Results for 'Marcus Hutter'

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  1. One Decade of Universal Artificial Intelligence.Marcus Hutter - 2012 - In Pei Wang & Ben Goertzel (eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence. Springer. pp. 67--88.
    The first decade of this century has seen the nascency of the first mathematical theory of general artificial intelligence. This theory of Universal Artificial Intelligence (UAI) has made significant contributions to many theoretical, philosophical, and practical AI questions. In a series of papers culminating in book (Hutter, 2005), an exciting sound and complete mathematical model for a super intelligent agent (AIXI) has been developed and rigorously analyzed. While nowadays most AI researchers avoid discussing intelligence, the award-winning PhD thesis (Legg, (...)
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  2. Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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    A Philosophical Treatise of Universal Induction.Samuel Rathmanner & Marcus Hutter - 2011 - Entropy 13 (6):1076-1136.
    Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results (...)
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  4. A Complete Theory of Everything (Will Be Subjective).Marcus Hutter - 2010 - Algorithms 3 (4):329-350.
    Increasingly encompassing models have been suggested for our world. Theories range from generally accepted to increasingly speculative to apparently bogus. The progression of theories from ego- to geo- to helio-centric models to universe and multiverse theories and beyond was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the sizes of the postulated worlds, with humans being expelled from their center to ever more remote and random locations. Rather than leading to a true theory of everything, this trend faces a turning point after (...)
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  5. Observer Localization in Multiverse Theories.Marcus Hutter - 2010 - In Harald Fritzsch & K. K. Phua (eds.), Proceedings of the Conference in Honour of Murray Gell-Mann's 80th Birthday. World Scientific.
    The progression of theories suggested for our world, from ego- to geo- to helio-centric models to universe and multiverse theories and beyond, shows one tendency: The size of the described worlds increases, with humans being expelled from their center to ever more remote and random locations. If pushed too far, a potential theory of everything (TOE) is actually more a theories of nothing (TON). Indeed such theories have already been developed. I show that including observer localization into such theories is (...)
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  6. Can Intelligence Explode?Marcus Hutter - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):143-166.
    The technological singularity refers to a hypothetical scenario in which technological advances virtually explode. The most popular scenario is the creation of super-intelligent algorithms that recursively create ever higher intelligences. It took many decades for these ideas to spread from science fiction to popular science magazines and finally to attract the attention of serious philosophers. David Chalmers' (JCS 2010) article is the first comprehensive philosophical analysis of the singularity in a respected philosophy journal. The motivation of my article is to (...)
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    Probabilities on Sentences in an Expressive Logic.Marcus Hutter, John W. Lloyd, Kee Siong Ng & William T. B. Uther - 2013 - Journal of Applied Logic 11 (4):386-420.
    Automated reasoning about uncertain knowledge has many applications. One difficulty when developing such systems is the lack of a completely satisfactory integration of logic and probability. We address this problem directly. Expressive languages like higher-order logic are ideally suited for representing and reasoning about structured knowledge. Uncertain knowledge can be modeled by using graded probabilities rather than binary truth-values. The main technical problem studied in this paper is the following: Given a set of sentences, each having some probability of being (...)
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  8. Modality, Morality and Belief: Essays in Honor of Ruth Barcan Marcus.Ruth Barcan Marcus, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Diana Raffman & Nicholas Asher (eds.) - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Modality, morality and belief are among the most controversial topics in philosophy today, and few philosophers have shaped these debates as deeply as Ruth Barcan Marcus. Inspired by her work, a distinguished group of philosophers explore these issues, refine and sharpen arguments and develop new positions on such topics as possible worlds, moral dilemmas, essentialism, and the explanation of actions by beliefs. This 'state of the art' collection honours one of the most rigorous and iconoclastic of philosophical pioneers.
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  9. Discussion on the Paper of Ruth B. Marcus.Ruth B. Marcus - 1962 - Synthese 14 (2/3):132.
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    On the Paper of Ruth B. Marcus.Ruth B. Marcus - 1962 - Synthese 14 (2/3):132 - 143.
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    Early Pythagorean Politics in Practice and Theory. By Ralph Marcus.Ralph Marcus - 1944 - Ethics 55 (3):232-233.
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    Marcus, Ernst. Hermann Cohens „Theorie der Erfahrung * und die Kritik der reinen Vernunft“. [REVIEW]E. Marcus - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
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  13. Heaven, Hell & History a Survey of Man's Faith in History From Antiquity to the Present John T. Marcus. --.John T. Marcus - 1967 - Macmillan.
     
