Results for 'Nir Fresco'

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  1.  19
    Mechanistic Computational Individuation Without Biting the Bullet.Nir Fresco & Marcin Miłkowski - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz005.
    Is the mathematical function being computed by a given physical system determined by the system’s dynamics? This question is at the heart of the indeterminacy of computation phenomenon (Fresco et al. [unpublished]). A paradigmatic example is a conventional electrical AND-gate that is often said to compute conjunction, but it can just as well be used to compute disjunction. Despite the pervasiveness of this phenomenon in physical computational systems, it has been discussed in the philosophical literature only indirectly, mostly with (...)
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  2.  99
    On Malfunctioning Software.Giuseppe Primiero, Nir Fresco & Luciano Floridi - 2015 - Synthese 192 (4):1199-1220.
    Artefacts do not always do what they are supposed to, due to a variety of reasons, including manufacturing problems, poor maintenance, and normal wear-and-tear. Since software is an artefact, it should be subject to malfunctioning in the same sense in which other artefacts can malfunction. Yet, whether software is on a par with other artefacts when it comes to malfunctioning crucially depends on the abstraction used in the analysis. We distinguish between “negative” and “positive” notions of malfunction. A negative malfunction, (...)
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  3. Miscomputation.Nir Fresco & Giuseppe Primiero - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):253-272.
    The phenomenon of digital computation is explained (often differently) in computer science, computer engineering and more broadly in cognitive science. Although the semantics and implications of malfunctions have received attention in the philosophy of biology and philosophy of technology, errors in computational systems remain of interest only to computer science. Miscomputation has not gotten the philosophical attention it deserves. Our paper fills this gap by offering a taxonomy of miscomputations. This taxonomy is underpinned by a conceptual analysis of the design (...)
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  4. Explaining Computation Without Semantics: Keeping It Simple.Nir Fresco - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (2):165-181.
    This paper deals with the question: how is computation best individuated? -/- 1. The semantic view of computation: computation is best individuated by its semantic properties. 2. The causal view of computation: computation is best individuated by its causal properties. 3. The functional view of computation: computation is best individuated by its functional properties. -/- Some scientific theories explain the capacities of brains by appealing to computations that they supposedly perform. The reason for that is usually that computation is individuated (...)
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  5.  9
    Functional Information: A Graded Taxonomy of Difference Makers.Nir Fresco, Simona Ginsburg & Eva Jablonka - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-21.
    There are many different notions of information in logic, epistemology, psychology, biology and cognitive science, which are employed differently in each discipline, often with little overlap. Since our interest here is in biological processes and organisms, we develop a taxonomy of functional information that extends the standard cue/signal distinction. Three general, main claims are advanced here. This new taxonomy can be useful in describing learning and communication. It avoids some problems that the natural/non-natural information distinction faces. Functional information is​ ​produced (...)
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  6.  20
    Physical Computation: A Mechanistic Account, by Gualtiero Piccinini: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, Pp. Ix + 343, £35. [REVIEW]Nir Fresco - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (3):625-626.
  7.  81
    The Explanatory Role of Computation in Cognitive Science.Nir Fresco - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (4):353-380.
    Which notion of computation (if any) is essential for explaining cognition? Five answers to this question are discussed in the paper. (1) The classicist answer: symbolic (digital) computation is required for explaining cognition; (2) The broad digital computationalist answer: digital computation broadly construed is required for explaining cognition; (3) The connectionist answer: sub-symbolic computation is required for explaining cognition; (4) The computational neuroscientist answer: neural computation (that, strictly, is neither digital nor analogue) is required for explaining cognition; (5) The extreme (...)
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  8.  47
    Information Processing as an Account of Concrete Digital Computation.Nir Fresco - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):31-60.
    It is common in cognitive science to equate computation (and in particular digital computation) with information processing. Yet, it is hard to find a comprehensive explicit account of concrete digital computation in information processing terms. An information processing account seems like a natural candidate to explain digital computation. But when ‘information’ comes under scrutiny, this account becomes a less obvious candidate. Four interpretations of information are examined here as the basis for an information processing account of digital computation, namely Shannon (...)
