Sophia

ISSNs: 0038-1527, 1873-930X

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  1.  11
    The Idea of Human Distinctiveness: Unavoidable or Untenable?Gorazd Andrejč - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):613-618.
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  2.  22
    Review of Ruth Vanita, The Dharma of Justice in the Sanskrit Epics: Debates on Gender, Varna, and Species. [REVIEW]Simon Brodbeck - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):747-749.
  3.  12
    How to Move Beyond the Human.Petra Carlsson - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):697-708.
    The article briefly introduces an academic debate between two different responses to the predicament of the human in the ecological crisis, namely the object-oriented ontology and the vitalist response to that approach. Based on that introduction, it argues for the need of a complementing analytical tool and sketches the contours of such a tool by suggesting an epistemological tactic for a decolonizing human distinctiveness. The article suggests an analytical maneuver to be used by scholars who aim at decolonizing nature from (...)
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  4.  13
    Answering Divine Love: Human Distinctiveness in the Light of Islam and Artificial Superintelligence.Yusuf Çelik - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):679-696.
    In the Qur’an, human distinctiveness was first questioned by angels. These established denizens of the cosmos could not understand why God would create a seemingly pernicious human when immaculate devotees of God such as themselves existed. In other words, the angels asked the age-old question: what makes humans so special and different? Fast forward to our present age and this question is made relevant again in light of the encroaching arrival of an artificial superintelligence (ASI). Up to this point in (...)
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  5.  11
    Casting Justice Before Swine: Late Mediaeval Pig Trials as Instances of Human Exceptionalism.Sven Gins - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):631-663.
    In recent years, several cases about the legal personhood of nonhuman animals garnered global attention, e.g. the recognition of ‘basic rights’ for the Argentinian great apes Sandra and Cecilia. Legal scholars have embraced the animal turn, blurring the once sovereign boundaries between persons and objects, recognising nonhuman beings as legal subjects. The zoonotic origins of the Covid-19 pandemic stress the urgency of establishing ‘global animal law’ and deconstructing anthropocentrism. To this end, it is vital to also consider the extensive premodern (...)
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  6.  14
    Is Your Computer Lying? AI and Deception.Noreen Herzfeld - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):665-678.
    Recent developments in AI, especially the spectacular success of Large Language models, have instigated renewed questioning of what remains distinctively human. As AI stands poised to take over more and more human tasks, what is left that distinguishes humans? One way we might identify a humanlike intelligence would be when we detect it telling lies. Yet AIs lack both the intention and the motivation to truly tell lies, instead producing merely bullshit. With neither emotions, embodiment, nor the social awareness that (...)
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  7.  10
    Review of Tom Jones, George Berkeley: A Philosophical Life, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2021, xxi + 621 pp. [REVIEW]Jan Kerkmann - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):755-757.
  8.  19
    Inhuman Rationality: Speculative Realism, Normativity, and Praxis.Carool Kersten - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):723-738.
    This article addresses how the Iranian-born philosopher Reza Negarestani has negotiated human distinctiveness in the course of his intellectual journey from speculative realism to inhuman rationalism (Rather than rationalist inhumanism, as some sources have it (Anon 2021)). Moving from challenging the correlationism of post-Kantian Western philosophy, via critiques of the Deleuze and Guattari’s war machine, Nick Land’s accelerationism, and Ray Brassier’s nihilism, Negarestani eventually turns to the neo-pragmatists of the Pittsburgh School and their reflections on reason, normativity, and praxis. The (...)
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  9.  16
    Review of Claire Carlisle, Spinoza’s Religion: a New Reading of the Ethics. [REVIEW]Thaddeus Robinson - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):751-753.
  10.  10
    How Not to Diversify Philosophy of Religion: A Critique from the Twenty-First Century.Rafal K. Stepien - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):739-746.
    Philosophy of religion has been the object of penetrating critiques concerning its continued near-complete blindness to all but a single religion. The need for philosophy of religion to open up so as to include more than merely occasional and tokenistic treatments of ‘Other’ religions is clearly evident from the slew of recently published titles concerned with diversifying the field. In this light, a book such as Victoria Harrison’s Eastern Philosophy of Religion should surely come as a welcome addition. And yet, (...)
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  11.  12
    Moral Difference and Moral Differences.Craig Taylor - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):619-630.
