Results for 'David Wray'

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  1.  7
    Review of Shadi Bartsch, David Wray (Eds.), Seneca and the Self[REVIEW]Katja Maria Vogt - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (6).
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  2.  9
    Shadi Bartsch and David Wray (Eds.) , Seneca and the Self (Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), ISBN: 978-0521888387. [REVIEW]Antonio Donato - 2011 - Foucault Studies 11:200-205.
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  3.  32
    Logic in Quotes.David Otway Wray - 1987 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 16 (1):77 - 110.
  4. Seneca and Tragedy's Reason.David Wray - 2009 - In Shadi Bartsch & David Wray (eds.), Seneca and the Self. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  5. Invisible Hands and the Success of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (1):163-175.
    David Hull accounts for the success of science in terms of an invisible hand mechanism, arguing that it is difficult to reconcile scientists' self-interestedness or their desire for recognition with traditional philosophical explanations for the success of science. I argue that we have less reason to invoke an invisible hand mechanism to explain the success of science than Hull implies, and that many of the practices and institutions constitutive of science are intentionally designed by scientists with an eye to (...)
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  6. Seneca and the Self.Shadi Bartsch & David Wray (eds.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays by well-known scholars of Seneca focuses on the multifaceted ways in which Seneca, as philosopher, politician, poet and Roman senator, engaged with the question of ethical selfhood. The contributors explore the main cruces of Senecan scholarship, such as whether Seneca's treatment of the self is original in its historical context; whether Seneca's Stoicism can be reconciled with the pull of rhetorical and literary self-expression; and how Seneca claims to teach psychic self-integration. Most importantly, the contributors debate (...)
     
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  7. David L. Hull, Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]K. B. Wray - 2002 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (2):191-192.
    This is a book review of David Hull's edited volume of collected papers, Science and Selection.
     
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  8.  27
    A COMPANION TO PHAEDRA R. Mayer: Seneca : Phaedra (Duckworth Companions to Greek and Roman Tragedy). Pp. 142. London: Duckworth, 2002. Paper, £9.99. ISBN: 0-7156-3165-. [REVIEW]David Wray - 2004 - The Classical Review 54 (01):101-.
  9. First-Order Quotational Logic.David Otway Wray - 1987 - Dissertation, University of Houston
    In this dissertation, we construct a consistent, complete quotational logic G$\sb1$. We first develop a semantics, and then show the undecidability of circular quotation and anaphorism . Next, a complete axiom system is presented, and completeness theorems are shown for G$\sb1$. We show that definable truth exists in G$\sb1$. ;Later, we replace equality in G$\sb1$ with an equivalence relation. An axiom system and completeness theorems are provided for this equality-free version of G$\sb1$, which is useful in program verification. ;Interpolation and (...)
     
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  10.  8
    Masterplot Us, Master Plautus. Gunderson Laughing Awry. Plautus and Tragicomedy. Pp. X + 283. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. Cased, £69, Us$99. Isbn: 978-0-19-872930-3. [REVIEW]David Wray - 2018 - The Classical Review 68 (1):79-80.
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  11.  38
    R.G. Dennis, M.C.J. Putnam The Complete Poems of Tibullus. An En Face Bilingual Edition. With an Introduction by Julia Haig Gaisser. Pp. X + 159. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2012. Paper, £13.95, US$19.95 . ISBN: 978-0-520-27254-5 .A.M. Juster Tibullus: Elegies, with Parallel Latin Text. With an Introduction and Notes by Robert Maltby. Pp. Xxxiv + 129. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Paper, £8.99, US$14.95. ISBN: 978-0-19-960331-2. [REVIEW]David Wray - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (2):427-432.
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  12. Review: Seneca. The Life of a Stoic. [REVIEW]David Wray - 2005 - The Classical Review 55 (1):141-143.
  13.  21
    Saint Seneca P. Veyne: Seneca. The Life of a Stoic . Translated by D. Sullivan. Pp. Xii + 191. New York and London: Routledge, 2003 (Originally Published as the Introduction to Sén`Que: Entretiens, Lettres À Lucilius , 1993). Cased, £45. ISBN: 0-415-91125-. [REVIEW]David Wray - 2005 - The Classical Review 55 (01):141-.
