28 found

Year:

  1.  10
    The Hard Terminological Problem of Consciousness.Alexander Boldachev - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (4):27-33.
    This article demonstrates that certain issues of philosophy of mind can only be explained via strict observance of the logical law of identity, that is, use of the term “consciousness” in only one meaning. Based on the understanding of consciousness as space in which objects distinguished by the subject are represented, this article considers problems such as the fixation of the consciousness level, correlation between consciousness and thought, between the internal and the external, and between consciousness and the body. It (...)
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  2. Nietzsche and Transhumanism: A Meta-Analytical Perspective.Riccardo Campa - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (4):10-26.
    In recent years a debate has developed over the ties between Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas and transhumanism. This article clarifies some issues at the meta-level of the discussion. Firstly, the author provides a scientometric analysis of research trends to show the relevance of the topic. Secondly, he distinguishes between two analytical perspectives, which he calls ‘noumenal’ and ‘phenomenal.’ Thirdly, by taking the phenomenal perspective, the author shows that transhumanism can be classified into four different categories, namely: quasi-Nietzschean, Nietzschean, a-Nietzschean, and anti-Nietzschean. (...)
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  3.  1
    Evaluation of Employment and Labour Market Trends in European Countries in 2007-2016.Mateusz Mierzejewski & Adam Chlebisz - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (4):43-50.
    The paper presents a partial evaluation of employment and factors related to the labour markets in European countries in 2007-2016. The interconnectedness of these determinants in the context of GDP dynamics per capita for each country was examined. The quoted partial subject literature and empirical research allowed to formulate the most important conclusions, among others: in the context of GDP dynamics per capita, at least four groups of countries can be distinguished in Europe, each of them has completely different characteristics (...)
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  4. Behaviour Modelling and Safety at Work on a Construction Site.Dagmara Samołyk - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (4):34-42.
    The concept of the method based on the behavioural approach as the method minimizing hazardous behaviours of employees has been discussed in this article. The main focus has been laid upon one of the largest economic sectors, i.e. is the construction industry. Thereby, risks arising from an improper behaviour of construction workers, and also a factor contributing to it, have been described here. The influence of employee’s age and day time have been analysed in terms of accident rates. The attention (...)
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  5. Biomedical Moral Enhancement for Human Space Missions.Konrad Szocik - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (4):1-9.
    Biomedical moral enhancement is an idea which states that human moral intuitions and patterns may be artificially improved by biomedical means. The rationale which lies behind moral bioenhancement is rooted in the idea that humans – in a moral and behavioral sense – are not evolutionally adapted to current ecological challenges. This idea is discussed in the paper in relation to human space missions to Mars and beyond. Because the space environment is a hazardous environment, there are some reasons to (...)
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  6. The Biology of Secularization.Jay R. Feierman - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (3):21-38.
    For the past 500 years, to varying degrees, the processes of religious secularization have been occurring in what today are the wealthy, highly educated, industrialized nations of the world. They are causing organized religion, as a social institution, to go from being a very important influence on the lives of people and the nations in which they live to being a smaller influence, or almost no influence at all. Various disciplines from theology to psychology to sociology have tried to explain (...)
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  7.  2
    Religious Intuitions and the Nature of “Belief”.Jamin Halberstadt, Evan Balkcom, Jesse Bering & Victoria K. Alogna - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (3):58-68.
    Scientific interest in religion often focusses on the “puzzle of belief”: how people develop and maintain religious beliefs despite a lack of evidence and the significant costs that those beliefs incur. A number of researchers have suggested that humans are predisposed towards supernatural thinking, with innate cognitive biases engendering, for example, the misattribution of intentional agency. Indeed, a number of studies have shown that nonbelievers often act “as if” they believe. For example, atheists are reluctant to sell the very souls (...)
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  8.  1
    How the Non-Religious View the Personality of God in Relation to Themselves.Justin E. Lane & Igor Mikloušić - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (3):39-57.
    In this study we examined the applicability of personality measures to assessing God representations, and we explored how the overlap between personality judgments of self and God relate to strength of belief and closeness to God among atheists and agnostics. Using sample of 1,088 atheists/agnostics, we applied Goldberg’s Big Five bipolar markers as a standardized measure of personality dimensions, along with measures of identity fusion with God, belief strength, and sociosexuality, as this trait has been shown to be relevant in (...)
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  9. Evolutionary Perspectives on Unbelief: An Introduction From the Editor.Kyle J. Messick - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (3):1-6.
    The scientific study of atheism and unbelief is at a pivotal turning point: past research is being evaluated, and new directions for research are being paved. Organizations are being formed with an exclusive focus on unbelief research, and large grants are funding the topic in ways that historically have never happened before. This article serves as an introduction to the state of the literature and study of evolutionary perspectives towards unbelief, which incorporates cognitive, adaptive, and biological contributors. This article serves (...)
