Year:

  1. Levels of Communication: The Talking Horse Experiments.Daniel Gethmann - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):473-490.
    ArgumentIn the early twentieth century, counting and speaking horses, like the famous Clever Hans or the “Horses of Elberfeld,” became widely debated subjects in experimental psychology. The idea was to determine whether their learning success was only a fraud, or if it might open up a new chapter in “animal psychology” - or even belong to the realm of parapsychology and telepathy. When their tricks were discovered, the teachers of the animals were marked as charlatans. Both the attempts to detect (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. A Democratic Program for Healing: The Raspail Domestic Medicine Method in 1840s France.Hervé Guillemain - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):385-403.
    ArgumentRaspail’s domestic medicine method, popularized in 1840s France, has similarities with the practices of nineteenth century non-academic healers. His mass marketing of camphor as a universal treatment echoes the practices of “charlatans” and their circles. But Raspail is also very original in this history of popular care. As a scientist, a popularizer of encyclopedic knowledge and a political activist, he managed to blur traditional distinctions between science and politics and between popular and learned medicine. Raspail was a constant thorn in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Useful Charlatans: Giovanni Succi and Stefano Merlatti’s Fasting Contest in Paris, 1886.Agustí Nieto-Galan - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):405-422.
    ArgumentThis paper analyzes the public fasts of two Italian “hunger artists,” Giovanni Succi and Stefano Merlatti, in Paris in 1886, and their ability to forego eating for a long period. Some contemporary witnesses described them as clever frauds, but others considered them to be interesting physiological anomalies. Controversies about their fasts entered academic circles, but they also spread throughout the urban public at different levels. First, Succi and Merlatti steered medical debates among physicians on the “scientific” explanations of the limits (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Becoming Eusapia: The Rise of the “Diva of Scientists”.Francesco Paolo de Ceglia & Lorenzo Leporiere - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):441-471.
    ArgumentEusapia Palladino is remembered as one of the most famous mediums in the history of spiritualism. Renowned scientists attended her séances in Europe and in the United States. They often had to admit to being unable to understand the origin of the phenomena produced. Cesare Lombroso, for example, after meeting Eusapia, was converted first to mediumism, then spiritualism. This article will retrace the early stages of her career as a medium and shed light on the way she managed to gain (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. “Please, Come In.” Being a Charlatan, or the Question of Trustworthy Knowledge.Irina Podgorny & Daniel Gethmann - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):355-361.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Between Learned and Popular Culture: A World of Syncretism and Acculturation.Nathalie Richard - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):491-495.
    The world of charlatans is a world of constantly shifting borders and redefinitions, a world of crossed lines and pushed boundaries. Can one even speak of “the world” of charlatans in the singular, when the examples we are given to read in this volume reveal such great diversity that they seem to defeat any attempt to define common traits, as Roy Porter tried to do in his time? Certainly, commercial interests and the lure of a quick and easy profit seem (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. The “Controversial Cundurango Cure”: Medical Professionalization and the Global Circulation of Drugs.Elisa Sevilla & Ana Sevilla - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):423-440.
    ArgumentThis article examines the medical and political discussions regarding a controversial medicinal bark from Ecuador – cundurango – that was actively sponsored by the Ecuadorian government as a new botanical cure for cancer in the late nineteenth century United States and elsewhere. The article focuses on the commercial and diplomatic interests behind the public discussion and advertising techniques of this drug. It argues that diverse elements – including the struggle for positioning scientific societies and the disapproval of the capacities of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  1
    Charlatan Epistemology: As Illustrated by a Study of Wonder-Working in the Late Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic.Koen Vermeir - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (4):363-384.
    ArgumentThis article highlights the epistemic concerns that have permeated the historical discourse around charlatanism. In it, I study the term “charlatan” as a multivalent actor’s category without a stable referent. Instead of defining or identifying “the charlatan,” I analyze how the concept of the charlatan was used to make epistemic interventions about what constituted credible knowledge in two interconnected controversies. Focusing on these controversies allows me to thematize how the concept of “the charlatan” expanded beyond medical contexts and to bring (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  23
    The Effects of Publishing Processes on Scientific Thought. Typography and Typology in Prehistoric Archaeology (1950s–1990s).Sébastien Plutniak - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (3):273-297.
    In the last decades, many changes have occurred in scientific publishing, including online publication, data repositories, file formats and standards. The role played by computers in this process rekindled the argument on forms of technical determinism. This paper addresses this old debate by exploring the case of publishing processes in prehistoric archaeology during the second part of the twentieth century, prior to the wide-scale adoption of computers. It investigates the case of a collective and international attempt to standardize the typological (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  1
    Power, Politics, and the Development of Political Science in the Americas.Thibaud Boncourt & Paulo Ravecca - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (2):95-100.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  4
    Why They Shared: Recovering Early Arguments for Sharing Social Scientific Data.Emily Hauptmann - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (2):101-119.
