Philosophical views of responsibility often identify responsible agency with capacities like rationality and self-control. Yet in ordinary life, we frequently hold individuals responsible who are deficient in these capacities, such as children or people with mental illness. The existing literature that addresses these cases has suggested that we merely pretend to hold these agents responsible, or that they are responsible to a diminished degree. In this paper, I demonstrate that neither of these approaches is satisfactory, and offer an alternative focused (...) on the role relationships play in determining whether it is appropriate to hold someone responsible. I argue that relationships are sources of normative expectations about how parties in that relationship ought to behave, and that we can be responsible in virtue of being subject to these norms. This is so, not only for those who are impaired or immature, but for all of us. (shrink)
Opioid treatment agreements are written agreements between physicians and patients enumerating the risks associated with opioid medications along with the requirements that patients must meet to receive these medications on an ongoing basis. The choice to use such agreements goes beyond the standard informed consent process, and has a distinctive symbolic significance. Specifically, it suggests that physicians regard it as important to hold their patients accountable for adhering to various protocols regarding the use of their opioid medications. After laying out (...) a taxonomy of accountability relationships between physicians and patients, I argue that opioid treatment agreements are only justifiable for physicians to use in their provision of care if they improve public health outcomes, which has yet to be demonstrated. (shrink)
This paper considers the responsibilities of the FDA with regard to disseminating information about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes. Tobacco harm reduction advocates claim that the FDA has been overcautious and has violated ethical obligations by failing to clearly communicate to the public that e-cigarettes are far less harmful than cigarettes. We argue, by contrast, that the FDA’s obligations in this arena are more complex than they may appear at first blush. Though the FDA is accountable for informing the (...) public about the health risks and benefits of products it regulates, it also has other roles (and attendant responsibilities) that inform when and how it should disseminate information. In addition to being a knowledge purveyor, it is also a knowledge producer, an advisor to the public, and a practical agent shaping the material conditions in which people make health-related choices. In our view, those other roles call for caution in the way the FDA interprets and communicates the available evidence. (shrink)
Following Strawson, many philosophers have claimed that holding someone responsible necessitates its being appropriate to feel or express the negative reactive attitudes (e.g., resentment) toward her. This view, while compelling, is unable to capture the full range of cases in which we hold others responsible in ordinary life. Consider the parent who holds her five-year-old responsible for not teasing his sister, or the therapist who holds her patient responsible for avoiding self-injurious behavior. Holding responsible in such cases requires enforcing normative (...) expectations, but these norms can (and typically should) be enforced without involving the negative reactive attitudes. To demonstrate this, I consider how responsibility attributions function in psychotherapy, as well as in other contexts where the negative reactive attitudes do not have a natural home. (shrink)
The increasing use of opioid treatment agreements (OTAs) has prompted debate within the medical community about ethical challenges with respect to their implementation. The focus of debate is usually on the efficacy of OTAs at reducing opioid misuse, how OTAs may undermine trust between physicians and patients, and the potential coercive nature of requiring patients to sign such agreements as a condition for receiving pain care. An important consideration missing from these conversations is the potential for racial bias in the (...) current way that OTAs are incorporated into clinical practice and in the amount of physician discretion that current opioid guidelines support. While the use of OTAs has become mandatory in some states for certain classes of patients, physicians are still afforded great leeway in how these OTAs are implemented in clinical practice and how their terms should be enforced. This paper uses the guidelines provided for OTA implementation by the states of Indiana and Pennsylvania as case studies in order to argue that giving physicians certain kinds of discretion may exacerbate racial health disparities. This problem cannot be addressed by simply minimizing physician discretion in general, but rather by providing mechanisms to hold physicians accountable for how they treat patients on long-term opioid therapy to ensure that such treatment is equitable. (shrink)
