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  1.  12
    Prémontval's "General Misunderstanding on the Question of Optimism".Lloyd Strickland - 2020 - Philosophical Readings 12 (2):321-330.
    One of the most original contributions to the optimism debate of the eighteenth century was put forward by the maverick French Enlightenment thinker, André-Pierre Le Guay de Prémontval, in an essay entitled “General misunderstanding on the question of optimism”. This essay, which seeks to develop a “middle point” between the polarized pro- and anti-optimist positions that characterized the optimism debate, prefigures the development of process or neoclassical theism in important ways. The essay is presented here in English for the first (...)
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  2.  2
    L'ombre de Faux Semblant : Fiction, Tromperie, Et Vérité Dans la Poésie Allégorique Après le Roman de la Rose.Marco Nievergelt - 2020 - Philosophical Readings 12 (1).
    The question of the epistemological status of poetic language is a central concern in the Roman de la Rose. The Rose itself is in fact conceived as an extended reflection on the ability of poetry to convey philosophical and transcendent truths. While Jean de Meun invokes this possibility, his poem finally foregrounds the fictional and fabricated nature of his own poetic vision, and highlights the poet’s role as an producer of counterfeit truths. This role is explored in particular through the (...)
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  3.  1
    Exhortatio: Parola, Filosofia E Società Negli Scritti Teologici di Pietro Abelardo.Luisa Valente - 2020 - Philosophical Readings 12 (1).
    This paper intends to investigate Peter Abelard’s use of the notion of ‘exhortation’ in his theological writings. Abelard’s notion of exhortatio must be described as correlative to the notions of preaching, teaching, prophecy, edification, advice and consolation. For Peter Abelard ‘exhorting’ means ‘persuading’ somebody to act well, and this is first of all the main aim of the Scriptures: persuading then follows theaching and preceeds confirming, by way of examples, the exhortations and doctrines precedently given. According to Abelard, exhortation differs (...)
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  4.  6
    Penser les Fondements de l'Éthique Sociale Dans les Deux Derniers Siècles de la République Romaine.Carlos Lévy - 2020 - Philosophical Readings 12.
    The purpose of this article is to analyze how the reflection on the origins of the civilization was developed in Rome, at the end of the Republic, in a city where during centuries, nobody tried to go beyond this point of absolute origin that was the foundation of the Vrbs. In order to explore not only Cicéro’s philosophic reflection, but also his rhetorical texts, especially the De inuentione, which contains at the beginning of its first book a very interesting explanatory (...)
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  5.  28
    Extending the Limits of Nature. Political Animals, Artefacts, and Social Institutions.Juhana Toivanen - 2020 - Philosophical Readings 1 (12):35-44.
    This essay discusses how medieval authors from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries dealt with a philosophical problem that social institutions pose for the Aristotelian dichotomy between natural and artificial entities. It is argued that marriage, political community, and language provided a particular challenge for the conception that things which are designed by human beings are artefacts. Medieval philosophers based their arguments for the naturalness of social institutions on the anthropological view that human beings are political animals by nature, but this (...)
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