  14.  5
    David Oldroyd 1936–2014.Luciano Boschiero & K. Brad Wray - 2015 - Metascience 24 (1):3-4.
    David Oldroyd died in Sydney on 7 November 2014. Many readers of this journal would know of David’s impressive career as an historian of science and many would have also had the pleasure of knowing David personally. His academic career spanned across England, New Zealand and Australia, and his expertise in history of geology took him to several parts of the world for conferences and research, archival as well as geological, including Europe, China, Turkey, Russia and North (...)
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  15.  17
    Implementing Effective Literacy Initiatives in the Secondary School.Maureen Lewis & David Wray - 2001 - Educational Studies 27 (1):45-54.
    Concerns about literacy are currently high on the political agenda in the UK. With the National Literacy Strategy now in place in primary schools, attention is being focused upon how pupils in secondary schools can be supported in continuing to develop their literacy skills. In this article we will briefly consider the current state of literacy within secondary schools and the different curriculum elements that need to be part of a secondary literacy initiative. We examine the key factors, identified through (...)
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  16.  36
    Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Valerie L. Shalin, Wray L. Buntine, S. Gillian Parker, James Higginbotham, Afzal Ballim, Anthony S. Maida, Charles R. Fletcher, David L. Kemerer, Lawrence A. Shapiro, Richard Wyatt, Deepak Kumar, Selmer Bringsjord & Bill Patterson - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (2):257-307.
  17.  18
    Reflections on Method in Philosophy of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2021 - 3:16 Finding Meaning.
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  18. Kuhn's Evolutionary Social Epistemology.K. Brad Wray - 2011 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions has been enduringly influential in philosophy of science, challenging many common presuppositions about the nature of science and the growth of scientific knowledge. However, philosophers have misunderstood Kuhn's view, treating him as a relativist or social constructionist. In this book, Brad Wray argues that Kuhn provides a useful framework for developing an epistemology of science that takes account of the constructive role that social factors play in scientific inquiry. He examines the core concepts of (...)
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  19.  6
    Still Resisting: Replies to My Critics: K. Brad Wray: Resisting Scientific Realism, Cambridge University Press, 2018, 224 Pp., $105 HB. [REVIEW]K. Brad Wray - 2020 - Metascience 29 (1):33-40.
  20. Collective Belief And Acceptance.K. Brad Wray - 2001 - Synthese 129 (3):319-333.
    Margaret Gilbert explores the phenomenon referred to in everyday ascriptions of beliefs to groups. She refers to this type of phenomenon as "collective belief" and calls the types of groups that are the bearers of such beliefs "plural subjects". I argue that the attitudes that groups adopt that Gilbert refers to as "collective beliefs" are not a species of belief in an important and central sense, but rather a species of acceptance. Unlike proper beliefs, a collective belief is adopted by (...)
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  21.  76
    Pessimistic Inductions: Four Varieties.K. Brad Wray - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (1):61-73.
    The pessimistic induction plays an important role in the contemporary realism/anti-realism debate in philosophy of science. But there is some disagreement about the structure and aim of the argument. And a number of scholars have noted that there is more than one type of PI in the philosophical literature. I review four different versions of the PI. I aim to show that PIs have been appealed to by philosophers of science for a variety of reasons. Even some realists have appealed (...)
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  22. The Epistemic Significance of Collaborative Research.K. Brad Wray - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (1):150-168.
    I examine the epistemic import of collaborative research in science. I develop and defend a functional explanation for its growing importance. Collaborative research is becoming more popular in the natural sciences, and to a lesser degree in the social sciences, because contemporary research in these fields frequently requires access to abundant resources, for which there is great competition. Scientists involved in collaborative research have been very successful in accessing these resources, which has in turn enabled them to realize the epistemic (...)
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  23. The Pessimistic Induction and the Exponential Growth of Science Reassessed.K. Brad Wray - 2013 - Synthese 190 (18):4321-4330.