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  14. Moral Dilemmas and Consistency.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (3):121-136.
    Marcus argues that moral dilemmas are real, but that they are not the result of inconsistent moral principles. Moral principles are consistent just in case there is some world where all principles are 'obeyable.' They are inconsistent just in case there is no world where all are 'obeyable.' What this logical point is meant to show is that moral dilemmas do not make moral codes inconsistent. She also discusses guilt, and argues that guilt is still appropriate even in cases (...)
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  15. Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul and its Ascetic Practices.Horst Hutter - 2005 - Lexington Books.
    Shaping the Future maps out the ascetic practices of a Neitzschean way of life. Hutter argues that Nietzsche's doctrines are attempts and "temptations" that aim to provoke his free-spirited readers into changing themselves by putting philosophy into practice in their lives.
     
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  16. The Sentimental Citizen: Emotion in Democratic Politics.George E. Marcus - 2002 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    This book challenges the conventional wisdom that improving democratic politics requires keeping emotion out of it. Marcus advances the provocative claim that the tradition in democratic theory of treating emotion and reason as hostile opposites is misguided and leads contemporary theorists to misdiagnose the current state of American democracy. Instead of viewing the presence of emotion in politics as a failure of rationality and therefore as a failure of citizenship, Marcus argues, democratic theorists need to understand that emotions (...)
     
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  17.  26
    A Philosopher’s Calling.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 2015 - In Michael Frauchiger (ed.), Modalities, Identity, Belief, and Moral Dilemmas: Themes From Barcan Marcus. De Gruyter. pp. 17-38.
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  18. Freud and the Culture of Psychoanalysis : Studies in the Transition From Victorian Humanism to Modernity.Steven Marcus - 2016 - Routledge.
    Originally published in 1984, this book broke new ground in assessing Freud as both an exemplary late-Victorian and as a pivotal figure in the creation of modern thought and culture. In his close reading of various of Freud’s theoretical and clinical texts, including two of the most famous case histories, Steven Marcus uncovers the steps in the development of Freud’s thought, the dynamics and contradictions and ‘the intellectual and emotional urgings, forces and conflicts that were at work… as the (...)
     
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  19. The Logical Enterprise.Alan Ross Anderson, Ruth Barcan Marcus, R. M. Martin & Frederic B. Fitch (eds.) - 1975 - Yale University Press.
    Metaphysics and language: Quine, W. V. O. On the individuation of attributes. Körner, S. On some relations between logic and metaphysics. Marcus, R. B. Does the principle of substitutivity rest on a mistake? Van Fraassen, B. C. Platonism's pyrrhic victory. Martin, R. M. On some prepositional relations. Kearns, J. T. Sentences and propositions.--Basic and combinatorial logic: Orgass, R. J. Extended basic logic and ordinal numbers. Curry, H. B. Representation of Markov algorithms by combinators.--Implication and consistency: Anderson, A. R. Fitch (...)
     
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  20. Dreams of Modernity: Psychoanalysis, Literature, Cinema.Laura Marcus - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Laura Marcus is one of the leading literary critics of modernist literature and culture. Dreams of Modernity: Psychoanalysis, Literature, Cinema covers the period from around 1880 to 1930, when modernity as a form of social and cultural life fed into the beginnings of modernism as a cultural form. Railways, cinema, psychoanalysis and the literature of detection - and their impact on modern sensibility - are four of the chief subjects explored. Marcus also stresses the creativity of modernist women (...)
     