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  9.  63
    The Instructional Information Processing Account of Digital Computation.Nir Fresco & Marty J. Wolf - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1469-1492.
    What is nontrivial digital computation? It is the processing of discrete data through discrete state transitions in accordance with finite instructional information. The motivation for our account is that many previous attempts to answer this question are inadequate, and also that this account accords with the common intuition that digital computation is a type of information processing. We use the notion of reachability in a graph to defend this characterization in memory-based systems and underscore the importance of instructional information for (...)
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  10.  49
    A Revised Attack on Computational Ontology.Nir Fresco & Phillip J. Staines - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (1):101-122.
    There has been an ongoing conflict regarding whether reality is fundamentally digital or analogue. Recently, Floridi has argued that this dichotomy is misapplied. For any attempt to analyse noumenal reality independently of any level of abstraction at which the analysis is conducted is mistaken. In the pars destruens of this paper, we argue that Floridi does not establish that it is only levels of abstraction that are analogue or digital, rather than noumenal reality. In the pars construens of this paper, (...)
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  11.  23
    Information-How.Nir Fresco - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):58-78.
    The distinction between knowledge-how and knowledge-that has long been debated in the epistemological literature. This distinction can, arguably, be better understood in terms of a more fundamental distinction between information-how and information-that. Information-how is prescriptive and informs a cognitive agent about which action can be performed to achieve a particular outcome. Information-that is descriptive and informs the agent about events, objects, and states of affairs in the world. Since the latter has received more attention in the epistemological literature, this article (...)
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  12.  30
    Objective Computation Versus Subjective Computation.Nir Fresco - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (5):1031-1053.
    The question ‘What is computation?’ might seem a trivial one to many, but this is far from being in consensus in philosophy of mind, cognitive science and even in physics. The lack of consensus leads to some interesting, yet contentious, claims, such as that cognition or even the universe is computational. Some have argued, though, that computation is a subjective phenomenon: whether or not a physical system is computational, and if so, which computation it performs, is entirely a matter of (...)
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  13.  56
    An Analysis of the Criteria for Evaluating Adequate Theories of Computation.Nir Fresco - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (3):379-401.
    This paper deals with the question: What are the criteria that an adequate theory of computation has to meet? 1. Smith's answer: it has to meet the empirical criterion (i.e. doing justice to computational practice), the conceptual criterion (i.e. explaining all the underlying concepts) and the cognitive criterion (i.e. providing solid grounds for computationalism). 2. Piccinini's answer: it has to meet the objectivity criterion (i.e. identifying computation as a matter of fact), the explanation criterion (i.e. explaining the computer's behaviour), the (...)
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  14.  60
    Concrete Digital Computation: What Does It Take for a Physical System to Compute? [REVIEW]Nir Fresco - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):513-537.
    This paper deals with the question: what are the key requirements for a physical system to perform digital computation? Time and again cognitive scientists are quick to employ the notion of computation simpliciter when asserting basically that cognitive activities are computational. They employ this notion as if there was or is a consensus on just what it takes for a physical system to perform computation, and in particular digital computation. Some cognitive scientists in referring to digital computation simply adhere to (...)
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  15.  39
    Concrete Digital Computation: Competing Accounts and its Role in Cognitive Science.Nir Fresco - 2013 - Dissertation, University of New South Wales
    There are currently considerable confusion and disarray about just how we should view computationalism, connectionism and dynamicism as explanatory frameworks in cognitive science. A key source of this ongoing conflict among the central paradigms in cognitive science is an equivocation on the notion of computation simpliciter. ‘Computation’ is construed differently by computationalism, connectionism, dynamicism and computational neuroscience. I claim that these central paradigms, properly understood, can contribute to an integrated cognitive science. Yet, before this claim can be defended, a better (...)