    The idea that human beings have a distinct moral worth—a moral significance over and above any moral worth, such as that may be, possessed by other animals—has a long history and has traditionally been taken for granted by philosophers and theologians. However, in a variety of quarters in recent philosophy, this idea has come into disrepute, seeming to indicate a mere prejudice in favour of our own species. For example, Peter Singer has argued that such a position is mere speciesism, (...)
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  12.  28
    The Dharma of Justice in the Sanskrit Epics: Debates on Gender, Varṇa, and Species — A Reply to Simon Brodbeck.Ruth Vanita - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):759-760.
  13.  7
    Decentering Humanism in Philosophy and the Sciences: Ecologies of Agency, Subversive Animism, and Diffractional Knowledge.Kocku von Stuckrad - 2023 - Sophia 62 (4):709-722.
    The idea that humans are clearly distinguished from other animals and from the natural world in general is a cornerstone of European philosophy and culture at least from the sixteenth century onward. Often, this idea is related to understandings of ‘humanism’ that emerged in that period and legitimized regimes of power and control over non-European cultures; it also sanctioned the exploitation of the natural world in the form of extractive capitalism. Critiques of Eurocentric mindsets hinge on certain understandings of ‘humanism,’ (...)
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  14.  14
    Colonial India in a Crusades Mirror: Fantasy and Reality in a Nineteenth-Century Urdu Novel.Shahzad Bashir - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):419-432.
    This article extends Georg Lukács’s theorization pertaining to historical fiction by considering a novel written in response to colonial conditions. It treats Abdulhalim Sharar’s Urdu Malik al-‘Aziz and Virginia (1888) as a case where a fictional version of the encounter between Muslims and Christians during the crusades in the twelfth century is used to counter the colonial Indian present in the nineteenth century. I suggest that novels such as Sharar’s exemplify a vein of global thought since the nineteenth century that (...)
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  15.  14
    Language in Flight: Home and Elsewhere.Andrew Brandel, Veena Das & Michael Puett - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):449-483.
    How is meaning conceptualized within a language in terms of capacities and potentials of words and sentences? Analyzing words within the sentence as event-makers in Sanskrit and as creating new possibilities and of divining events in Chinese, this paper argues that writing commentaries, making translations, reciting texts and transcribing them, belong to a family of activities that we normally do with language. Thus, movement of every element of language from one place to another whether within a word, a character, a (...)
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  16.  9
    Afterword: Steps to a Global Thought.Faisal Devji - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):607-611.
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  17.  55
    Remembrance for Patrick Alfred (Æ) Hutchings, Esquire.Anna Hennessey - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):409-410.
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  18. What is Western About Western thought?Sudipta Kaviraj - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):485-514.
    The question at the centre of this paper is part of a larger debate. Though the more limited question is hardly ever asked in academic discussions, the larger question – how can knowledge - or more broadly and less helpfully- thought in the world outside the West can be decolonized is at the center of lively debates surrounding the ‘end’ of postcolonial theory. Even this question can be asked in two significantly separate forms: about decolonizing knowledge in these societies; or, (...)
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  19.  8
    Iqbal Before the Mosque of Cordoba: Goethean Crossings.Naveeda Khan - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):533-553.
    This is a tale of two thinkers across time and space who have been read together but in conventional ways as representing the meeting of the East and the West. I propose instead a different relationship between them, that of hidden relays and realizations, in which one who comes later receives and actualizes a potential in the writings of the one earlier but in implicit ways to avoid the political and theological pitfalls of his times. To draw out this line (...)
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  20.  9
    The Ordinary Global.Sandra Laugier - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):515-531.
    In this paper, I confront various conceptions of meaning and articulate them to anthropological styles of thought: W.V. Quine’s thesis of the indeterminacy of translation, Wittgenstein’s conception of meaning as use, Cavell’s philosophy of ordinary language, of ‘what we say’; Barbara Cassin’s Dictionary of Untranslatables where I approached English terms as inherently untranslatable; attention to details and to human vulnerability through the ‘textures of the ordinary’ Veena Das teaches us to observe. All these approaches to meaning as agency, vs. meaning (...)
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  21.  7
    An Everyday Malhar: A Raag’s Relation to the Earth.Ahona Palchoudhuri - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):555-576.
