal Ss got to sleep more quickly than they had on nights without the pills, presumably because they attributed their arousal to the pills rather than to their emotions, and as a consequence were less emotional. Also as predicted, relaxation Ss (...)
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  48.  12
    Sample Size and the Detection of Correlation--A Signal Detection Account: Comment on Kareev and Juslin and Olsson.Richard B. Anderson, Michael E. Doherty, Neil D. Berg & Jeff C. Friedrich - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):268-279.
  49.  57
    Michael Polanyi's Daring Epistemology and the Hunger for Teleology.Richard Gelwick - 2005 - Zygon 40 (1):63-76.
    . The linking of Michael Polanyi's name with a center at Baylor University that espoused intelligent‐design theory calls for examination of Polanyi's teleology. This examination attempts to put Polanyi's epistemology in the perspective of his total philosophical work by looking at the clarification of teleology in philosophy of biology and in the framework of three major features of Polanyi's thought: open and truth‐oriented, purposive but open to truth, and transcendent yet intelligible. The conclusion is that Polanyi would not support (...)
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  50. Language, Thought, and Logic: Essays in Honour of Michael Dummett.Richard G. Heck (ed.) - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    In this exciting new collection, a distinguished international group of philosophers contribute new essays on central issues in philosophy of language and logic, in honor of Michael Dummett, one of the most influential philosophers of the late twentieth century. The essays are focused on areas particularly associated with Professor Dummett. Five are contributions to the philosophy of language, addressing in particular the nature of truth and meaning and the relation between language and thought. Two contributors discuss time, in particular (...)
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