Neuroethics

ISSN: 1874-5490

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  1.  3
    Human Brain Organoid Transplantation: Testing the Foundations of Animal Research Ethics.Alexandre Erler - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (2):1-14.
    Alongside in vitro studies, researchers are increasingly exploring the transplantation of human brain organoids (HBOs) into non-human animals to study brain development, disease, and repair. This paper focuses on ethical issues raised by such transplantation studies. In particular, it investigates the possibility that they might yield enhanced brain function in recipient animals (especially non-human primates), thereby fundamentally altering their moral status. I assess the critique, raised by major voices in the bioethics and science communities, according to which such concerns are (...)
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  2.  36
    The Case Against Organoid Consciousness.Tim Bayne & James Croxford - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-15.
    Neural organoids are laboratory-generated entities that replicate certain structural and functional features of the human brain. Most neural organoids are disembodied—completely decoupled from sensory input and motor output. As such, questions about their potential capacity for consciousness are exceptionally difficult to answer. While not disputing the need for caution regarding certain neural organoid types, this paper appeals to two broad constraints on any adequate theory of consciousness—the first involving the dependence of consciousness on embodiment; the second involving the dependence of (...)
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  3.  10
    Global Versus Local Theories of Consciousness and the Consciousness Assessment Issue in Brain Organoids.Maxence Gaillard - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-14.
    Any attempt at consciousness assessment in organoids requires careful consideration of the theory of consciousness that researchers will rely on when performing this task. In cognitive neuroscience and the clinic, there are tools and theories used to detect and measure consciousness, typically in human beings, but none of them is neither fully consensual nor fit for the biological characteristics of organoids. I discuss the existing attempt relying on the Integrated Information Theory and its models and tools. Then, I revive the (...)
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  4.  9
    Ethical Implications of the Impact of Fracking on Brain Health.Ava Grier & Judy Illes - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-10.
    Environmental ethicists and experts in human health have raised concerns about the effects of hydraulic fracking to access natural oil and gas resources found deep in shale rock formations on surrounding ecosystems and communities. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence of discourse on brain and mental health, and ethics, in the peer-reviewed and grey literature in the five-year period between 2016 and 2022. A total of 84 articles met inclusion criteria for analysis. Seventy-six percent (76%) mentioned impacts on brain (...)
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  5.  43
    How to Advance the Debate on the Criminal Responsibility of Antisocial Offenders.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti A. Brazil - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-17.
    Should offenders with psychopathy or those exhibiting extreme forms of antisocial behav- iour be considered criminally responsible? The current debate seems to have reached a stalemate. Several scholars have argued that neuropsychologi- cal data on individuals with psychopathy might be relevant for determining their criminal responsibil- ity. However, relying on such data has not produced a consensus among legal scholars and philosophers on whether individuals with psychopathy should be excused from responsibility. We offer a diagnosis about why this debate has (...)
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  6.  10
    Psychedelic Therapy as Form of Life.Nicolas Langlitz & Alex K. Gearin - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-19.
    In the historical context of a crisis in biological psychiatry, psychedelic drugs paired with psychotherapy are globally re-emerging in research clinics as a potential transdiagnostic therapy for treating mood disorders, addictions, and other forms of psychological distress. The treatments are poised to soon shift from clinical trials to widespread service delivery in places like Australia, North America, and Europe, which has prompted ethical questions by social scientists and bioethicists. Taking a broader view, we argue that the ethics of psychedelic therapy (...)
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  7.  4
    “You shall have the thought”: habeas cogitationem as a New Legal Remedy to Enforce Freedom of Thinking and Neurorights.José Ángel Marinaro & José M. Muñoz - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-22.
    Despite its obvious advantages, the disruptive development of neurotechnology can pose risks to fundamental freedoms. In the context of such concerns, proposals have emerged in recent years either to design human rights de novo or to update the existing ones. These new rights in the age of neurotechnology are now widely referred to as “neurorights.” In parallel, there is a considerable amount of ongoing academic work related to updating the right to freedom of thought in order to include the protection (...)
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  8.  7
    Stream of Consciousness: Some Propositions and Reflections.Nicholas Royle - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-8.
    This short communication explores the idea of “stream of consciousness” and considers some of the ways in which scientific writing relies – even or perhaps especially insofar as it does not signal this fact – on the resources of literary language and literary thinking. Particular attention is given to notions of literal and figurative or metaphorical language, including “hydrological” and “ontic” metaphor. A crucial figure is simile (the “like”), discussed here in relation to the Thomas Nagel’s “What is it Like (...)