People perceive that if their memories and moral beliefs changed, they would change. We investigated why individuals respond this way. In Study 1, participants judged that identity would change more after changes to memories and widely shared moral beliefs versus preferences and controversial moral beliefs. The extent to which participants judged that changes would affect their relationships predicted identity change and mediated the relationship between type of moral belief and perceived identity change. We discuss the role that social relationships play (...) in judgments of identity and highlight implications for psychology and philosophy. (shrink)
When someone says she believes that God exists, is she expressing the same kind of mental state as when she says she thinks that a lake bigger than Lake Michigan exists⎯i.e., does she refer to the same kind of cognitive attitude in both cases? Using evidence from linguistic corpora (Study 1) and behavioral experiments (Studies 2-4), the current work provides evidence that individuals typically use the word “believe” more in conjunction with statements about religious credences and “think” more in conjunction (...) with factual statements, pointing to two different understandings of claims made with these two terms. These patterns do not appear to reflect low-level differences based on the amount of consensus surrounding a particular claim, the extent to which the truth of a particular claim is known to the participant, or linguistic differences between religious and factual statements. We discuss implications of these findings for religious cognition (e.g., as supporting the theory that religious credences are qualitatively distinct from factual beliefs) as well as cognitive processes more broadly. Finally, we relate the present findings to prior theoretical work on differences between factual belief and religious credence. (shrink)
For centuries, humans have contemplated the minds of gods. Research on religious cognition is spread across sub-disciplines, making it difficult to gain a complete understanding of how people reason about gods' minds. We integrate approaches from cognitive, developmental, and social psychology and neuroscience to illuminate the origins of religious cognition. First, we show that although adults explicitly discriminate supernatural minds from human minds, their implicit responses reveal far less discrimination. Next, we demonstrate that children's religious cognition often matches adults' implicit (...) responses, revealing anthropomorphic notions of God's mind. Together, data from children and adults suggest the intuitive nature of perceiving God's mind as human-like. We then propose three complementary explanations for why anthropomorphism persists in adulthood, suggesting that anthropomorphism may be an instance of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic; a reflection of early testimony; and/or an evolutionary byproduct. (shrink)
Adults report that moral characteristics—particularly widely shared moral beliefs—are central to identity. This perception appears driven by the view that changes to widely shared moral beliefs would alter friendships and that this change in social relationships would, in turn, alter an individual's personal identity. Because reasoning about identity changes substantially during adolescence, the current work tested pre- and post-adolescents to reveal the role that such changes could play in moral cognition. Experiment 1 showed that 8- to 10-year-olds, like adults, judged (...) that people would change more after changes to their widely shared moral beliefs (e.g., whether hitting is wrong) than after changes to controversial moral beliefs (e.g., whether telling prosocial lies is wrong). Following up on this basic effect, a second experiment examined whether participants regard all changes to widely shared moral beliefs as equally impactful. Adults, but not children, reported that individuals would change more if their good moral beliefs (e.g., it is not okay to hit) transformed into bad moral beliefs (e.g., it is okay to hit) than if the opposite change occurred. This difference in adults was mediated by perceptions of how much changes to each type of belief would alter friendships. We discuss implications for moral judgment and social cognitive development. (shrink)
For intermediate logics, there is obtained in the paper an algebraic equivalent of the disjunction propertyDP. It is proved that the logic of finite binary trees is not maximal among intermediate logics withDP. Introduced is a logicND, which has the only maximal extension withDP, namely, the logicML of finite problems.
A family of prepositional logics is considered to be intermediate between the intuitionistic and classical ones. The generalized interpolation property is defined and proved is the following.Theorem on interpolation. For every intermediate logic L the following statements are equivalent:(i) Craig's interpolation theorem holds in L, (ii) L possesses the generalized interpolation property, (iii) Robinson's consistency statement is true in L.
This is a survey of results on interpolation in propositional normal modal logics. Interpolation properties of these logics are closely connected with amalgamation properties of varieties of modal algebras. Therefore, the results on interpolation are also reformulated in terms of amalgamation.