    As a response to the invitation to a form of global thought, this paper asks: what is the relationship between Indian classical music and everyday seasonal life? Indian classical music has been studied in the social sciences as a tradition belonging to a distinctly South-Asian past (Neuman, 1980; Mukherjee, 2006), in which newness has emerged only as a consequence of techno-auratic reconfigurations (Neuman in Asian Music, 40(2), 100–123, 2009), or as a construct of India’s post-colonial modernity (Neuman, 1980; Mukherjee, 2006). (...)
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  22.  14
    What Comes After Postcolonial Theory?Bhrigupati Singh - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):577-606.
    This essay explores possible paths after postcolonial theory, with the after understood not as a negation, but as a form of inheritance and the creation of routes, such that an aftermath need not have a resentful or self-hating relation and nor simply an acceptance of given pictures of ‘western’ thought. The route explored here is neither fully secular nor religious, and nor from a radically alternative ontology, but rather prompted by three enduring concerns within the global humanities, explored in three (...)
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  23.  18
    Steps to a Global Thought: Thinking from Elsewhere.Bhrigupati Singh, Veena Das & Sudipta Kaviraj - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):411-417.
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  24.  9
    ‘The More You Think of It, the Less the Difference’: Rebirth and Animals in Thoreau and Tagore.Ruth Vanita - 2023 - Sophia 62 (3):433-447.
    The British Romantics and American Transcendentalists were deeply influenced by translations of Indian philosophical and literary texts. These writers in turn influenced English-educated Indians in the late colonial period. Living at opposite ends of the globe at different times and in vastly different societies, Thoreau and Tagore, in different but overlapping ways, drew on the Hindu concept of rebirth to explore human relationships with non-human animals. This essay presents an overview of their imaginative forays in this regard, and examines in (...)
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  25.  23
    Übermensch or Untermensch: an Existential Critique of Heidegger’s ‘Overman’.Sheridan Hough - 2023 - Sophia 62 (2):327-339.
    At the end of ‘The Age of the World Picture,’ Heidegger offers a brief sentence, ‘Keiner stirbt für blosse Werte’ (No one dies for mere values.). This sentence underscores one of the central themes of Heidegger’s later essays, the nihilism that results from living in an economy of value. This way of life is lived by a certain kind of human being, one who treats a culture’s embedded habits and practices as value systems to be exploited and exhausted. A more (...)
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  26.  11
    How to Speak the Truth According to Kierkegaard.Matthew Jacoby - 2023 - Sophia 62 (2):275-291.
    In this article, I examine Soren Kierkegaard’s existential critique for truth-speaking. My contention is that this is more than a mere quest for sincerity in religious profession. Kierkegaard, rather, is concerned with the existential position that is inherent in the way a person confesses the doctrines of the Christian faith. I show how Kierkegaard uses his pseudonyms to problematise the issue of making religious truth claims and then I explain how Kierkegaard’s notion of truth-speaking operates within his definition of the (...)
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  27.  12
    Heidegger’s Question of Being: the Unity of Topos and Logos.Axel Onur Karamercan - 2023 - Sophia 62 (2):309-325.
    In this article, I elucidate the significance of Heidegger’s ‘question of being’ from a topological point of view by explaining the relationship between his thought of place and language. After exploring various hermeneutic strategies of reading Heidegger’s oeuvre, I turn to Richard Capobianco’s interpretation of Heidegger and critically engage with his idea of the experience of being itself as the ‘luminous self-showing of logos’. In doing so, I explain the later turn from ‘truth’ to ‘place’ and articulate why logos needs (...)
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  28.  4
    A Strategy for Interpreting the Philokalia by Peter D. Ouspensky in Tertium Organum.Sergei Sergeevich Loginovsky - 2023 - Sophia 62 (2):249-264.
    The article examines the use of texts by Church Fathers in esoteric constructions, specifically Tertium Organum, an early work of P. D. Ouspensky created in 1911 before his acquaintance with George I. Gurdjieff. The author analyzes fragments from The Philokalia, the well-known collection of texts by Orthodox ascetic writers of the Middle Ages. Despite the difference between the esoteric system developed by Ouspensky and the Orthodox tradition, the esotericist considers it possible to use the texts of this tradition to illustrate (...)
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  29.  11
    When Pain Becomes an Expression of Love: a Phenomenological Analysis of Self-inflicted Pain Among Christian Monastic Ascetics in Central Medieval Europe.Roni Naor Hofri - 2023 - Sophia 62 (2):227-248.