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  16.  28
    Information and Veridicality: Information Processing and the Bar-Hillel/Carnap Paradox.Nir Fresco & Michaelis Michael - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):131-151.
    Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information posits the Veridicality Thesis. One motivation is that it can serve as a foundation for information-based epistemology being an alternative to the tripartite theory of knowledge. However, the Veridicality thesis is false, if ‘information’ is to play an explanatory role in human cognition. Another motivation is avoiding the so-called Bar-Hillel/Carnap paradox. But this paradox only seems paradoxical, if ‘information’ and ‘informativeness’ are synonymous, logic is a theory of inference, or validity suffices for rational inference; (...)
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  17.  14
    Erratum To: A Revised Attack on Computational Ontology. [REVIEW]Nir Fresco & Phillip J. Staines - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (1):141-141.
    Erratum to: Minds & Machines DOI 10.1007/s11023-013-9327-1Acknowledgment was omitted from the original publication of this article, and appears below.
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  18.  15
    Instructional Information Processing: Replies Considered. [REVIEW]Nir Fresco - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):71-72.
    Wolf and White address different aspects of the paper and in this present reply space only permits making two brief remarks. One concerns White’s intriguing observation that digital computation without erasing information is possible. The second concerns the importance of control information in digital computing systems.
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  19.  34
    Physical Computation and Cognitive Science, by Nir Fresco: Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, Pp. Xxii + 229, 99,99€. [REVIEW]Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (2):396-399.
    This is review of the book "Physical Computation and Cognitive Science" by Nir Fresco: http://www.springer.com/la/book/9783642413742.
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  20. Dreaming and the Brain: From Phenomenology to Neurophysiology.Yuval Nir & Giulio Tononi - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):88-100.
    Dreams are a remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that the human brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate an entire world of conscious experiences by itself. Content analysis and developmental studies have promoted understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging and neurophysiology have advanced current knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research to address fundamental (...)
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  21.  3
    Parcours du Ressentiment: Pseudo-Histoire Et Théorie Sur Mesure Dans le "Révisionnisme" Français.Nadine Fresco - 1989 - History and Theory 28 (2):173-197.
    A so-called revision of the history of World War 11, which began shortly after the war, was popularized in France in the 1980s through the progressively combined action of extreme-right and former ultra-left militants. This "revision," actually a negation of the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis against the Jews, has focused on what were precisely the means of this mass murder, that is, the gas chambers. Using traditional patterns of antiSemitism, this peculiar rewriting of history claims that the genocide never (...)
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  22.  2
    Western Culture and Judeo-Christian Judgement.Bina Nir - 2017 - Cultura 14 (2):69-88.
    Judeo-Christian Western culture recognizes a legislating, judging and punishing God. The view that a judge separate from man indeed exists, constitutes, among other things, cultural motivation for the pursuit of success, on the one hand, and fear of failure, guilt, on the other. The human-being fears the consequences of judgement, especially those entailing punishment, and attempts with all his might to succeed in the eyes of the judge. This study‟s underlying assumption is that judge-ment constitutes a deep structure in Western (...)
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  23.  7
    Deborah McGrady, Controlling Readers: Guillaume de Machaut and His Late Medieval Audience.(Studies in Book and Print Culture.) Toronto; Buffalo, NY; and London: University of Toronto Press, 2006. Pp. Xii, 310 Plus 27 Black-and-White Figures and Separate Errata Sheet. $79. [REVIEW]Karen Fresco - 2009 - Speculum 84 (4):1087-1088.
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  24.  5
    Grounding Public Reasons in Rationality: The Conditionally-Compassionate Medical Student and Other Challenges.Eyal Nir - 2012 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 6 (1):47-68.
    Gillian Hadfield and Stephen Macedo argue that late-Rawlsian stability for the right reasons, that is, stability based on participants’ reciprocal cooperation, can arise even if participants start out only economically rational and indifferent to justice. As they explain, even purely rational actors have an interest in having a neutral “shared logic” to coordinate decentralized enforcement of social cooperation and in internalizing that logic. Once developed and internalized, they add, that logic renders their reasoning public, and their persons, reasonable and responsive (...)