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  21. Modalities: Philosophical Essays.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1961 - Oxford University Press.
    Based on her earlier ground-breaking axiomatization of quantified modal logic, the papers collected here by the distinguished philosopher Ruth Barcan Marcus cover much ground in the development of her thought, spanning from 1961 to 1990. The first essay here introduces themes initially viewed as iconoclastic, such as the necessity of identity, the directly referential role of proper names as "tags", the Barcan Formula about the interplay of possibility and existence, and alternative interpretations of quantification. Marcus also addresses the (...)
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  22. Quentin Smith.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1998 - In J. H. Fetzer & P. Humphreys (eds.), The New Theory of Reference: Kripke, Marcus, and its Origins. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 3.
     
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  23. Modalities: Philosophical Essays.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1993 - Oup Usa.
    This collection of Marcus's non-technical essays include her earlier ground-breaking axiomatizations of quantified modal logic, and explore such topics as the necessity of identity, the directly referential role of proper names as "tags", the interplay of possibility and existence, and others viewed as iconoclastic when Marcus first addressed them, but now long incorporated into current discussion.
     
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  24. The Algebraic Mind.Gary F. Marcus - 2001 - MIT Press.
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  25.  10
    Rational Causation.Eric Marcus - 2012 - Harvard University Press.
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    Birth of the Mind: How a Tiny Number of Genes Creates the Complexity of Human Thought.Gary F. Marcus - 2004 - Basic Books.
  27. Why Zombies Are Inconceivable.Eric Marcus - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (3):477-90.
    I argue that zombies are inconceivable. More precisely, I argue that the conceivability-intuition that is used to demonstrate their possibility has been misconstrued. Thought experiments alleged to feature zombies founder on the fact that, on the one hand, they _must_ involve first-person imagining, and yet, on the other hand, _cannot_. Philosophers who take themselves to have imagined zombies have unwittingly conflated imagining a creature who lacks consciousness with imagining a creature without also imagining the consciousness it may or may not (...)
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  28. Modalities and Intensional Languages.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1961 - Synthese 13 (4):303-322.
  29. Mental Causation: Unnaturalized but Not Unnatural.Eric Marcus - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (1):57-83.
    If a woman in the audience at a presentation raises her hand, we would take this as evidence that she intends to ask a question. In normal circumstances, we would be right to say that she raises her hand because she intends to ask a question. We also expect that there could, in principle, be a causal explanation of her hand’s rising in purely physiological terms. Ordinarily, we take the existence and compatibility of both kinds of causes for granted. But (...)
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  30. Mental Causation in a Physical World.Eric Marcus - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 122 (1):27-50.
    <b> </b>Abstract: It is generally accepted that the most serious threat to the possibility of mental causation is posed by the causal self-sufficiency of physical causal processes. I argue, however, that this feature of the world, which I articulate in principle I call Completeness, in fact poses no genuine threat to mental causation. Some find Completeness threatening to mental causation because they confuse it with a stronger principle, which I call Closure. Others do not simply conflate Completeness and Closure, but (...)
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  31. Rationality and Believing the Impossible.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (6):321-338.
  32. Events, Sortals, and the Mind–Body Problem.Eric Marcus - 2006 - Synthese 150 (1):99-129.
    In recent decades, a view of identity I call Sortalism has gained popularity. According to this view, if a is identical to b, then there is some sortal S such that a is the same S as b. Sortalism has typically been discussed with respect to the identity of objects. I argue that the motivations for Sortalism about object-identity apply equally well to event-identity. But Sortalism about event-identity poses a serious threat to the view that mental events are token identical (...)
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  33. Musicality: Instinct or Acquired Skill?Gary F. Marcus - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):498-512.
  34. A Proposed Solution to a Puzzle About Belief.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1981 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6 (1):501-510.
  35. Intelligence Via Ultrafilters: Structural Properties of Some Intelligence Comparators of Deterministic Legg-Hutter Agents.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 10 (1):24-45.