    My aim is to evaluate a new realist strategy for addressing the pessimistic induction, Ludwig Fahrbach’s (Synthese 180:139–155, 2011) appeal to the exponential growth of science. Fahrbach aims to show that, given the exponential growth of science, the history of science supports realism. I argue that Fahrbach is mistaken. I aim to show that earlier generations of scientists could construct a similar argument, but one that aims to show that the theories that they accepted are likely true. The problem with (...)
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  24. A Selectionist Explanation for the Success and Failures of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2007 - Erkenntnis 67 (1):81-89.
    I argue that van Fraassen's selectionist explanation for the success of science is superior to the realists' explanation. Whereas realists argue that our current theories are successful because they accurately reflect the structure of the world, the selectionist claims that our current theories are successful because unsuccessful theories have been eliminated. I argue that, unlike the explanation proposed by the realist, the selectionist explanation can also account for the failures of once successful theories and the fact that sometimes two competing (...)
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  25.  75
    Selection and Predictive Success.K. Brad Wray - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):365-377.
    Van Fraassen believes our current best theories enable us to make accurate predictions because they have been subjected to a selection process similar to natural selection. His explanation for the predictive success of our best theories has been subjected to extensive criticism from realists. I aim to clarify the nature of van Fraassen’s selectionist explanation for the success of science. Contrary to what the critics claim, the selectionist can explain why it is that we have successful theories, as well as (...)
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  26. Evolution: The First Four Billion Years.Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis (eds.) - 2009 - Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press.
    The history of evolutionary thought / Michael Ruse -- The origin of life / Jeffrey L. Bada and Antonio Lazcano -- Paleontology and the history of life / Michael Benton -- Adaptation / Joseph Travis and David N. Reznick -- Molecular evolution / Francisco J. Ayala -- Evolution of the genome / Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth -- The pattern and process of speciation / Margaret B. Ptacek and Shala J. Hankison -- Evolution and development / Gregory A. (...) -- Social behavior and sociobiology / Daniel J. Rubenstein -- Human evolution / Henry M. McHenry -- Evolutionary biology of disease and Darwinian medicine / Michael F. Antolin -- Beyond the Darwinian paradigm : understanding biological forms / Brian Goodwin -- Philosophy of evolutionary thought / Kim Sterelny -- Evolution and society / Manfred D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein -- Evolution and religion / David N. Livingstone -- American antievolutionism : retrospect and prospect / Eugenie C. Scott. (shrink)
     
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  27. Who has Scientific Knowledge?K. Brad Wray - 2007 - Social Epistemology 21 (3):337 – 347.
    I examine whether or not it is apt to attribute knowledge to groups of scientists. I argue that though research teams can be aptly described as having knowledge, communities of scientists identified with research fields, and the scientific community as a whole are not capable of knowing. Scientists involved in research teams are dependent on each other, and are organized in a manner to advance a goal. Such teams also adopt views that may not be identical to the views of (...)
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  28. Success and Truth in the Realism/Anti-Realism Debate.K. Brad Wray - 2013 - Synthese 190 (9):1719-1729.
    I aim to clarify the relationship between the success of a theory and the truth of that theory. This has been a central issue in the debates between realists and anti-realists. Realists assume that success is a reliable indicator of truth, but the details about the respects in which success is a reliable indicator or test of truth have been largely left to our intuitions. Lewis (Synthese 129:371–380, 2001) provides a clear proposal of how success and truth might be connected, (...)
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  29. The Argument From Underconsideration as Grounds for Anti‐Realism: A Defence.K. Brad Wray - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):317 – 326.
    The anti-realist argument from underconsideration focuses on the fact that, when scientists evaluate theories, they only ever consider a subset of the theories that can account for the available data. As a result, when scientists judge one theory to be superior to competitor theories, they are not warranted in drawing the conclusion that the superior theory is likely true with respect to what it says about unobservable entities and processes. I defend the argument from underconsideration from the objections of Peter (...)
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  30. Epistemic Privilege and the Success of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2012 - Noûs 46 (3):375-385.
    Realists and anti-realists disagree about whether contemporary scientists are epistemically privileged. Because the issue of epistemic privilege figures in arguments in support of and against theoretical knowledge in science, it is worth examining whether or not there is any basis for assuming such privilege. I show that arguments that try to explain the success of science by appeal to some sort of epistemic privilege have, so far, failed. They have failed to give us reason to believe (i) that scientists are (...)
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  31.  38
    Method and Continuity in Science.K. Wray - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):363-375.
    Devitt has developed an interesting defense of realism against the threats posed by the Pessimistic Induction and the Argument from Unconceived Alternatives. Devitt argues that the best explanation for the success of our current theories, and the fact that they are superior to the theories they replaced, is that they were developed and tested with the aid of better methods than the methods used to develop and test the many theories that were discarded earlier in the history of science. It (...)
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  32.  29
    The Atomic Number Revolution in Chemistry: A Kuhnian Analysis.K. Wray - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):209-217.
    This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process of addressing anomalies, chemists who were trained to see elements as defined by their atomic weight discovered that their theoretical assumptions were impediments to understanding the chemical world. The only way to normalize the (...)
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  33.  62
    Scientific Authorship in the Age of Collaborative Research.K. Brad Wray - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (3):505-514.
    I examine two challenges that collaborative research raises for science. First, collaborative research threatens the motivation of scientists. As a result, I argue, collaborative research may have adverse effects on what sorts of things scientists can effectively investigate. Second, collaborative research makes it more difficult to hold scientists accountable. I argue that the authors of multi-authored articles are aptly described as plural subjects, corporate bodies that are more than the sum of the individuals involved. Though journal editors do not currently (...)
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  34.  66
    Discarded Theories: The Role of Changing Interests.K. Wray - 2019 - Synthese 196 (2):553-569.
    I take another look at the history of science and offer some fresh insights into why the history of science is filled with discarded theories. I argue that the history of science is just as we should expect it to be, given the following two facts about science: theories are always only partial representations of the world, and almost inevitably scientists will be led to investigate phenomena that the accepted theory is not fit to account for. Together these facts suggest (...)
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  35.  53
    The Influence of James B. Conant on Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.K. Brad Wray - 2016 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):1-23.
    I examine the influence of James B. Conant on the writing of Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions. By clarifying Conant’s influence on Kuhn, I also clarify the influence that others had on Kuhn’s thinking. And by identifying the various influences that Conant had on Kuhn’s view of science, I identify Kuhn’s most original contributions in Structure. On the one hand, I argue that much of the framework and many of the concepts that figure in Structure were part of Conant’s picture (...)
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  36. Philosophy of Science: What Are the Key Journals in the Field?K. Brad Wray - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):423-430.
    By means of a citation analysis I aim to determine which scholarly journals are most important in the sub-field of philosophy of science. My analysis shows that the six most important journals in the sub-field are Philosophy of Science , British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Journal of Philosophy , Synthese , Studies in History and Philosophy of Science , and Erkenntnis . Given the data presented in this study, there is little evidence that there is such a (...)
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  37.  61
    Kuhn’s Social Epistemology and the Sociology of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2015 - In Alisa Bokulich & William J. Devlin (eds.), Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer. pp. 167-183.
    This chapter discusses Kuhn’s conception of the history of science by focussing on two respects in which Kuhn is an historicist historian and philosopher of science. I identify two distinct, but related, aspects of historicism in the work of Hegel and show how these are also found in Kuhn’s work. First, Kuhn held tradition to be important for understanding scientific change and that the tradition from which a scientific idea originates must be understood in evaluating that idea. This makes Kuhn (...)
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  38.  74
    The Epistemic Cultures of Science and WIKIPEDIA: A Comparison.K. Brad Wray - 2009 - Episteme 6 (1):38-51.
    I compare the epistemic culture of Wikipedia with the epistemic culture of science, with special attention to the culture of collaborative research in science. The two cultures differ markedly with respect to (1) the knowledge produced, (2) who produces the knowledge, and (3) the processes by which knowledge is produced. Wikipedia has created a community of inquirers that are governed by norms very different from those that govern scientists. Those who contribute to Wikipedia do not ground their claims on their (...)
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  39.  54
    Systematicity and the Continuity Thesis.K. Wray - 2019 - Synthese 196 (3):819-832.
    Hoyningen-Huene develops an account of what science is, distinguishing it from common sense. According to Hoyningen-Huene, the key distinguishing feature is that science is more systematic. He identifies nine ways in which science is more systematic than common sense. I compare Hoyningen-Huene’s view to a view I refer to as the “Continuity Thesis.” The Continuity Thesis states that scientific knowledge is just an extension of common sense. This thesis is associated with Quine, Planck, and others. I argue that Hoyningen-Huene ultimately (...)
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  40.  10
    A Crisis of Leadership: Towards an Anti-Sovereign Ethics of Organisation.Edward Wray-Bliss - 2013 - Business Ethics: A European Review 22 (1):86-101.
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  41.  48
    The Methodological Defense of Realism Scrutinized.K. Brad Wray - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:74-79.
    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As (...)
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  42.  27
    COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH, DELIBERATION, AND INNOVATION.K. Brad Wray - 2014 - Episteme 11 (3):291-303.
    I evaluate the extent to which we could learn something about how we should be conducting collaborative research in science from the research on groupthink. I argue that Solomon has set us in the wrong direction, failing to recognize that the consensus in scientific specialties is not the result of deliberation. But the attention to the structure of problem-solving that has emerged in the groupthink research conducted by psychologists can help us see when deliberation could lead to problems for a (...)
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  43.  94
    Assessing the Influence of Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.K. Brad Wray - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):1-10.
  44.  12
    Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  45.  66
    Kuhn and the Discovery of Paradigms.K. Brad Wray - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (3):380-397.
    I present a history of Kuhn’s discovery of paradigms, one that takes account of the complexity of the discovery process. Rather than emerging fully formed in Structure , the concept paradigm emerged through a series of phases. Early criticism of Structure revealed that the role of paradigms was unclear. It was only as Kuhn responded to criticism that he finally articulated a precise understanding of the concept paradigm. In a series of publications in the 1970s, he settled on a conception (...)
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  46. Kuhnian Revolutions Revisited.K. Brad Wray - 2007 - Synthese 158 (1):61-73.
    I re-examine Kuhn’s account of scientific revolutions. I argue that the sorts of events Kuhn regards as scientific revolutions are a diverse lot, differing in significant ways. But, I also argue that Kuhn does provide us with a principled way to distinguish revolutionary changes from non-revolutionary changes in science. Scientific revolutions are those changes in science that (1) involve taxonomic changes, (2) are precipitated by disappointment with existing practices, and (3) cannot be resolved by appealing to shared standards. I argue (...)
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  47.  12
    What Really Divides Gilbert and the Rejectionists?K. Brad Wray - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:363-376.
    Rejectionists argue that collective belief ascriptions are best understood as instances of collective acceptance rather than belief. Margaret Gilbert objects to rejectionist accounts of collective belief statements. She argues that rejectionists rely on a questionable methodology when they inquire into the nature of collective belief ascriptions, and make an erroneous inference when they are led to believe that collectives do not really have beliefs. Consequently, Gilbert claims that collective belief statements are best understood as instances of belief. I critically examine (...)
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  48.  13
    Is Science Really a Young Man’s Game?K. Brad Wray - 2003 - Social Studies of Science 33 (1):137-49.
    It has often been remarked that science is a young man's game. Thomas Kuhn, for example, claims that revolutionary changes in science are almost always initiated by either young scientists or those new to a field. I subject Kuhn's hypothesis to testing. I examine 24 revolutionary scientific figures mentioned in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions to determine if young scientists are more likely to make revolutionary discoveries than older scientists. My analysis suggests that middle-aged scientists are responsible for initiating more (...)
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  49.  26
    Leadership and the Deified/Demonic: A Cultural Examination of CEO Sanctification.Edward Wray-Bliss - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (4):434-449.
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  50.  22
    Rethinking Scientific Specialization.K. Brad Wray - 2005 - Social Studies of Science 35 (1):151-164.
    My aim in this paper is to re-examine specialization in science. I argue that we need to acknowledge the role that conceptual changes can play in the creation of new specialties. Whereas earlier sociological accounts focus on social and instrumental changes as the cause of the creation of new specialties, I argue that conceptual changes play an important role in the creation of some scientific specialties. Specifically, I argue that conceptual developments played an important role in the creation of both (...)
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