    This paper shows how self-inflicted pain enabled the expression of love for God among Christian monastic flagellant ascetics in medieval central Europe. As scholars have shown, being in a state of pain leads to a change in or a destruction of language, an essential attribute of the self. I argue that this transformation allows the self to transcend its boundaries as a conscious object, even if only in part, in a limited manner and temporarily, thereby enabling the expression of love (...)
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  30.  14
    An Early Medieval Account of the Human Condition: Augustine’s liberum arbitrium as a Mediator Between Reason and the Will.Magdalini Tsevreni - 2023 - Sophia 62 (2):207-225.
    Saint Augustine is sometimes introduced as the first theologian-philosopher, a founder of the Western theologico-philosophical tradition, and a figure who unites two historical times—the Late Antiquity with the Middle Ages—and two different major schools—the Hellenistic philosophy with Christianity. Augustine lives and writes in the era of eudaimonism, teleology and virtue ethics, and he accomplishes, as we will see, a clear shift in the context of these doctrines. In this paper, we reconstruct Augustine’s philosophical approach to human psychology, looking at the (...)
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  31.  18
    Alienation and Attunement in the Zhuangzi.Jacob Bender - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):179-193.
    In this study, I clarify and defend the critique of the ‘sages’ and ‘robbers’ that is found in the _Zhuangzi_. As detailed in Chapter 8 of the _Zhuangzi_, both the (non-Daoist) ‘sages’ and ‘robbers’ are equally responsible for society’s ills. This is because both the ‘sages’ and ‘robbers’ are perceptually alienated from nature. This perceptual alienation involves the inability to perceive nature as fundamentally indeterminate (_wu_, 無). The Daoist alternative to the ‘sages’ and ‘robbers’ is to cultivate awareness of our (...)
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  32.  22
    Never Waking into Reality: Narrative Self in the Madhyamaka.Stalin Joseph Correya - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):159-177.
    In this paper I probe the narratively constructed self as a _proper object of negation_ in the Madhyamaka. The paper borrows idioms and tropes from Western theories of the narrative self to illuminate and contemporize the discussion. Since Mādhyamikas reject the two-tiered interpretation of the Buddhist two truths, they are philosophically unobligated to reduce the self. Although both Mādhyamikas and Ābhidharmikas would accept the conceptually constructed self as conventionally real, they would disagree about its ontological significance. For the latter, the (...)
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  33.  19
    Giving the Imaginary Interlocutor Her Due: Existential Anguish in the Madhyamaka.Stalin Joseph Correya - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):133-157.
    The paper taps the agency of the imaginary interlocutor in the _Mūlamadhyamakakārikā_ of Nāgārjuna to delineate _existential anguish_ in the Madhyamaka. The paper asks whether the protestations of the imaginary interlocutor cannot be recast as _anguished_. It claims that an objection to emptiness (_śūnyatā_) can be voiced even after the metaphysical commitment to _intrinsic existence_ (_svabhāva_) has been relinquished. By interpolating _anguish_ into the Madhyamaka, the paper posits an unorthodox phenomenological objection to _śūnyatā_.
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  34.  17
    The Middle Way to Reality: on Why I Am Not a Buddhist and Other Philosophical Curiosities.Christian Coseru - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):87-110.
    The question whether Buddhism can enter a fruitful dialogue with modern science has come under critical scrutiny in recent years. This paper considers Evan Thompson's appraisal of that dialogue in Why I am Not a Buddhist, focussing on four areas of disagreement: (i) the suitability of evolutionary psychology as a framework of analysis for Buddhist moral psychological ideas; (ii) the issue of what counts as the core and main trajectory of the Buddhist intellectual tradition; (iii) the scope of naturalism in (...)
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  35.  32
    Madhyamaka Metaethics.Jason Dockstader - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):111-131.
    This paper develops two novel views that help solve the ‘now what’ problem for moral error theorists concerning what they should do with morality once they accept it is systematically false. It does so by reconstructing aspects of the metaethical and metanormative reflections found in the Madhyamaka Buddhist, and in particular the Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka Buddhist, tradition. It also aims to resolve the debate among contemporary scholars of Madhyamaka Buddhism concerning the precise metaethical status of its views, namely, whether Madhyamaka Buddhism (...)
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  36.  6
    Forms of Life and the Phenomenological Ontology of Conversion.Daniel ‘Drugar’ Rueda Garrido - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):33-47.