    ArgumentMost social scientists today think of data sharing as an ethical imperative essential to making social science more transparent, verifiable, and replicable. But what moved the architects of some of the U.S.’s first university-based social scientific research institutions, the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research, and its spin-off, the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, to share their data? Relying primarily on archived records, unpublished personal papers, and oral histories, I show that Angus Campbell, Warren Miller, Philip Converse, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12.  1
    Dictatorship, Transition, and the Forging of Political Science in Uruguay.Paulo Ravecca - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (2):171-193.
    ArgumentThe study examines the trajectory of Uruguayan Political Science from a critical theory perspective. Concretely, the article focuses on PS’ institutional birth and early period and shows how broader political and ideological transformations had a significant impact on its discourse on Uruguayan democracy. Three components of such discourse are unpacked: The embrace of liberalism, the rejection of Marxism, and the uncritical engagement with the local political system, particularly the ‘traditional parties.’ The argument is supported by a systematic analysis of the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  5
    Brazilian Political Scientists and the Cold War: Soviet Hearts, North-American Minds.Lidiane Soares Rodrigues - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (2):145-169.
    ArgumentThe process of institutionalization of Political Science in Brazil was conditioned by the country’s position in the geopolitical scenario proper to the Cold War, strongly affected by the influence of the USA and, later on, by the military dictatorship experienced between 1964 and 1985. The first Brazilian professionalized political scientists were, during their youth, anti-Stalinist revolutionary militants. They had been financed by the Ford Foundation to pursue their PhDs in the USA. In this paper, I argue that the north-American model (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  2
    Historicizing the Comparative Survey of Freedom: Tracing the Social Trajectory of an Influential Indicator.Emily Zerndt - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (2):121-144.
    ArgumentThe Comparative Survey of Freedom, first published by Freedom House in 1973, is now the most widely used indicator of democracy by both academics and the U.S. government alike. However, literature examining the Survey’s origins is virtually nonexistent. In this article, I use archival records to challenge Freedom House’s retrospective account of the indicator’s creation. Rather than the outcome of a scientific methodology by multiple social scientists, the Survey was produced by a single political scientist, Raymond Gastil, according to his (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  7
    Physiology and Philhellenism in the Late Nineteenth Century: The Self-Fashioning of Emil du Bois-Reymond.Lea Beiermann & Elisabeth Wesseling - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (1):19-35.
    ArgumentNineteenth-century Prussia was deeply entrenched in philhellenism, which affected the ideological framework of its public institutions. At Berlin’s Friedrich Wilhelm University, philhellenism provided the rationale for a persistent elevation of the humanities over the burgeoning experimental life sciences. Despite this outspoken hierarchy, professor of physiology Emil du Bois-Reymond eventually managed to increase the prestige of his discipline considerably. We argue that du Bois-Reymond’s use of philhellenic repertoires in his expositions on physiology for the educated German public contributed to the rise (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  3
    Practices of Reasoning: Persuasion and Refutation in a Seventeenth-Century Chinese Mathematical Treatise of “Linear Algebra”.Jiang-Ping Jeff Chen - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (1):65-93.
    ArgumentThis article documents the reasoning in a mathematical work by Mei Wending, one of the most prolific mathematicians in seventeenth-century China. Based on an analysis of the mathematical content, we present Mei’s systematic treatment of this particular genre of problems, fangcheng, and his efforts to refute the traditional practices in works that appeared earlier. His arguments were supported by the epistemological values he utilized to establish his system and refute the flaws in the traditional approaches. Moreover, in the context of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  5
    Reconsidering the Ignorabimus: Du Bois-Reymond and the Hard Problem of Consciousness.Paolo Pecere - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (1):1-18.
    ArgumentIn this paper I present an interpretation of du Bois-Reymond’s thesis on the impossibility of a scientific explanation of consciousness and of its present importance. I reconsider du Bois-Reymond’s speech “On the limits of natural science” in the context of nineteenth-century German philosophy and neurophysiology, pointing out connections and analogies with contemporary arguments on the “hard problem of consciousness.” Du Bois-Reymond’s position turns out to be grounded on an epistemological argument and characterized by a metaphysical skepticism, motivated by the unfruitful (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  3
    The Procedure of the Section of Pieces of Areas in Li Ye and Yang Hui’s Works: Genealogy of Diagrams and Equations.Charlotte-V. Pollet - 2020 - Science in Context 33 (1):37-63.
    ArgumentThe study of algebra in China has often focused on the algebraic “procedure of the Celestial Source.” Its geometrical ancestors are less known. The Yigu yanduan, authored by Li Ye, presents the procedure alongside its two geometrical counterparts, the “Section of Pieces [of Areas]” and the “Old Procedure.” The three procedures are known to represent three generations of algorithms used to set up quadratic equations. A similar geometrical procedure appears in a treatise written by Yang Hui. Although the procedures look (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues