33 found

Year:

  1.  3
    The Enacted Ethics of Self-injury.Zsuzsanna Chappell - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):383-394.
    Enactivism has much to offer to moral, social and political philosophy through giving a new perspective on existing ethical problems and improving our understanding of morally ambiguous behaviours. I illustrate this through the case of self-injury, a common problematic behaviour which has so far received little philosophical attention. My aim in this paper has been to use ideas from enactivism in order to explore self-injury without assuming a priori that it is morally or socially wrong under all circumstances, seeking to (...)
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  2.  8
    Enactive Ethics: Difference Becoming Participation.Ezequiel A. Di Paolo & Hanne De Jaegher - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):241-256.
    Enactive cognitive science combines questions in epistemology, ontology, and ethics by conceiving of bodies as open-ended and mutually transforming through activity. While enaction is not a theory of ethics, it can contribute to its foundations. We present a schematization of enactive ideas that underlie traditional distinctions between Being, Knowing, and Doing. Ethics in this scheme begins in the relation between knowing and becoming. Critical of dichotomous thinking, we approach the questions of alterity and ethical reality. Alterity is relevant to the (...)
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  3.  5
    Introduction: Ethical Dimensions of Enactive Cognition—Perspectives on Enactivism, Bioethics and Applied Ethics.Geoffrey Dierckxsens - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):235-239.
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  4.  6
    Enactive Ethics and Hermeneutics—From Bodily Normativity to Critical Ethics.Geoffrey Dierckxsens & Lasse T. Bergmann - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):299-312.
    Recent enactive accounts of cognition have begun to disentangle social and normative aspects of the human mind. In this paper, we will contribute to this debate by developing an enactive account of moral development, i.e. the learning of ethical norms, and critical engagement with these norms through social affordances, participatory sense-making, and moral concern. The difficulty in articulating such an account is in reconciling the affective embodied aspects of moral experiences with the more orthodox aspects of ethics like critical reflection. (...)
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  5.  3
    Enacting Ought: Ethics, Anti-Racism, and Interactional Possibilities.George N. Fourlas & Elena Clare Cuffari - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):355-371.
    Focusing on political and interpersonal conflict in the U.S., particularly racial conflict, but with an eye to similar conflicts throughout the world, we argue that the enactive approach to mind as life can be elaborated to provide an exigent framework for present social-political problems. An enactive approach fills problematic lacunae in the Western philosophical ethics project by offering radically refigured notions of responsibility and language. The dual enactive, participatory insight is that interactional responsibility is not singular and language is not (...)
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  6.  7
    Mindshaping, Enactivism, and Ideological Oppression.Michelle Maiese - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):341-354.
    One of humans’ distinctive cognitive abilities is that they develop an array of capacities through an enculturation process. In “Cognition as a Social Skill,” Sally points to one of the dangers associated with enculturation: ideological oppression. To conceptualize how such oppression takes root, Haslanager appeals to notions of mindshaping and social coordination, whereby people participate in oppressive social practices unthinkingly or even willingly. Arguably, an appeal to mindshaping provides a new kind of argument, grounded in philosophy of mind, which supports (...)
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  7.  2
    Enactive Principles for the Ethics of User Interactions on Social Media: How to Overcome Systematic Misunderstandings Through Shared Meaning-Making.Lavinia Marin - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):425-437.
    This paper proposes three principles for the ethical design of online social environments aiming to minimise the unintended harms caused by users while interacting online, specifically by enhancing the users’ awareness of the moral load of their interactions. Such principles would need to account for the strong mediation of the digital environment and the particular nature of user interactions: disembodied, asynchronous, and ambiguous intent about the target audience. I argue that, by contrast to face to face interactions, additional factors make (...)
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  8.  8
    Levinas’ Otherness: An Ethical Dimension for Enactive Sociality.Fabrice Métais & Mario Villalobos - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):327-339.
    What is or should be the place of the ethical dimension in a general enactive theory of sociality? How should such a dimension be understood and articulated within the more general picture of the enactive approach to social life? In this paper, building on Emmanuel Levinas’ philosophy, we argue that ethics should be understood as a distinct dimension of the complex and multidimensional phenomenon of sociality; a dimension of radical otherness that intertwines with but does not reduce to the intersubjective (...)
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  9.  8
    The Is and Oughts of Remembering.Erik Myin & Ludger van Dijk - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):275-285.
    One can be reproached for not remembering. Remembering and forgetting shows who and what one values. Indeed, memory is constitutively normative. Theoretical approaches to memory should be sensitive to this normative character. We will argue that traditional views that consider memory as the storing and retrieval of mental content, fail to consider the practices we need for telling the truth about our past. We introduce the Radically Enactive view of Cognition, or REC, as well-placed to recognize the central role of (...)
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  10.  11
    Making us Autonomous: The Enactive Normativity of Morality.Cassandra Pescador Canales & Laura Mojica - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):257-274.
    Any complete account of morality should be able to account for its characteristic normativity; we show that enactivism is able to do so while doing justice to the situated and interactive nature of morality. Moral normativity primarily arises in interpersonal interaction and is characterized by agents’ possibility of irrevocably changing each other’s autonomies, that is, the possibility of harming or expanding each other’s autonomy. We defend that moral normativity, as opposed to social and other forms of normativity, regulates and, in (...)
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  11.  5
    Revisiting the Social Origins of Human Morality: A Constructivist Perspective on the Nature of Moral Sense-Making.Andrés Segovia-Cuéllar - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):313-325.
    A recent turn in the cognitive sciences has deepened the attention on embodied and situated dynamics for explaining different cognitive processes such as perception, emotion, and social cognition. This has fostered an extensive interest in the social and ‘intersubjective’ nature of moral behavior, especially from the perspective of enactivism. In this paper, I argue that embodied and situated perspectives, enactivism in particular, nonetheless require further improvements with regards to their analysis of the social nature of human morality. In brief, enactivist (...)
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  12.  3
    Health and Illness as Enacted Phenomena.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):373-382.
    In this paper I explore health and illness through the lens of enactivism, which is understood and developed as a bodily-based worldly-engaged phenomenology. Various health theories – biomedical, ability-based, biopsychosocial – are introduced and scrutinized from the point of view of enactivism and phenomenology. Health is ultimately argued to consist in a central world-disclosing aspect of what is called existential feelings, experienced by way of transparency and ease in carrying out important life projects. Health, in such a phenomenologically enacted understanding, (...)
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  13.  7
    Autism as Gradual Sensorimotor Difference: From Enactivism to Ethical Inclusion.Thomas van Es & Jo Bervoets - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):395-407.
    Autism research is increasingly moving to a view centred around sensorimotor atypicalities instead of traditional, ethically problematical, views predicated on social-cognitive deficits. We explore how an enactivist approach to autism illuminates how social differences, stereotypically associated with autism, arise from such sensorimotor atypicalities. Indeed, in a state space description, this can be taken as a skewing of sensorimotor variables that influences social interaction and so also enculturation and habituation. We argue that this construal leads to autism being treated on a (...)
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  14.  10
    Enactivism and the Paradox of Moral Perception.Janna Van Grunsven - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):287-298.
    In this paper I home in on an ethical phenomenon that is powerfully elucidated by means of enactive resources but that has, to my knowledge, not yet been explicitly addressed in the literature. The phenomenon in question concerns what I will term the paradox of moral perception, which, to be clear, does not refer to a logical but to a phenomenological-practical paradoxicality. Specifically, I have in mind the seemingly contradictory phenomenon that perceiving persons as moral subjects is at once incredibly (...)
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  15.  4
    From Shared Enaction to Intrinsic Value. How Enactivism Contributes to Environmental Ethics.Konrad Werner & Magdalena Kiełkowicz-Werner - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):409-423.
    Two major philosophical movements have sought to fundamentally rethink the relationship between humans and their environment: environmental ethics and enactivism. Surprisingly, they virtually never refer to or seek inspiration from each other. The goal of this analysis is to bridge the gap. Our main purpose, then, is to address, from the enactivist angle, the conceptual backbone of environmental ethics, namely the concept of intrinsic value. We argue that intrinsic value does indeed exist, yet its "intrinsicality" does not boil down to (...)