Algebraic approach to study of classical and non-classical logical calculi was developed and systematically presented by Helena Rasiowa in , . It is very fruitful in investigation of non-classical logics because it makes possible to study large families of logics in an uniform way. In such research one can replace logics with suitable classes of algebras and apply powerful machinery of universal algebra. In this paper we present an overview of results on interpolation and definability in modal and positive logics,and (...) also in extensions of Johansson's minimal logic. All these logics are strongly complete under algebraic semantics. It allows to combine syntactic methods with studying varieties of algebras and to flnd algebraic equivalents for interpolation and related properties. Moreover, we give exhaustive solution to interpolation and some related problems for many families of propositional logics and calculi. (shrink)
It is proved that there are exactly 16 superintuitionistic propositional logics with the projective Beth property. These logics are finitely axiomatizable and have the finite model property. Simultaneously, all varieties of Heyting algebras with strong epimorphisms surjectivity are found.
Moral judgment constitutes an important aspect of adults’ social interactions. How do adults’ moral judgments develop? We discuss work from cognitive and social psychology on adults’ moral judgment, and we review developmental research to illuminate its origins. Work in these fields shows that adults make nuanced moral judgments based on a number of factors, including harm aversion, and that the origins of such judgments lie early in development. We begin by reviewing evidence showing that distress signals can cue moral judgments (...) but are not necessary for moral judgment to occur. Next, we discuss findings demonstrating that both children and adults distinguish moral violations from violations of social norms, and we highlight the influence of both moral rules and social norms on moral judgment. We also discuss the influence of actors’ intentions on moral judgment. Finally, we offer some closing thoughts on potential similarities between moral cognition and reasoning about other ideologies. (shrink)
The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to (...) existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed in association with OBI. (shrink)
In this paper we find an algebraic equivalent of the Hallden property in modal logics, namely, we prove that the Hallden-completeness in any normal modal logic is equivalent to the so-called super-embedding property of a suitable class of modal algebras. The joint embedding property of a class of algebras is equivalent to the Pseudo-Relevance Property. We consider connections of the above-mentioned properties with interpolation and amalgamation. Also an algebraic equivalent of of the principle of variable separation in superintuitionistic logics will (...) be found. (shrink)
All extensions of the modal Grzegorczyk logic Grz possessing projective Beth's property PB2 are described. It is proved that there are exactly 13 logics over Grz with PB2. All of them are finitely axiomatizable and have the finite model property. It is shown that PB2 is strongly decidable over Grz, i.e. there is an algorithm which, for any finite system Rul of additional axiom schemes and rules of inference, decides if the calculus Grz+Rul has the projective Beth property.
We consider the problem of recognizing important properties of logical calculi and find complexity bounds for some decidable properties. For a given logical system L, a property P of logical calculi is called decidable over L if there is an algorithm which for any finite set Ax of new axiom schemes decides whether the calculus L + Ax has the property P or not. In  the complexity of tabularity, pre-tabularity, and interpolation problems over the intuitionistic logic Int and over (...) modal logic S4 was studied, also we found the complexity of amalgamation problems in varieties of Heyting algebras and closure algebras. In the present paper we deal with positive calculi. We prove NP-completeness of tabularity, DP-hardness of pretabularity and PSPACE-completeness of interpolation problem over Int + . In addition to above-mentioned properties, we consider Beth's definability properties. Also we improve some complexity bounds for properties of superintuitionistic calculi. (shrink)
У статті на підставі аналізу широкого кола джерел та літератури зроблена спроба визначити обсяг та місце релігійних прав дітей у період із кінця ХІХ до кінця ХХ ст. У дослідженні проводиться аналіз законодавства двох різних політичних режимів, зокрема на території України. Показана залежність обсягу релігійних прав дітей від політики уряду та офіційної ідеології, принципів бачення ролі дитини та людини в суспільних відносинах. Автором визначена специфіка законодавства, указані чинники, що впливали на його формування, виділені його позитивні та негативні сторони.
The article gives grounds for a new paradigm of development - branding of the territory. The problem of region brand formation is actualized. The point of view of the author on the territorial branding as a technology of providing the balanced and stable socio-economic territory development in current conditions deserves particular attention. The analysis of territorial branding formation as independent marketing trend is given. The scientific interpretations of the category "territorial branding" are given. The proposition that branding is an effective (...) instrument of attracting attention to the territory is stressed. In conditions of informational and creative economy the existence of the city brand and its development strategies become the necessary factor of the effective realization of territorial potential. The conceptual framework of territorial branding and main characteristics of the utility of the territory are considered. The results of scientific research develop scientific knowledge in the field of branding territory theory, promote the development and use of intellectual and institutional resources of the territory for the growth of its marketing potential. This indicates, that the basic principles of territorial development, starting from the main concept to the specific project documents need updating, which is connected with the economic processes and also democratization and globalization processes. The cultural-economical planning gets priority, the foundation of it is the use of human and cultural capital of the city. The novelty is that material assets, traditionally considered being the basis of territorial economy development, lose their significance comparing to intangible assets, which are of various character: creative and cultural potential of the inhabitants, management professionalism, information environment saturation, the possibility to create the atmosphere of tranquility and comfort on the territory. Not the territory size and its economic base become the main success factors, but new unconventional management decisions, an energetic wish of the territory to formulate clearly its strategical interests in the country, in the region and in the world. This is the aim of the territorial branding. Currently the changing of territory development paradigm takes place. It becomes the subject of socio-economic relations, goods, intangible assets concentration. The emphasis of the development shifts towards culture, entertainment, impressions. (shrink)
Here is told about necessity to create new anthropological paradigm based on the ecological approach. The matter is a man in ecological world, and subjects are the phenomena of consciousness, deciding direction to this world. Ecological world differs from physical world. Ecological world is the ontological unity of person and natural world, and it is characterized with combination of all items, events, occurrence in each other. Person’s attitude to the ecological world determines with notion “ecological consciousness”, it describes person’s structural (...) attitude to the world and it has morally value character. The main description of ecological consciousness is its orientation to the ecological world. The methods of new anthropological paradigm are phenomenal and topological approaches, which help to create the complete ecological – anthropological picture of the world. (shrink)
During last century in philosophy of language and epistemology two basic directions in research of sense were generated: first of them is based on understanding of language as sign system and uses semiotics methods of the analysis of language and the knowledge, the second addresses to studying the speech activity included in wide social context, and uses as initial concept of the communications. In the paper we’ll be proposed the uniform methodology of the analysis of sense as the conceptual structure, (...) being base for the given directions is offered. In this case the certain paradigms of sense as models from which there are concrete traditions of scientific research are allocated. The understanding of sense as paradigms proves that depending on its treatment, from theaccepted concept of sense the theory of reference is under construction (as the system of a priority choice of designating expressions), is formed concept of concreteness, the concept of true, criteria of differentiation of the intelligent and senseless expressions, methods of the analysis of language contexts. The specified dependences assume also use of methods of semiotics, phenomenology, philosophical hermeneutics when we turn our attention to the analysis of concrete theories and concepts of sense. (shrink)
1. An abundance of profane images in the modern culture is a result of penetration of some carnival elements in the culture in general. 2. Christian culture is playing a role of mental basis for European civilization that is why we perceive the images of the modern advertisement as antisacral. 3. In fact, the advertising images are not profane only; they are significantly sacralized. 4. The fact that the advertising images can be both sacral and profane is connected with the (...) lack of basic binary oppositions in the modern culture. 5. The lack of basic oppositions engenders a parody as a most relevant creative technique 6. The fact that anti-sacral images are sacralized in the modern advertisement can be regarded both as the real sacralization and as the parody of the similar cultural situation, where the objective reality has the status of product category. (shrink)
This article attempts to start an interdisciplinary dialogue, dealing with the different approaches on translation coming from philosophy and translation studies. The article argues that, despite many efforts of describing the phenomenon of translation from the point of view of linguistics, theory of literature and communication sciences, it is only the hermeneutical perspective that is able to interpret this phenomenon starting from itself and thus to reach to a comprehensive understanding of it. Hermeneutical reflections on translating came both from the (...) hermeneutic philosophy (F. E. D. Schleiermacher, M. Heidegger, H.-G. Gadamer, P. Ricoeur) and from the translation studies (F. Paepcke, R. Stolze in Germany, H. Meschonnic, A. Bermann and J.-R. Ladmiralin France, G. Steiner in the Anglo-American area). However these two orientations have not, so far, entered into a dialogue. It is only these latest three books discussed in the present article that offer the premises of bringing closer the two hermeneutical traditions which developed so far in a parallel fashion, thus setting a starting point for discussing upon a general hermeneutical “theory” of translation. (shrink)
The emerging of new virtual studying cyberspace significantly broadens the scope of pedagogical techniques and created new opportunities for usage of manipulative techniques in educational practice Manipulation success factor is mostly depends on the tolerance level of a student-addressee when recognizing manipulation intrusion. There are three main moods of student-addressee’s behaviour in manipulation situation: active anti-manipulation defence, related to building effective contramanipulation; passive anti-manipulation defence, including applying different methods of operational and behavioural blocking ofmanipulator’s actions; and high level of tolerance, (...) which may occur in ability patiently accept negative influence from teacher-manipulator without decay in his/her adaptive abilities. Each of these moods has its advantages and disadvantages. It depends mainly on dominant value-adding positioning of each particularmanipulation pedagogical technique. If it can be described as has antihuman approach with the elements of pressure and humiliation of student’s personality, then this technique can not be applied. Applying of manipulation techniques is only possible if it allows building good and comfortable relationship between teacher and student, decreasing the conflict level of this relationship. (shrink)
Bioethics originated as a specific collective response of representatives of biomedical sciences, humanities and the public to the complexity of moral, anthropological and ontological problems (often in situations bordering on life and death) caused by the constant development of biomedical technologies. Because of this complexity ‐ these problems escape simple, universal (eternal) solutions. This makes them “finite”, multiple, dependent on the “here and now” circumstances of the choice of cognitive and communicative transdisciplinary strategies. In other words bioethics is a specific (...) communicative practice that mediates a vast number of universal interpretations (philosophical, theological, etc.) in order to provide a contingent solution - a kind of “negotiated universality”. For example, moratorium on reproductive cloning is a negotiated contingent (open for reevaluation) solution of this moral problem. The mutual process of adjustment of new ideas and technologies to social requirements and social requirements to new ideas and technologies realizes in a form trans-disciplinary dialogue. To some extent, transdisciplinarity is experience of paradoxes. I am going to give an interpretation of a network of paradoxes. (shrink)
Activism is defined in this paper as involving local instigations of new series of elements intersecting the actual, generating new collective enunciations, experimentations and investigations, which erode good and common sense and cause structures to swing away from their sedimented identities. By appealing to Spinozism, the paper describes the microphysics of the activist encounter with stable structures and the ways in which activism imposes new regimes of succession of ideas and affective variations in the power of action. Rather than understanding (...) activism as supporting or leading social struggles, the definition of activism pursued here conceives it as an open-ended process and stresses the role of investigation in relation to practices within the social situations to which activism addresses itself. (shrink)
In its unique analysis of resistance, this book sets up a new methodology with which to study the settler colonial project in Palestine. Levering the insight that Zionism evolved as a project of ‘double elimination’ – of both the Native and shared life – the book sees to inform political work and political imagination.
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