    Legg and Hutter, as well as subsequent authors, considered intelligent agents through the lens of interaction with reward-giving environments, attempting to assign numeric intelligence measures to such agents, with the guiding principle that a more intelligent agent should gain higher rewards from environments in some aggregate sense. In this paper, we consider a related question: rather than measure numeric intelligence of one Legg- Hutter agent, how can we compare the relative intelligence of two Legg-Hutter agents? We propose (...)
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  36. Why There Are No Token States.Eric Marcus - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Research 34:215-241.
    The thesis that mental states are physical states enjoys widespread popularity. After the abandonment of typeidentity theories, however, this thesis has typically been framed in terms of state tokens. I argue that token states are a philosopher’s fiction, and that debates about the identity of mental and physical state tokens thus rest on a mistake.
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  37. Quantification and Ontology.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1972 - Noûs 6 (3):240-250.
  38. Intentionalism and the Imaginability of the Inverted Spectrum.Eric Marcus - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (224):321-339.
    There has been much written in recent years about whether a pair of subjects could have visual experiences that represented the colors of objects in their environment in precisely the same way, despite differing significantly in what it was like to undergo them, differing that is, in their qualitative character. The possibility of spectrum inversion has been so much debated1 in large part because of the threat that it would pose to the more general doctrine of Intentionalism, according to which (...)
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  39. Interpreting Quantification.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1962 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 5 (1-4):252 – 259.
    Alternative readings of quantification are considered. The absence of an unequivocal translation into ordinary speech is noted. Some examples are cited which, in the opinion of the author, are a result of equivocal readings of quantification, or unnecessarily restrictive readings which obscure its primary function.
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  40. What is an Initiation Story?Mordecai Marcus - 1960 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 19 (2):221-228.
  41. Structuralism, Indispensability, and the Access Problem.Russell Marcus - 2007 - Facta Philosophica 9 (1):203-211.
    The access problem for mathematics arises from the supposition that the referents of mathematical terms inhabit a realm separate from us. Quine’s approach in the philosophy of mathematics dissolves the access problem, though his solution sometimes goes unrecognized, even by those who rely on his framework. This paper highlights both Quine’s position and its neglect. I argue that Michael Resnik’s structuralist, for example, has no access problem for the so-called mathematical objects he posits, despite recent criticism, since he relies on (...)
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    Essential Attribution.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1971 - Journal of Philosophy 68 (7):187-202.
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    Rules, Radical Pragmatics and Restrictions on Regular Polysemy.H. Rabagliati, G. F. Marcus & L. Pylkkanen - 2011 - Journal of Semantics 28 (4):485-512.
    Although regular polysemy [e.g. producer for product (John read Dickens) or container for contents (John drank the bottle)] has been extensively studied, there has been little work on why certain polysemy patterns are more acceptable than others. We take an empirical approach to the question, in particular evaluating an account based on rules against a gradient account of polysemy that is based on various radical pragmatic theories (Fauconnier 1985; Nunberg 1995). Under the gradient approach, possible senses become more acceptable as (...)
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  44. Essentialism in Modal Logic.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1967 - Noûs 1 (1):91-96.
  45. Extensionality.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1960 - Mind 69 (273):55-62.
  46. Dispensing with Possibilia.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1975 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 49:39 - 51.
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    Concepts, Correlations, and Some Challenges for Connectionist Cognition.Gary F. Marcus & Frank C. Keil - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):722-723.
    Rogers & McClelland's (R&M's) précis represents an important effort to address key issues in concepts and categorization, but few of the simulations deliver what is promised. We argue that the models are seriously underconstrained, importantly incomplete, and psychologically implausible; more broadly, R&M dwell too heavily on the apparent successes without comparable concern for limitations already noted in the literature.
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  48. Nominalism and the Substitutional Quantifier.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1978 - The Monist 61 (3):351-362.
    It has been suggested that a substitutional semantics for quantification theory lends itself to nominalistic aims. I should like in this paper to explore that claim.
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  49. The $\Prec$-Order on Submodels.Leo Marcus - 1976 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 41 (1):215 - 221.
  50. The Western Conception of Moral Order.J. T. Marcus - 1970 - Diogenes 18 (71):81-108.
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