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  16.  1
    Continuities and Discontinuities in the Processes of Elite Recruitment: The Italian Political Field Between Authoritarianism and Democratic Regime.Goffredo Adinolfi - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):79-92.
    This article presents a longitudinal study during the Italian ‘short twentieth century’. Our focus is on the behaviour of the political field, the recruitment process of the ministerial elite and its impact on the stability of the political system. The main aim of the paper is to build a descriptive and explanatory model that sheds light on the fragility of the PS in Italy. There are two main findings: PF is formed through waves of new forces characterised by impermeable bonds. (...)
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  17.  10
    Thomas Aquinas and Hervaeus Natalis on First and Second Intentionality.Fabrizio Amerini - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):159-169.
    Thomas Aquinas and Hervaeus Natalis share a correlational theory of intentionality. When I cognize a thing, I am in a real relation with the thing cognized and at the same time the thing is in a relation of reason with me. Hervaeus coins the term “intentionality” to designate precisely this relation of reason. First and second intentionality express two stages of this relation. First intentionality refers to the relation that a thing has to the mind, while second intentionality indicates the (...)
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  18.  5
    A Different Elite: For a Hegemonic Majority to Break the Iron Law of Oligarchy.Roberta Astolfi - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):23-32.
    This paper aims to show how elite theories do not offer a better alternative to democracy and to present the idea of a hegemonic majority that, by accounting for greater both individual and collective engagement and responsibility, breaks the exclusivity of elitism. Inspired by Gramsci’s theory, this idea reinforces the construction of the political decision-making process without developing a concept of authority based on an exclusive elite. It focuses on a specific interpretation of the role of the intellectuals as the (...)
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  19.  5
    Confabulations in the Case of Gaslighting Are Not Epistemically Beneficial, But They Are Instructive. A Commentary on Spear, A. (2020). Gaslighting, Confabulation, and Epistemic Innocence. [REVIEW]Maja Białek - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):227-233.
    This commentary is a response to Spear’s :229–241, 2020) remarks on the difficulty of qualifying confabulations in gaslighting as epistemically innocent. I propose a way to improve on the currently employed definition of epistemic benefit and show that if it is supplemented with a pragmatic and enactive understanding of “epistemic functioning”, we can easily and intuitively grasp why such confabulations are not epistemically beneficial.
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  20.  3
    Elite and Liberal Democracy: A New Equilibrium?Antonio Campati - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):15-22.
    In contemporary democracies, the balance between the minority principle and democratic principles, one of the components underlying the relationship between liberalism and democracy, is being broken. This paper offers a reflection on this theme – crucial for the future of representative government – in relation to the importance of the theory of elites. The article is divided into three parts: the first part briefly traces the main phases of the theory of elites from the late nineteenth century to the present, (...)
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  21.  2
    Introduction. Elite Theory: Philosophical Challenges.Giovanni Damele & Andre Santos Campos - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):1-5.
  22. Did Elitists Really Believe in Social Laws? Some Epistemological Challenges in the Work of Gaetano Mosca and Vilfredo Pareto.Marco Di Giulio - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):57-67.
    The epistemological standards of contemporary social sciences refute ‘functional’ and ‘law-like’ explanations, whereas mechanism-based causal explanations have become widely accepted in various fields of inquiry. The paper supports the hypothesis that authors Vilfredo Pareto and Gaetano Mosca, despite their deference to positivist epistemology, significantly anticipated these developments. Indeed, with their emphasis on history, contexts and agents, elitists ushered into the debate of their time some arguments that realist epistemology fully developed, emphasising the role of context-specific and, often, not directly observable (...)
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  23.  7
    Reflexivity Without Noticing: Durand of Saint-Pourçain, Walter Chatton, Brentano.Charles Girard - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):111-121.
    According to Franz Brentano, every mental act includes a representation of itself. Hence, Brentano can be described as maintaining that: reflexivity, when it occurs, is included as a part in mental acts; and reflexivity always occurs. Brentano’s way of understanding the inclusion of reflexivity in mental acts entails double intentionality in mental acts. The aim of this paper is to show that the conjunction of and is not uncommon in the history of philosophy. To that end, the theories of two (...)
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  24.  26
    Naïve Realism With or Without the Content View: Response to Giananti.Ivan V. Ivanov - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):221-225.