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  9.  8
    Health Aspirations for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).Sophie Sargent & Judy Illes - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-23.
    Advances in neuroscience have enabled the transition of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from research and clinical settings to public use. For this primarily home-based context, tDCS has been popularized as a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to improved cognition and wellness. The line between wellness and health is blurry, however, and little is known about how engagement with therapeutic tDCS impacts users’ interactions with other interventions such as clinical consultations, pharmacotherapy, complementary medicine, and even other neurotechnology. To close this gap, we (...)
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  10.  13
    Revisiting Maher’s One-Factor Theory of Delusion, Again.Ema Sullivan-Bissett & Paul Noordhof - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-8.
    Chenwei Nie ([22]) argues against a Maherian one-factor approach to explaining delusion. We argue that his objections fail. They are largely based on a mistaken understanding of the approach (as committed to the claim that anomalous experience is sufficient for delusion). Where they are not so based, they instead rest on misinterpretation of recent defences of the position, and an underestimation of the resources available to the one-factor theory.
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  11.  33
    The Psychological Process Underlying Attitudes Toward Human-Animal Chimeric Brain Research: An Empirical Investigation.Tetsushi Tanibe, Takumi Watanabe, Mineki Oguchi, Kazuki Iijima & Koji Ota - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-19.
    This study adopted an empirical method to investigate lay people’s attitudes toward the bioethical issues of human-animal chimeric brains. The results of online surveys showed that (1) people did not entirely reject chimeric brain research, but showed slightly more negative responses than ordinary animal testing; and that (2) their ethical concerns arose in connection with the perception that chimerism in the brain would humanize the animal. This means that people’s psychology was consistent with the ethical argument that crossing the human-animal (...)
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  12.  11
    Safeguarding Users of Consumer Mental Health Apps in Research and Product Improvement Studies: an Interview Study.Kamiel Verbeke, Charu Jain, Ambra Shpendi & Pascal Borry - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-20.
    Mental health-related data generated by app users during the routine use of Consumer Mental Health Apps (CMHAs) are being increasingly leveraged for research and product improvement studies. However, it remains unclear which ethical safeguards and practices should be implemented by researchers and app developers to protect users during these studies, and concerns have been raised over their current implementation in CMHAs. To better understand which ethical safeguards and practices are implemented, why and how, 17 app developers and researchers were interviewed (...)
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  13.  6
    Giving Consent to the Ineffable.Daniel Villiger - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-16.
    A psychedelic renaissance is currently taking place in mental healthcare. The number of psychedelic-assisted therapy trials is growing steadily, and some countries already grant psychiatrists special permission to use psychedelics in non-research contexts under certain conditions. These clinical advances must be accompanied by ethical inquiry. One pressing ethical question involves whether patients can even give informed consent to psychedelic-assisted therapy: the treatment’s transformative nature seems to block its assessment, suggesting that patients are unable to understand what undergoing psychedelic-assisted therapy actually (...)
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  14.  9
    Rewriting the Script: the Need for Effective Education to Address Racial Disparities in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Uptake in BIPOC Communities.Saydra Wilson, Anita Randolph, Laura Y. Cabrera, Alik S. Widge, Ziad Nahas, Logan Caola, Jonathan Lehman, Alex Henry & Christi R. P. Sullivan - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-12.
    Depression is a widespread concern in the United States. Neuromodulation treatments are becoming more common but there is emerging concern for racial disparities in neuromodulation treatment utilization. This study focuses on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a treatment for depression, and the structural and attitudinal barriers that racialized individuals face in accessing it. In January 2023 participants from the Twin Cities, Minnesota engaged in focus groups, coupled with an educational video intervention. Individuals self identified as non-white who had no previous TMS (...)
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  15.  14
    Patentability of Brain Organoids derived from iPSC– A Legal Evaluation with Interdisciplinary Aspects.Hannes Wolff - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-15.
    Brain Organoids in their current state of development are patentable. Future brain organoids may face some challenges in this regard, which I address in this contribution. Brain organoids unproblematically fulfil the general prerequisites of patentability set forth in Art. 3 (1) EU-Directive 98/44/ec (invention, novelty, inventive step and susceptibility of industrial application). Patentability is excluded if an invention makes use of human embryos or constitutes a stage of the human body in the individual phases of its formation and development. Both (...)
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