Whether meaning is compositional has been a major issue in linguistics and formal philosophy of language for the last 2 decades. Semantic holism is widely and plausibly considered as an objection to the principle of semantic compositionality therein. It comes as a surprise that the holistic peculiarities of scientific language have been rarely addressed in formal accounts so far, given that semantic holism has its roots in the philosophy of science. For this reason, a model-theoretic approach to semantic holism in (...) the language of science is presented here. This approach preserves compositionality to a large extent. *Received September 2009; revised February 2010. †To contact the author, please write to: Seminar for Philosophy, Logic, and Theory of Science, Hauspostfach 49, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich 80539, Germany; e-mail: email@example.com. (shrink)
This article describes and refines an experiential distinction which has been highlighted by neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), perceptual positions. When you are imagining a past or future scene, you may perceive it (usually pre-reflectively) from three different viewpoints or perceptual positions. If you are looking at the world from your own point of view, through your own eyes, you are in the first perceptual position. If you are looking at the scene through another person's eyes, appreciating the other person's point of (...) view, you are in the second position. If you are seeing the world from an outside point of view, as an independent observer, you are in the third position. NLP highlighted the fact that our feelings change dramatically according to the perceptual position we adopt. Through a concrete example, Connirae Andreas shows that this distinction does not only concern visual perceptions, but also auditory and kinaesthetic perceptions. She also shows that our visual, auditory and kinaesthetic perceptions may be split in different perceptual positions at the same time, and that this misalignment may cause difficulties. Learning to 'align' our perceptual positions brings us greater wholeness, enables us to become more integrated. (shrink)
Andreas Christiansen,Bjørn Hallsson | : In many cases, the public want to restrict an activity or technology that they believe to be dangerous, but that scientific experts believe to be safe. There is thus a tension between respecting the preferences of the people and making policy based on our best scientific knowledge. Deciding how to make policy in the light of this tension requires an understanding of why citizens sometimes disagree with the experts on what is risky and what (...) is safe. In this paper, we examine two highly influential theories of how people form beliefs about risks: the theory that risk beliefs are errors caused by bounded rationality and the theory that such beliefs are part and parcel of people’s core value systems. We then discuss the implications of the psychological theories for questions regarding liberal-democratic decision making: Should policy be responsive to the preferences of citizens in the domain of risk regulation? What risk-regulation policies are legitimate? How should liberal-democratic deliberation be structured? | : Dans de nombreux cas, le public veut restreindre une activité ou une technologie qu’il croit être dangereuse, mais que les experts scientifiques considèrent être sécuritaire. Il y a alors une tension entre le respect des préférences des gens et des politiques fondées sur nos meilleures connaissances scientifiques. Décider comment élaborer une politique à la lumière de cette tension nécessite de comprendre pourquoi les citoyens sont parfois en désaccord avec les experts à propos de ce qui est risqué et ce qui est sûr. Dans cet article, nous examinons deux théories très influentes sur la façon dont les gens forment des croyances sur les risques : la théorie selon laquelle les croyances liées au risque sont des erreurs causées par la rationalité limitée et la théorie selon laquelle ces croyances font partie intégrante des systèmes de valeurs fonda-mentales des personnes. Nous discutons ensuite les implications des théories psychologiques pour les questions touchant la prise de décision libérale-démocratique : Les politiques devraient-elles être sensibles aux préférences des citoyens dans le domaine de la régulation des risques? Quelles politiques de régulation des risques sont légitimes? Comment la délibération libérale-démocratique devrait-elle être structurée? (shrink)
Modal logic has been applied in many different areas, as reasoning about time, knowledge and belief, necessity and possibility, to mention only some examples. In the present paper, an attempt is made to use modal logic to account for the semantics of theoretical sentences in scientific language. Theoretical sentences have been studied extensively since the work of Ramsey and Carnap. The present attempt at a modal analysis is motivated by there being several intended interpretations of the theoretical terms once these (...) terms are introduced through the axioms of a theory. (shrink)