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  25.  1
    Controlling Readers: Guillaume de Machaut and His Late Medieval Audience. . Deborah McGrady.Karen Fresco - 2009 - Speculum 84 (4):1087-1088.
  26.  1
    Complementation in Linear and Dialogic Syntax: The Case of Hebrew Divergently Aligned Discourse.Yael Maschler & Bracha Nir - 2014 - Cognitive Linguistics 25 (3):523-557.
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  27. Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform.Gérard Bonnet, Mary Canning, Kai-Ming Cheng, Terry J. Crooks, Luis Crouch, Ori Eyal, Eva Forsberg, Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, Ratna Ghosh, Martin Gustafsson, Batia P. Horsky, Dan Inbar, Barbara M. Kehm, Stephen T. Kerr, Allan Luke, Ulf P. Lundgren, Robert W. McMeekin, Adam Nir, Peter Schrag, Hasan Simsek, Ryo Watanabe, Alison Wolf & Ali Yildirim - 2010 - R&L Education.
    Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform is an invaluable resource for policymakers, faculty, students, and anyone interested in how decisions made about the education system ultimately affect the quality of education, educational access, and social justice.
     
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  28. Parcours du Ressentiment: Pseudo-Histoire et Theorie sur Mesure Dans Le "Revisionnisme" Francais.Nadine Fresco - 1989 - History and Theory 28 (2):173.
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  29. The Course of Resentment-Pseudo-History and Made-to-Order Theory in the Scope of French Revisionism.N. Fresco - 1989 - History and Theory 28 (2):173-197.
     
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  30. Computing and Philosophy: Selected Papers From IACAP 2014.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume offers very selected papers from the 2014 conference of the “International Association for Computing and Philosophy” (IACAP) - a conference tradition of 28 years. - - - Table of Contents - 0 Vincent C. Müller: - Editorial - 1) Philosophy of computing - 1 Çem Bozsahin: - What is a computational constraint? - 2 Joe Dewhurst: - Computing Mechanisms and Autopoietic Systems - 3 Vincenzo Fano, Pierluigi Graziani, Roberto Macrelli and Gino Tarozzi: - Are Gandy Machines really local? (...)
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  31. Grounding Public Reasons in Rationality: The Conditionally-Compassionate Medical Student and Other Challenges.Eyal Nir - 2012 - The Law and Ethics of Human Rights 6 (1).
  32.  12
    Is the Body Special? Review of Cécile Fabre, Whose Body is It Anyway? Justice and the Integrity of the Person: Nir Eyal.Nir Eyal - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (2):233-245.
    Both left libertarians, who support the redistribution of income and wealth through taxation, and right libertarians, who oppose redistributive taxation, share an important view: that, looming catastrophes aside, the state must never redistribute any part of our body or our person without our consent. Cécile Fabre rejects that view. For her, just as the undeservedly poor have a just claim to money from their fellow citizens in order to lead a minimally flourishing life, the undeservedly ‘medically poor’ have a just (...)
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  33.  28
    Mechanistic Miscomputation: A Reply to Fresco and Primiero.Joe Dewhurst - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):495-498.
    Fresco and Primiero’s recent article, ‘Miscomputation’ , provides a useful framework with which to think about miscomputation, as well as an admirably broad taxonomy of different kinds of miscomputation. However, it also misconstrues the mechanistic approach to miscomputation, which I will argue should not recognise design errors as miscomputations per se. I argue that a computing mechanism, if it is functioning correctly in the physical sense, cannot miscompute on the basis of an error made by an external agent, such (...)
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  34.  12
    Notions of Information: Remarks on Fresco's Paper.Graham White - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):61-65.
    We compare Fresco’s analysis of the Turing machine-based notion of computation with that of others, in particular with functional programming and with the reversible computing paradigm of Toffoli and others. We conclude that, although much useful philosophical work can be done by the sort of analysis that Fresco proposes, there is, nevertheless, always likely to be a number of individually viable but different accounts of computation.
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  35.  97
    Knossos Fresco Atlas.Peter Warren, A. Evans, M. Cameron & S. Hood - 1969 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 89:182.
  36. Masculinity, Crusading, and Devotion: Francesco Casali's Fresco in the Trecento Perugian Contado.Anne Dunlop - 2001 - Speculum 76 (2):315-336.
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  37.  15
    "Chançon Legiere a Chanter": Essays on Old French Literature in Honor of Samuel N. Rosenberg. Karen Fresco, Wendy Pfeffer.Nancy Vine Durling - 2009 - Speculum 84 (2):431-433.
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  38.  17
    Karen Fresco and Wendy Pfeffer, Eds.,” Chançon Legiere a Chanter”: Essays on Old French Literature in Honor of Samuel N. Rosenberg. Birmingham, Ala.: Summa Publications, 2007. Pp. Xxx, 479; Black-and-White Frontispiece Portrait, Black-and-White Figures, Tables, 1 Graph, and Musical Examples. $59.95. [REVIEW]Nancy Vine Durling - 2009 - Speculum 84 (2):431-433.
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  39.  8
    Um Haf Innan: Vestrœnir Menn Og Íslenzk Menning Á Miðöldum.Helgi Guđmundsson.Kirsten Wolf - 1999 - Speculum 74 (1):178-179.
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  40.  25
    The Book of Wisdom and Lorenzetti's Fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena.Chiara Frugoni - 1980 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 43:239-241.
  41.  13
    Nir Eisikovits Sympathizing with the Enemy: Reconciliation, Transitional Justice, Negotiation.Glen Pettigrove - 2012 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (3):470-472.
  42.  13
    The Miniature Fresco From the West House at Akrotiri, Thera, and its Aegean Setting.Peter Warren - 1979 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 99:115-129.
  43.  6
    The Lateran Fresco of Boniface VIII.Charles Mitchell - 1951 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 14 (1/2):1-6.
  44.  18
    Laetentur Caeli: The Council of Florence and the Astronomical Fresco in the Old Sacristy.Patricia Fortini Brown - 1981 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 44:176-180.
  45.  6
    Kristen A. Aavitsland, Imagining the Human Condition in Medieval Rome: The Cistercian Fresco Cycle at Abbazia Delle Tre Fontane. Farnham, Surrey, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012. Pp. Xx, 335; 14 Color Plates and Many Black-and-White Figures. $129.95. ISBN: 978-1-4094-3818-2. [REVIEW]Erik Thunø - 2014 - Speculum 89 (4):1101-1102.
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  46. La pintura al fresco de Lucas Jordán en el Monasterio del Escorial.Francisco Javier Campos & Fernández de Sevilla - 1990 - Ciudad de Dios: Revista Agustiniana 203 (1):69-88.
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  47. Helgi Gudmundsson, Um Haf Innan: Vestrœnir Menn Og Íslenzk Menning Á Miðöldum. Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan, 1997. Pp. Vii, 413; Tables and 2 Maps. [REVIEW]Kirsten Wolf - 1999 - Speculum 74 (1):178-179.
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  48.  3
    Lugal ud me-lám-bi nir-g̃ál: Texte, Traduction et IntroductionLugal ud me-lam-bi nir-gal: Texte, Traduction et Introduction.Samuel Noah Kramer & J. van Dijk - 1985 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (1):135.
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  49.  2
    Thermal Stability and UV–Vis-NIR Spectroscopy of a New Erbium-Doped Fluorotellurite Glass.El Sayed Yousef, Kamel Damak, Ramzi Maalej & C. Rüssel - 2012 - Philosophical Magazine 92 (7):899-911.
  50.  1
    A Lost Fresco of Niccolo Dell' Abbate at Bologna in Honour of Julius III.Sylvie Béguin - 1955 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 18 (1/2):114-122.
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