Until recently, sex determination in mammals has often been described as a male determination process, with male differentiation being the active and dominant pathway, and only in its absence is the passive female pathway followed. This picture has been challenged recently with the discovery that the gene encoding R-spondin1 is mutated in human patients with female-to-male sex reversal.((1)) These findings might place R-spondin1 in the exceptional position of being the female-determining gene in mammals. In this review, possible roles of R-spondin1 (...) during sex determination as well as questions arising from this study will be discussed. (shrink)
An intellectual biography, sketching the development from Dilthey, the theologian, to Dilthey, the philosopher of history and culture. The major intellectual influences are presented in the variegated setting of the contemporary scholarly community and the dominant modes of thought and controversies in that community. A systematic exposition of Dilthey's thought follows. Altogether a lucid and interesting introduction to Dilthey.--R. G. S.
This is a collection of four essays by Tillich emphasizing in various ways the basic point that the future of man must involve the religious dimension and perspective. It includes his last public lecture, "The Significance of the History of Religions for the Systematic Theologian," in which he rejects the reductionism both of orthodoxy, which locates revelation only in its own religion, and of a theology of the secular, which has no room for the sacred. He favors instead a "dynamic-typological" (...) approach to the theology of the history of religions that discovers elements in the experience of the Holy in all religions, whose unity and telos will be in a "Religion of the Concrete Spirit." The three other lectures complement the thrust of this lecture. In "The Decline and Validity of the Idea of Progress," Tillich finds the proper perspective toward history and progress in kairoi, moments of partial but creative fulfillment. In "Frontiers" he speaks of crossing and reversing boundaries as the way to peace. And in "The Effects of Space Exploration on Man's Condition" he notes the emergence of a new ideal of human existence and affirms it doesn't change the divine-human relationship. The book also includes tributes by Jerald C. Brauer, Wilhelm Pauck, and Mircea Eliade, and a set of photographs by Archie Lieberman.--R. G. K. (shrink)
Seventeen scholars have contributed to this Festschrift presented to Eugen Fink, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Freiburg/br., on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. The essays are not intended to be "exemplary," but rather to express a community of thought; a participation of philosophers in the common task of defining significant problems for their discipline. A considerable number of the essays are thematically oriented around the works of Plato; the problems arising from his dialogues are approached from epistemological, (...) ontological and hermeneutic standpoints. Other topics include: the phenomenology of the human body viewed in its relation to the general concept of matter, pedagogics as a concern of the humanistic scholar in the light of Wilhelm Dilthey's philosophy and its continuation in his pupils, power viewed as a phenomenon, the dramas of Georg Büchner, philosophy East and West and the relation of history to tradition. A bibliography of the works of Eugen Fink and of books and essays on his works is also appended.—R. P. J. (shrink)
This study examined self-reported academic dishonesty at a midsize public university. Students (N = 492) rated the likelihood they would cheat after accepting to abide by each of eight honor code pledges before Internet-based assignments and examinations. The statements were derived from honor pledges used by different universities across the United States and varied in length, formality, and the extent to which the statements included consequences for academic dishonesty. Longer, formal honor codes with consequences were associated with a lower likelihood (...) to cheat. Results showed a significant three-way interaction and suggest how to best design honor codes. (shrink)