In this paper, a new account of empirical claims in structuralism is developed. Its novelty derives from the use that is made of the linguistic approach to scientific theories despite the presumed incompatibility of structuralism with that approach. It is shown how the linguistic approach can be applied to the framework of structuralism if the semantic foundations of that approach are refined to do justice to the doctrine of indirect interpretation of theoretical terms. This doctrine goes back to Carnap but (...) has been advanced until the present day without a proper semantic explanation. (shrink)
The distinction between the syntactic and the semantic approach to scientific theories emerged in formal philosophy of science. The semantic approach is commonly considered more advanced and more successful than the syntactic one, but the transition from the one approach to the other was not brought about without any loss. In essence, it is the formal analysis of atomic propositions and the analysis of deductive reasoning that dropped out of consideration in at least some of the elaborated versions of the (...) semantic approach. In structuralist theory of science, as founded by Sneed and Stegmüller, the focus is on global propositions concerning the question of whether or not certain empirical systems satisfy a set-theoretic predicate that encodes the axioms of a scientific theory. Hence, an analysis of deductive reasoning from atomic premisses with the help of a given theory is missing. The objective of the present paper is to develop a deductive system on the basis of the structuralist framework. This system comes with a novel formulation of empirical propositions in structuralism. (shrink)
The concept of measurement is fundamental to a whole range of different disciplines, including not only the natural and engineering sciences, but also laboratory medicine and certain branches of the social sciences. This being the case, the concept of measurement has a particular relevance to the development of top-level ontologies in the area of knowledge engineering. For this reason, the present paper is concerned with ontological aspects of measurement. We are searching for a list of concepts that are apt to (...) characterize measurement methods in a general manner. To establish such means of characterization, we will primarily deal with the semantics of measurement values. (shrink)
Reconstructing Popper's research programme for the Human Sciences, Noretta Koertge (Inquiry , Vol. 18 ) has given a deductive-nomological account of explanations of actions by means of a Rationality Principle. It is argued here that such a Rationality Principle is fundamentally redundant. Neither is it logically necessary in order to deduce a cognitive action-explanandum, nor can it be given a semantic non-empty interpretation, at least not within Koertge's own syllogism. Any attempt to save the Rationality Principle as unfalsifiablc but nevertheless (...) indispensable for action explanations is rejected in the light of possible alternative action explanations by empirical and therefore in principle falsifiable psychological laws. (shrink)
We introduce a first order extension of GL, called ML 3 , and develop its proof theory via a proxy cut-free sequent calculus GLTS. We prove the highly nontrivial result that cut is a derived rule in GLTS, a result that is unavailable in other known first-order extensions of GL. This leads to proofs of weak reflection and the related conservation result for ML 3 , as well as proofs for Craig’s interpolation theorem for GLTS. Turning to semantics we prove (...) that ML 3 is sound with respect to arithmetical interpretations and that it is also sound and complete with respect to converse well-founded and transitive finite Kripke models. This leads us to expect that a Solovay-like proof of arithmetical completeness of ML 3 is possible. (shrink)
Q-valued sets are non-classical models of the formalized theory of identity with existence predicate based on the axioms of a non-commutative and non-idempotent logic. The singleton monad on the category of Q-valued sets is constructed, and elementary properties of T-algebras of the singleton monad are investigated.
In What’s Wrong With Microphysicalism?, Andreas H üttemann argues against the ontological priority of the microphysical, in favour of a ‘pluralism’ that accepts physical systems of all scales as interdependent equals. This is thoughtful and original work, deploying an understanding of the relevant physics to mount a serious challenge to the dominant microphysicalist view.
