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  1. Rights for Robots: Artificial Intelligence, Animal and Environmental Law (2020) by Joshua Gellers. [REVIEW]Kamil Mamak - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3):1-4.
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  2. Enhancing Engineering Ethics: Role Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility.Carl Mitcham, Jessica M. Smith, Qin Zhu & Nicole M. Smith - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3):1-21.
    Engineering ethics calls the attention of engineers to professional codes of ethical responsibility and personal values, but the practice of ethics in corporate settings can be more complex than either of these. Corporations too have cultures that often include corporate social responsibility practices and policies, but few discussions of engineering ethics make any explicit reference to CSR. This article proposes critical attention to CSR and role ethics as an opportunity to help prepare engineers to think through the ethics of their (...)
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  3. The Ethical Challenges of Innovation: Jack Stilgoe: Who’s Driving Innovation? New Technologies and the Collaborative State, Cham, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-030-32319-6. [REVIEW]Udo Pesch - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3).
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  4. Anticipatory Governance in Biobanking: Security and Risk Management in Digital Health.Dagmar Rychnovská - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3):1-18.
    Although big-data research has met with multiple controversies in diverse fields, political and security implications of big data in life sciences have received less attention. This paper explores how threats and risks are anticipated and acted on in biobanking, which builds research repositories for biomedical samples and data. Focusing on the biggest harmonisation cluster of biomedical research in Europe, BBMRI-ERIC, the paper analyses different logics of risk in the anticipatory discourse on biobanking. Based on document analysis, interviews with ELSI experts, (...)
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  5.  2
    Responsible Learning About Risks Arising From Emerging Biotechnologies.Lotte Asveld & Britte Bouchaut - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-20.
    Genetic engineering techniques have led to an increase in biotechnological developments, possibly leading to uncertain risks. The European Union aims to anticipate these by embedding the Precautionary Principle in its regulation for risk management. This principle revolves around taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty and provides guidelines to take precautionary measures when dealing with important values such as health or environmental safety. However, when dealing with ‘new’ technologies, it can be hard for risk managers to estimate the societal (...)
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  6.  1
    Cognitive Enhancement: Unanswered Questions About Human Psychology and Social Behavior.Wren Boehlen, Sebastian Sattler & Eric Racine - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-25.
    Stimulant drugs, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, and even genetic modifications are all discussed as forms of potential cognitive enhancement. Cognitive enhancement can be conceived as a benefit-seeking strategy used by healthy individuals to enhance cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, or vigilance. This phenomenon is hotly debated in the public, professional, and scientific literature. Many of the statements favoring cognitive enhancement or opposing it rely on claims about human welfare and human flourishing. But with real-world evidence from the (...)
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  7.  4
    How to Handle Co-Authorship When Not Everyone’s Research Contributions Make It Into the Paper.William Bülow, Zubin Master & Gert Helgesson - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-11.
    While much of the scholarly work on ethics relating to academic authorship examines the fair distribution of authorship credit, none has yet examined situations where a researcher contributes significantly to the project, but whose contributions do not make it into the final manuscript. Such a scenario is commonplace in collaborative research settings in many disciplines and may occur for a number of reasons, such as excluding research in order to provide the paper with a clearer focus, tell a particular story, (...)
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  8.  1
    Digital Technologies for Schizophrenia Management: A Descriptive Review.Olga Chivilgina, Bernice S. Elger & Fabrice Jotterand - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-22.
    While the implementation of digital technology in psychiatry appears promising, there is an urgent need to address the implications of the absence of ethical design in the early development of such technologies. Some authors have noted the gap between technology development and ethical analysis and have called for an upstream examination of the ethical issues raised by digital technologies. In this paper, we address this suggestion, particularly in relation to digital healthcare technologies for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The introduction (...)
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  9.  1
    Grant Review Feedback: Appropriateness and Usefulness.Stephen A. Gallo, Karen B. Schmaling, Lisa A. Thompson & Scott R. Glisson - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-20.
    The primary goal of the peer review of research grant proposals is to evaluate their quality for the funding agency. An important secondary goal is to provide constructive feedback to applicants for their resubmissions. However, little is known about whether review feedback achieves this goal. In this paper, we present a multi-methods analysis of responses from grant applicants regarding their perceptions of the effectiveness and appropriateness of peer review feedback they received from grant submissions. Overall, 56–60% of applicants determined the (...)