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  25.  2
    Disfigurations’ of Democracy? Pareto, Mosca and the Challenge of ‘Elite Theory.Robert P. Jackson - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):45-55.
    Considering recent re-assessments of Pareto and Mosca, I discuss whether these thinkers’ socio-political orientations contribute to the ‘disfiguration’ of democracy or provide a resource for the renewal of democratic institutions. Femia presents Pareto as being in the “Machiavellian tradition of sceptical liberalism,” revealing the liberal potential of Pareto’s realist political theory. Finocchiaro ameliorates the conservative consequences of Mosca’s thought by reinterpreting him as a ‘democratic elitist,’ who holds a conception of political liberty “as a relationship such that authority flows from (...)
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  26. A Systematic Reconstruction of Brentano’s Theory of Consciousness.Andrea Marchesi - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):123-132.
    In recent years, Brentano’s theory of consciousness has been systematically reassessed. The reconstruction that has received the most attention is the so-called identity reconstruction. It says that secondary consciousness and the mental phenomenon it is about are one and the same. Crucially, it has been claimed that this thesis is the only one which can make Brentano’s theory immune to what he considers the main threat to it, namely, the duplication of the primary object. In this paper, I argue that (...)
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  27.  8
    Ockham on Memory and Double Intentionality.Dominik Perler - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):133-142.
    Ockham developed two theories to explain the intentionality of memory: one theory that takes previously perceived things to be the objects of memory, and another that takes one’s own earlier acts of perceiving to be the objects of memory. This paper examines both theories, paying particular attention to the reasons that motivated Ockham to give up the first theory in favor of the second. It argues that the second theory is to be understood as a theory of double intentionality. At (...)
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  28.  6
    The Phenomenality and Intentional Structure of We-Experiences.Alessandro Salice - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):195-205.
  29.  14
    The Double Intentionality of Moral Intentional Actions: Scotus and Ockham on Interior and Exterior Acts.Sonja Schierbaum - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):171-181.
    Any account of intentional action has to deal with the problem of how such actions are individuated. Medieval accounts, however, crucially differ from contemporary ones in at least three respects: for medieval authors, individuation is not a matter of description, as it is according to contemporary, ‘Anscombian’ views; rather, it is a metaphysical matter. Medieval authors discuss intentional action on the basis of faculty psychology, whereas contemporary accounts are not committed to this kind of psychology. Connected to the use of (...)
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  30.  12
    Introduction: Double Intentionality.Michela Summa, Martin Klein & Philipp Schmidt - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):93-109.
  31.  3
    Charisma and Democracy: Max Weber on the Riddle of Political Change in Modern Societies.Pedro T. Magalhães - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):69-78.
    The elite theory of Max Weber has recently been rediscovered by political scientists and political theorists who have sought to explore both the heuristic and the normative potential of plebiscitary leader democracy. Notwithstanding the merits of this wave of studies, this paper argues that attention should be shifted from Weber's context-specific defence of plebiscitary leadership in post-WWI Germany to his broader conception of charisma as an attempt to grasp the enigma of significant social and political change. Contemporary democratic theory, this (...)
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  32.  5
    Popular Government Without the Will of the People.Albert Weale - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):7-14.
    Populism sees representative government as intrinsically elitist, preferring to think about democracy in terms of the will of the people, expressed through devices such as referendums. However, this view is not one that can be made sense of and seeking to pursue the will of the people is dangerous to democracy. Citizen engagement is important in a representative democracy, but this is best conceived on a model of civil society organizations undertaking practical public deliberation. A philosophical model of deliberation leading (...)
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  33.  14
    Confused Entailment.Tore Fjetland Øgaard - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):207-219.
    Priest argued in Fusion and Confusion (Priest in Topoi 34(1):55–61, 2015a) for a new concept of logical consequence over the relevant logic B, one where premises my be “confused” together. This paper develops Priest’s idea. Whereas Priest uses a substructural proof calculus, this paper provides a Hilbert proof calculus for it. Using this it is shown that Priest’s consequence relation is weaker than the standard Hilbert consequence relation for B, but strictly stronger than Anderson and Belnap’s original relevant notion of (...)
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