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  10. Atheism and Unbelief: Different Ways to Apply the Evolutionary Framework.Lluis Oviedo - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (3):7-20.
    Religion has been intensely studied in the last years inside an evolutionary frame, trying to discern to what extent it contributes to fitness or becomes an adaptive entity in its own. A similar heuristic can be tried regarding the opposite tendency: unbelief and atheism, since these cultural phenomena could help to better adapt to some social settings or become an adaptive socio-cultural niche on its own. The present paper examines some scenarios in which that question makes sense: the tradition of (...)
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  11. Can the Sense of Agency Be a Marker of Free Will?Paweł Balcerak - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):69-78.
    In this paper, I will analyse the relation between a sense of agency and free will. It is often proposed that by investigating the former, we can find a way of judging when an action is voluntary. Haggard seems to be one of the authors believing so. To answer if this assumption is correct, I will: 1) analyse the categories of free will and agency; 2) define the sense of agency; 3) describe ways of investigating the sense of agency; 4) (...)
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  12. On Computers and Men.Tomasz Goban-Klas - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):79-83.
    The title of the article was inspired by the novel by John Steinbeck “Of Mice and Men” and the poem by Robet Burns about the deception of human plans. Even the best of them often lead astray, or their far-reaching negative effects are revealed. As it seems, nowadays nature and men are in a breakthrough period – in the geological sense between the old and the new era, the Holocene and the Anthropocene, in the cultural sense – between the analogue (...)
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  13. Moral Considerability and Decision-Making.Magdalena Hoły-Łuczaj - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):47-54.
    The paper revisits metaphysical and deontological stances on moral considerability and offers a new criterion for it – “affectability”, that is a capacity of an agent to affect a considered entity. Such an approach results in significant changes in the scope of moral considerability and is relevant for discussing the human position in the Anthropocene. This concept, given especially the assumption of the directness of moral considerability, is also substantial for the decision making process on the ethical, as well as (...)
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  14. Dispute Over Logistic Between Jan Łukasiewicz and Augustyn Jakubisiak. Why Was It Important?Bartłomiej K. Krzych - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):16-24.
    Augustyn Jakubisiak, Polish priest, philosopher and theologian, undertook polemics with Jan Łukasiewicz, whom he knew personally. A dispute concerning the so-called logistics and its relationship with philosophy developed between the two. The most important arguments were laid out, primarily in the following works: in the case of Jakubisiak, in the book From Scope to Content and in the case of Łukasiewicz, in the texts Logistics and Philosophy and In the Defense of Logistics. Jakubisiak criticized logistics for its anti-metaphysical, anti-theological and (...)
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  15. About Possible Benefits From Irrational Thinking in Everyday Life.Magdalena Michalik-Jeżowska - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):32-46.
    In this work, no denying the role, or even more so, the value of rational thinking, it is assumed that it is not the only effective tool for man to achieve his valuable goals. It is conjectured here that sometimes irrational thinking is an equally good means of achieving them. In the light of these assumptions, the goal of my work is to indicate the benefits that may be the result of irrational thinking in the colloquial domain of everyday human (...)
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  16. Practical Rationality – its Nature and Operation.Andrzej Niemczuk - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):55-68.
    The article presents a proposal of explanation what practical rationality is, how it works and what are its criteria. In order to define practical rationality, the author starts from the general characteristics of reason, and then in the realm or reason activity distinguishes practical rationality from theoretical rationality. The necessary conditions of practical rationality are presented, as well as its standing between freedom and values. Next, the sources and nature of practical reasons are characterized, as well as their relation to (...)
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  17. The Analogy in Decision-Making and the Implicit Association Bias Effect.Nataliia Reva - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):25-31.
    The author stands that thinking by analogy is a natural instrument human have because of the mirror neurons in our brain. However, is it that infallible to rely on? How can we be sure that our hidden biases will not harm our reflections? Implicit Association Bias, for instance, is a powerful intruder that affects our understanding, actions, and decisions on the unconscious level by cherishing the stereotypes based on specific characteristics such as ethnicity, sex, race, and so on. To check (...)
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  18.  2
    Logical Determinacy Versus Logical Contingency. The Case of Łukasiewicz’s Three-Valued Logic.Andrew Schumann - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):8-15.
    In constructing the three-valued logic, Jan Łukasiewicz was highly inspirited by the Aristotelian idea of logical contingency. Nevertheless, we can construct a four-valued logic for explicating the Stoic idea of logical determinacy. In this system, we have the following truth values: 0, 1, 2, 3, where the designated truth value is represented by the two values: 2 and 3.
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  19. Preface: Philosophical Basis for Making Decisions.Andrew Schumann & Jan Woleński - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):1-2.
    It is a Preface to Volume 8:2 consisting of articles presented at the International Interdisciplinary Conference anniversary of the birth of Jan Łukasiewicz, Rzeszów, Poland.
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  20. Logical Ideas of Jan Łukasiewicz.Jan Woleński - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):3-7.
    This paper discusses the main logical ideas put forward by Jan Łukasiewicz within their historical context and further development.
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  21.  6
    AI Case Studies: Potential for Human Health, Space Exploration and Colonisation and a Proposed Superimposition of the Kubler-Ross Change Curve on the Hype Cycle.Martin Braddock & Matthew Williams - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):3-18.
    The development and deployment of artificial intelligence is and will profoundly reshape human society, the culture and the composition of civilisations which make up human kind. All technological triggers tend to drive a hype curve which over time is realised by an output which is often unexpected, taking both pessimistic and optimistic perspectives and actions of drivers, contributors and enablers on a journey where the ultimate destination may be unclear. In this paper we hypothesise that this journey is not dissimilar (...)
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  22.  4
    De Bello Robotico. An Ethical Assessment of Military Robotics.Riccardo Campa - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):19-48.
    This article provides a detailed description of robotic weapons and unmanned systems currently used by the U.S. Military and its allies, and an ethical assessment of their actual or potential use on the battlefield. Firstly, trough a review of scientific literature, reports, and newspaper articles, a catalogue of ethical problems related to military robotics is compiled. Secondly, possible solutions for these problems are offered, by relying also on analytic tools provided by the new field of roboethics. Finally, the article explores (...)
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  23.  5
    Theodore the Studite’s Christology Against Its Logical Background.Basil Lourié - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):99-113.
    Theodore the Studite resolved the logical problem posed by the second Iconoclasm in an explicitly paraconsistent way, when he applied to Jesus the definition of the human hypostasis while stating that there is no human hypostasis in Jesus. Methodologically he was following, albeit without knowing, Eulogius of Alexandria. He, in turn, was apparently followed by Photius, but in a confused manner.
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  24.  7
    Thought Experiments and Novels.Tony Milligan - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):84-92.
    Novels and thought experiments can be pathways to different kinds of knowledge. We may, however, be hard pressed to say exactly what can be learned from novels but not from thought experiments. Headway on this matter can be made by spelling out their respective conditions for epistemic failure. Thought experiments fail in their epistemic role when they neither yield propositional knowledge nor contribute to an argument. They are largely in the business of ‘knowing that’. Novels, on the other hand can (...)
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  25.  8
    Biology and Gettier’s Paradox.Gonzalo Munévar - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):93-98.
    Gettier’s Paradox is considered a most critical problem for the presumably obvious philosophical view that knowledge is justified true belief. Such a view of knowledge, however, exposes the poverty of analytic philosophy. It wrongly assumes, for example, that knowledge must be conscious and explicit, and, to make matters worse, linguistic, as illustrated in Donald Davidson’s writings. To show why this philosophical view is wrong I will point to arguments by Ruth Barcan Marcus and, principally, Paul Churchland, as well as to (...)
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  26.  2
    Dealing with Free Will in Contemporary Theology: Is It Still a Question?Lluis Oviedo - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):67-74.
    Free will is a very hot issue in several theoretical settings, but less in theology, or at least not as much as use to be in former times, when the discussions on sinfulness, grace and freedom were igniting a long season of controversies, especially in the Reformation time. Even in ecumenical dialogue apparently free will does not play a great role, since the reached consensus seems quite peaceful and agreement dominates over discussion. However, some theological insights, especially Karl Rahner reflections, (...)
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  27.  7
    How an Advanced Neurocognitive Human Trait for Religious Capacity Fails to Form.Margaret Boone Rappaport & Christopher Corbally - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):49-66.
    The authors present an evolutionary model for the biological emergence of religious capacity as an advanced neurocognitive trait. Using their model for the stages leading to the evolutionary emergence of religious capacity in Homo sapiens, they analyze the mechanisms that can fail, leading to unbelief. The analysis identifies some, but not all types of atheists and agnostics, so they turn their question around and, using the same evolutionary model, ask what keeps religion going. Why does its development not fail in (...)
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  28.  60
    Are Design Beliefs Safe?Hans Van Eyghen - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (1):75-83.
    Recently, Del Ratzsch proposed a new version of the design argument. He argues that belief in a designer is often formed non-inferentially, much like perceptual beliefs, rather than formed by explicit reasoning. Ratzsch traces his argument back to Thomas Reid who argues that beliefs formed in this way are also justified. In this paper, I investigate whether design beliefs that are formed in this way can be regarded as knowledge. For this purpose, I look closer to recent scientific study of (...)
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