Abbreviations Works by Alfred North Whitehead 1) Adventures of Ideas. New York: Macmillan Co., 1967 AI 2) Concept of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971 CN 3) Modes of Thought. New York: Macmillan Co., 1968 MT 4) Process ..
Carol Gilligan has delineated two ethics, the ethic of rights and the ethic of care. In this article I argue that the two ethics are part of one overall system, the ethic of care functioning as a necessary base for the ethic of rights. I also argue that the system is seriously flawed. Because women are held accountable to both ethics and because the two ethics frequently conflict, women recurrently find themselves in a moral double bind.
Carol Gilligan has delineated two ethics, the ethic of rights and the ethic of care. In this article I argue that the two ethics are part of one overall system, the ethic of care functioning as a necessary base for the ethic of rights. 1 also argue that the system is seriously flawed. Because women are held accountable to both ethics and because the two ethics frequently conflict, women recurrently find themselves in a moral double bind.
Recognition and Freedom offers up-to-date discussions of Axel Honneth’s political thought by ten experts in the field. It also includes an interview with Honneth and an essay by him on education and democracy, previously unpublished in English.
The article examines the developments that made the legend of an Asian migration into Europe part of mainstream historiography during the eighteenth century. It was believed that the Norse god Odin was in fact a historical person, who had migrated from Asia to with the north of Europe with his tribe. The significance of this legend to how medieval poetry was received and debated in England has received little attention. The study falls into three sections. The first will trace (...) the significance of the Odin migration legend in discovering Germanic cultural origins. The second section examines the impact of the legend on philological studies, primarily in establishing a new category: the Gothic poetic tradition. The final section will focus on the debate between two of the most important eighteenth-century pioneers of vernacular poetic tradition: Thomas Percy and Thomas Warton. Their discussion over whether the Asian foundation of Germanic tradition had paved the way for later Arabian influences is instructive, as it shows how Eastern “others” were negotiated in the discovery of cultural and national roots. (shrink)
This article discusses the PISA framework’s concept of reading. The main argument is that PISA’s cognitive approach to literacy only to a small extent captures the normative dimension of reading. Consequently, the test fails to reﬂect key aspects of literacy, such as identity, identity formation and the ability to participate in society on a deeper level. The argument is based on a normative or moral conception of meaning and reading comprehension, based on Hegel’s concept of recognition.
ABSTRACT What is “critical” about critical theory? I claim that, to be “critical enough”, critical theory’s future depends on being able to handle today’s planetary climate crisis, which presupposes a philosophy of nature. Here, I argue that Axel Honneth’s vision of critical theory represents a nature denial and is thus unable to criticize humans’ instrumentalization as well as capitalism’s exploitation of nature. However, I recover what I take to be a missed opportunity of what I term as the early Honneth’s (...) original ecological insight, which I reconstruct precisely as a philosophy of nature. Consequently, I identify what I describe as an ecological sensibility in Honneth. This refers to a bodily capability through which humans sensuously can resonate, communicate, and interact – and through that morally engage – with nature in its entire complexity. Furthermore, by virtue of this ecological sensibility, humans can recognize nature’s inherent moral value as a sensuously affected party. Then, the early Honneth’s original insight is recovered as a critical political ecology, which is needed facing today’s climate crisis. (shrink)
Vi står overfor en planetær miljø- og klimakrise, med alvorlige, gjennomgripende, langvarige og irreversible konsekvenser for både menneske og natur. Det skyldes særlig at politiske, rettslige og økonomiske systemer som har vokst frem i løpet av de siste 250 år – slik som det liberale demokratiet og den globale kapitalismen – behandler naturen antroposentrisk, materialistisk og instrumentelt. For bedre å håndtere dagens miljø- og klimakrise, bør disse utdaterte systemene reformeres ut fra tanken om et økologisk demokrati, herunder en grønn konstitusjonalisme (...) og naturens moralske trumf. Norges første klimasøksmål illustrerer viktigheten av en slik systemisk grønning. Rettsaken fant sted i 2017 og kom opp igjen for rettsapparatet i 2019, hvor staten hevdes å bryte miljøparagrafen i sin egen grunnlov. Søksmålets grønning innebærer en positiv rettsliggjøring, hvis natursynet i Grunnlovens miljøparagraf forstås økosentrisk fremfor antroposentrisk. Da styrker klimasøksmålet økologiske medborgeres konstitusjonelle rettssikkerhet og demokratiske deltagelseslikhet. Viktigst er imidlertid at planetens eksistensielle tålegrense og naturens moralske trumf anerkjennes. Nøkkelord: Miljøkrise, klimasøksmål, økologisk demokrati, økologisk medborgerskap, grønn konstitusjonalisme, naturens moralske trumf, positiv rettsliggjøring English Summary: Ecological democracy and the inherent value of nature: Climate litigation in the age of the environmental crisis We are facing a planetary environmental and climate crisis, with severe, pervasive, long-lasting, and irreversible impacts for both humans and nature. This is due to political, legal, and economic systems having emerged during the last 250 years – especially liberal democracy and global capitalism – treat nature anthropocentrically, materialistically, and instrumentally. To better handle today’s environmental and climate crisis, these outdated systems should be reformed in light of the idea of ecological democracy, hereunder green constitutionalism and nature’s moral trump. Norway’s first climate lawsuit illustrates the importance of such a systemic greening. This trial took place in 2017 and reappeared for the court in 2019, in which the state is accused for having broken the environmental paragraph in its own constitution. This lawsuit’s greening implies a positive juridification, if the perception of nature in the Constitution’s environmental paragraph is ecocentric rather than anthropocentric. Then, the climate lawsuit strengthens ecological co-citizens’ constitutionally rule of law and democratic participation equality. Most importantly, it recognizes the planet’s existential limits and nature’s moral trump. Keywords: Environmental crisis, climate lawsuit, ecological democracy, ecological citizenship, green constitutionalism, nature’s moral trump, positive legalization. (shrink)
Return to the ordinary as extraordinary has become the signature motif for the Emersonian perfectionism of Stanley Cavell in contemporary American philosophy. In this article I develop Cavell's notion of “the ordinary” as an intercultural theme for exploring aspects of traditional Chinese philosophy, especially Confucianism and Chan Buddhism. I further use Cavell's philosophy of the ordinary to examine Sino-Japanese thought as found in the Zen tradition of Japan and its reformulation by Nishida Kitarô in modern Japanese philosophy. It will be (...) seen how for both Cavell and Sino-Japanese philosophy, perfection is achieved not by transcendence of the ordinary, but through continuous return to and affirmation of the ordinary as extraordinary. I thus endeavor to illuminate the quotidian as articulated by Cavell, Chinese philosophy, and the Sino-Japanese tradition. (shrink)