    In this article, my purpose is to explore conversion in its onto-phenomenological structure. To this end, in the first section, I develop a notion of form of life as an ontological unit. That is, the totality of the possible actions of a subject according to the principle that drives him/her. In this way, the subject is the result of the actions that constitute the adopted form of life. In the second section, I hold that all conversion is precisely the passage (...)
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  37.  27
    Can Ultimate Reality Change? The Three Natures/Three Characters Doctrine in Indian Yogācāra Literature and Contemporary Scholarship.John Powers - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):49-69.
    This article focuses on the three natures (_trisvabhāva_) or three characters (_trilakṣaṇa_) doctrine as described in Indian Yogācāra treatises. This concept is fundamental to Yogācāra epistemology and soteriology, but terminology employed by contemporary buddhologists misconstrues and misrepresents some of its most important features, particularly with regard to the ‘ultimately real nature’ (_pariniṣpanna-svabhāva_), which is equated with terms that connote ultimate reality like ultimate truth (_paramārtha_), emptiness (_śūnyatā_), and reality limit (_bhūta-koṭi_), and which is described as a ‘purifying object of observation’ (...)
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  38.  5
    A Natural Philosopher in Solidarity with the Oppressed: Savita Singh’s Interview with Roy Bhaskar.Charles Reitz - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):201-206.
    Roy Bhaskar, renowned philosopher of naturalism and critical realism, discloses key new personal and political context to his writings to interlocutor Savita Singh.
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  39.  52
    Buddhist Philosophy and Scientific Naturalism.Evan Thompson - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):71-86.
    This paper is a response to Christian Coseru, ‘The Middle Way to Reality: On Why I Am Not a Buddhist and Other Philosophical Curiosities.’ I address Coseru’s critical comments about naturalism, evolutionary psychology, scientific realism, and Madhyamaka philosophy. I argue that scientific naturalism is not the right framework for relating Buddhism to science; rather, the proper framework is the ethics of knowledge. I argue that Coseru’s defence of evolutionary psychology is unconvincing and rests on a misunderstanding of the issues concerning (...)
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  40.  15
    A Critical Notice on the Moral Grounding Question in David Chalmers’ Reality+.Anand Jayprakash Vaidya - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):195-200.
    In this critical discussion, I evaluate David Chalmers’ position on the moral grounding question from his (2022) Reality +. The moral grounding question asks: in virtue of what does an entity x have moral standing? Chalmers argues for the claim that phenomenal consciousness is a necessary condition for moral standing. After a brief introduction to his book, I evaluate his position on the moral grounding question from the perspective of access consciousness as opposed to phenomenal consciousness, as well as the (...)
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  41. Religious Belief and the Wisdom of Crowds.Jack Warman & Leandro De Brasi - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):17-31.
    In their simplest form, consensus gentium arguments for theism argue that theism is true on the basis that everyone believes that theism is true. While such arguments may have been popular in history, they have all but fallen from grace in the philosophy of religion. In this short paper, we reconsider the neglected topic of consensus gentium arguments, paying particular attention to the value of such arguments when deployed in the defence of theistic belief. We argue that while consensus gentium (...)
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  42.  12
    The Modal-Epistemic Argument Self-undermined.Stefan Wintein - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):1-15.
    In a recent article, Emanuel Rutten defends his Modal-Epistemic Argument (MEA) for the existence of God against various objections that I raised against it. In this article, I observe that Rutten’s defence fails for various reasons. Most notably though, the defence is self-undermining: the very claims that Rutten argues for in his defence yield novel counterexamples to the first premise of the MEA.
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  43. Heidegger’s Question of Being: The Unity of Topos and Logos.Axel Onur Karamercan - 2023 - Sophia 1:1-17.
    In this article, I elucidate the significance of Heidegger’s ‘question of being’ from a topological point of view by explaining the relationship between his thought of place and language. After exploring various hermeneutic strategies of reading Heidegger’s oeuvre, I turn to Richard Capobianco’s interpretation of Heidegger and critically engage with his idea of the experience of being itself as the ‘luminous selfshowing of logos’. In doing so, I explain the later turn from ‘truth’ to ‘place’ and articulate why logos needs (...)
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  44.  18
    Review of Seyyed Khalil Toussi, The Political Philosophy of Mulla Sadra, Routledge, 2020, ISBN: 978–1 315–75,116-0, xi + 246 pp. [REVIEW]Reza Adeputra Tohis - 2023 - Sophia. Translated by Tohis Reza Adeputra.
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