As early as 1941, George Allen Morgan wrote that Nietzsche’s thought is “saturated with the historical point of view.” It is breathtaking how long it has taken scholarly writing on Nietzsche to catch up with Morgan and pay this aspect of Nietzsche’s thought the serious attention it deserves. Marcus Andreas Born’s study is therefore a very welcome development as a serious and engaged examination of Nietzsche’s “historical thought.” As his subtitle indicates, Born’s approach focuses on Nietzsche’s concept of genealogy. (...) He ties genealogy closely to history by suggesting that Nietzsche proposes genealogy as his way of revising, and improving on, existing approaches to history (18). For Born, as for .. (shrink)
Both Andreas Libavius and Heinrich Khunrath graduated from Basel Medical Academy in 1588, though the theses they defended reveal antithetical approaches to medicine, despite their shared interests in iatrochemistry and transmutational alchemy. Libavius argued in favour of Galenic allopathy while Khunrath promoted the contrasting homeopathic approach of Paracelsus and the utility of the occult doctrine of Signatures for medical purposes. This article considers these differences in the two graduates' theses, both as intimations of their subsequent divergent notions of the (...) boundaries of alchemy and its relations with medicine and magic, and also as evidence of the surprisingly unstable academic status of Paracelsian philosophy in Basel, its main publishing centre, at the end of the sixteenth century. (shrink)
Francisco Valles, also known as ‘The Divine Valles’, was most probably the greatest Spanish physician of the Renaissance and succeeded Andreas Vesalius, whom he knew well, as the personal doctor of Philip II of Spain. Valles studied in Alcalá and wrote several works, among which the influential Controversiarum medicarum et philosophicarum. The importance of Valles’s contribution to the debate concerning the number, the specific tasks, and the localization of the internal senses in Aristotle and in Galen is attested by (...) Pedro da Fonseca’s appreciation of his contribution and by the relevance of Valles’s works to the study of the history of philosophy and of anatomy, in antiquity, in the Renaissance and in scholasticism. (shrink)
In a previous paper [ 21 ] all extensions of Johansson’s minimal logic J with the weak interpolation property WIP were described. It was proved that WIP is decidable over J. It turned out that the weak interpolation problem in extensions of J is reducible to the same problem over a logic Gl, which arises from J by adding tertium non datur. In this paper we consider extensions of the logic Gl. We prove that only finitely many logics over Gl (...) have the Craig interpolation property CIP, the restricted interpolation property IPR or the projective Beth property PBP. The full list of Gl-logics with the mentioned properties is found, and their description is given. We note that IPR and PBP are equivalent over Gl. It is proved that CIP, IPR and PBP are decidable over the logic Gl. (shrink)
In his critical review of Recht und Gewalt Andreas Fischer-Lescano has suggested that the critical insight into the paradoxical entwinement of law and violence should lead towards the utopian idea of a “transcendence” of law. The response to Fischer-Lescano rejects this idea as a false leveling of the - decisive normative - difference between law and society. This difference is the condition of possibility of law’s critical and hence transformative relation to society. The response thus defends the idea, brought (...) forward in Recht und Gewalt by way of an interpretation of Benjamin’s formula of the Entsetzung of law, that the break with law’s fateful violence cannot consist in the “transcendence” but rather the “depotenciation” of law. (shrink)
Andrew Simester and Andreas von Hirsch’s Crimes, Harms, and Wrongs: On the Principles of Criminalisation (Simester and von Hirsch 2011) is an important contribution to the philosophical debate over the nature and ethical limits of criminalisation. As they note in their reply in this symposium, one of the novel aspects of their account is that they do not advance one “unified, grand theory”. Rather, they analyse each ground of criminal prohibition—wrongfulness, harm-based, offense, and paternalistic prohibitions aimed at preventing self-harm—so (...) as to develop guiding principles for their use (or, in the case of paternalism, the absence of an independent principle that would underwrite its use).The result is a rich set of arguments that advance a number of debates across the field of criminalisation.However, that is not all: the participants share the view that, as Tatjana Hörnle puts it, “any theory of criminalization presupposes assumptions about the functions of the criminal law. The q. (shrink)
Sambin  proved the normalization theorem for GL, the modal logic of provability, in a sequent calculus version called by him GLS. His proof does not take into account the concept of reduction, commonly used in normalization proofs. Bellini , on the other hand, gave a normalization proof for GL using reductions. Indeed, Sambin's proof is a decision procedure which builds cut-free proofs. In this work we formalize this procedure as a recursive function and prove its recursiveness in an arithmetically (...) formalizable way, concluding that the normalization of GL can be formalized in PA. MSC: 03F05, 03B35, 03B45. (shrink)
Whereas liberals tend to emphasize harm as the decisive criterion for legitimizing criminalisation, moralists take a qualified notion of wrongfulness as sufficient even when no harm is at hand. This comment takes up Andreas von Hirsch ’s “dual element approach” requiring both harm and wrongfulness as necessary conditions for criminalisation and argues that Joel Feinberg’s account of harming as violation of moral rights is perfectly compatible with it. Subsequently, two issues from the liberalism-moralism debate on criminalisation are examined: The (...) difficulty of how to determine wrongfulness beyond the scope of harming, and the so far disregarded question of whether the democratic legislator is free within the framework of constitution to criminalise whatever conduct he wants to prevent irrespective of philosophical constraints. (shrink)
ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDie Krise des Protestantismus in der Moderne ist eine Krise des Schriftprinzips. Der Verlust des Schriftprinzips lässt sich deuten als der Verlust der Kategorie der Textualität der Schrift im Prozess der modernen Transformationen des Schriftprinzips. Dieser Aufsatz versucht diese Kategorie wiederzugewinnen, zunächst im Rückgriff auf einen pragmatischen Verstehensbegriff, der an der Philosophie des späten Wittgenstein gewonnen wird: Wir lernen Sprache immer in pragmatischen Kontexten zu verstehen. Darum ist Verstehen zunächst vor allem eine Sache des Verhaltens und Reagierens auf Sprache. Mit (...) Hilfe dieses Verstehensbegriffes wird dann die altlutherische Lehre von der Schrift am Beispiel des theologischen Systems von Johann Andreas Quenstedt reinterpretiert. Die Lehre von der Verbalinspiration kommt so im Kontext eines Begriffes praktisch-präpropositionalen Verstehens der Heiligen Schrift in den Blick, der insbesondere die Passivität des Lesers und das Handeln des Heiligen Geistes durch das Medium des Textes betont. Der Text gewinnt gerade in seiner Materialität Autonomie sowohl gegenüber den Lesern als auch gegenüber seinen Autoren. Dabei wird die Textwerdung des Wortes vom Ziel des Evangeliums, dem Heil der ganzen Menschheit, her begründet. Die Kirche legt, in dem sie die Materialität des biblischen Textes in der Inspirationslehre pneumatologisch interpretiert, Zeugnis von ihrem ihr externen Grund ab: dem Wort Gottes, das sie in diesen Texten hört.SUMMARYThe essay begins with the observation of the following dialectics: The Reformation's claim that Holy Scripture is the basis of theological argument has become the heart of a crisis in recent protestant theology and faith. The essay deals with this crisis in referring to the textuality of the Holy Scripture. This textuality is understood as a category which was lost in the modern shifts of scriptural interpretation. This textuality is here regained in reference to a pragmatic concept of understanding as found in the late Philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein: We learn to understand languages in pragmatic contexts. Therefore, understanding is first of all a way of behaving and reacting to language. The Lutheran theology of Scripture as found in the Theology of Johann Andreas Quenstedt , a main exponent of late 17th century Lutheran Theology, is reinterpreted in light of this concept of textuality. The dogma of verbal inspiration with Quenstedt is understood in the context of a pneumatological concept of pragmatic-prepropositional understanding of Scripture that emphasises the passivity of the reader and the acting of the Holy Spirit by means of the biblical Text . The text of the Holy Scripture gains autonomy from its authors and its readers by reference to its materiality, which is necessary due to the universal salvific aim of the Gospel. Hence, the pneumatological interpretation of the materiality of the biblical text in the dogma of verbal inspiration is an interpretation by which the Church testifies that its external ground, the Word of God, is heard in these texts. (shrink)
Among the various controversies surrounding the treatise on love attributed to Andreas Capellanus, none is more vexed than the question of the work's tone. Is the De amore to be taken as a serious, straightforward treatment of its subject, or should it be interpreted, in whole or in part, as humorous or ironic? This question is of crucial importance to our understanding of the work and of its place in medieval literature — hence the considerable interest and passion it (...) has aroused. (shrink)
On the Protophysics of time. Reply to H. Andreas* critique along with a remark on the scope of operational foundations of measurement. In 2004, H. Andreas presented in this journal a refutation of Janich's operational foundation of time measurement. Pursuing suggestions made by F. Mühlhölzer in 1981, Andreas intends to show that Janich's proof of the uniqueness of the operationalization that he suggested fails. It is shown that Andreas' arguments, like Mühlhölzer's, are mistaken and do not (...) challenge Janich's theory. Some remarks on the scope of Protophysics are added, which may lead to a more substantial discussion of the merits of Janich's approach. (shrink)
Stéphane Michaud, après une longue et minutieuse enquête dans des fonds enfin délivrées de la censure des descendants et dans les archives freudiennes récemment disponibles, nous invite à découvrir ou à re découvrir Lou Andreas-Salomé (1861-1937). Celle que, trop souvent, on ne connaît qu'à travers les hommes célèbres dont elle a croisé le chemin Nietzsche, Rilke, Freud est ici « objet » d'histoire à part entière. Sans bouder l'érudition pure on découvre avec étonnement les très ..
This paper deals with the system of modal logicGL, in particular with a formulation of it in terms of sequents. We prove some proof theoretical properties ofGL that allow to get the cut-elimination theorem according to Gentzen's procedure, that is, by double induction on grade and rank.