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  10. Taiwanese and American Graduate Students’ Misconceptions Regarding Responsible Conduct of Research: A Cross-National Comparison Using a Two-Tier Test Approach.Sophia Jui-An Pan - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-23.
    Individual researchers may interpret responsible conduct of research in various ways, especially given the diversity of research personnel in modern science. Therefore, understanding individuals’ RCR-related misconceptions is important, as it can help RCR instructors customize their lessons to target learners’ incorrect and incomplete ideas. In this vein, this study aimed to explore whether Taiwanese and American graduate students differ in their perceptions and misconceptions regarding RCR-related concepts and, if so, to determine these differences. A diagnostic assessment, the Revised RCR Reasoning (...)
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  11.  1
    Book Review: Deborah G. Johnson (2020), Engineering Ethics: Contemporary and Eduring Debates, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2020, 189 + Index, ISBN: 978-0-300-20924-2. [REVIEW]Lambèr Royakkers - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-4.
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  12. Solving a Wicked Problem in Deep Time: Nuclear Waste Disposal: Vincent Ialenti: Deep Time Reckoning: How Future Thinking Can Help Earth Now, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2020, 186 Pp+Index, ISBN: 978-0-262-53926-5. [REVIEW]Barry D. Solomon - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-3.
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  13.  2
    Research and Practice of AI Ethics: A Case Study Approach Juxtaposing Academic Discourse with Organisational Reality.Bernd Stahl, Kevin Macnish, Tilimbe Jiya, Laurence Brooks, Josephina Antoniou & Mark Ryan - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-29.
    This study investigates the ethical use of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence technologies —using an empirical approach. The paper categorises the current literature and presents a multi-case study of 'on-the-ground' ethical issues that uses qualitative tools to analyse findings from ten targeted case-studies from a range of domains. The analysis coalesces identified singular ethical issues,, into clusters to offer a comparison with the proposed classification in the literature. The results show that despite the variety of different social domains, fields, and (...)
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  14.  3
    Socially Assistive Robots in Aged Care: Ethical Orientations Beyond the Care-Romantic and Technology-Deterministic Gaze.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé & Chris Gastmans - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-20.
    Socially Assistive Robots are increasingly conceived as applicable tools to be used in aged care. However, the use carries many negative and positive connotations. Negative connotations come forth out of romanticized views of care practices, disregarding their already established technological nature. Positive connotations are formulated out of techno-deterministic views on SAR use, presenting it as an inevitable and necessary next step in technological development to guarantee aged care. Ethical guidance of SAR use inspired by negative connotations tends to be over-restrictive (...)
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  15.  2
    Interventions for Organizational Climate and Culture in Academia: A Scoping Review.Marin Viđak, Lana Barać, Ružica Tokalić, Ivan Buljan & Ana Marušić - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-23.
    Organizational climate and culture may influence different work-related outcomes, including responsible conduct of research and research misconduct in academic or research organizations. In this scoping review we collected evidence on outcomes of interventions to change organizational climate or culture in academic or research settings. Out of 32,093 documents retrieved by the search, we analysed 207 documents in full text, out of which 7 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. The included studies measured organizational climate, organizational (...)
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  16.  21
    Privacy Versus Public Health? A Reassessment of Centralised and Decentralised Digital Contact Tracing.Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-13.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were placed on digital contact tracing. Digital contact tracing apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as further waves of COVID-19 tear through much of the northern hemisphere, these apps are playing a less important role in interrupting chains of infection than anticipated. We argue that one of the reasons for this is that most countries have opted for decentralised apps, which cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users (...)
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  17.  1
    Applying a Social Constructivist Approach to an Online Course on Ethics of Research.Miri Barak & Gizell Green - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-24.
    The growing trend of shifting from classroom to distance learning in ethics education programs raises the need to examine ways for adapting best instructional practices to online modes. To address this need, the current study was set to apply a social constructivist approach to an online course in research ethics and to examine its effect on the learning outcomes of science and engineering graduate students. The study applied a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design within a framework of a mixed-methods approach. (...)
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  18. Does Proof of Concept Trump All? RRI Dilemmas in Research Practices.Anita Borch & Harald Throne-Holst - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-21.
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  19.  4
    Educating PhD Students in Research Integrity in Europe.Kris Dierickx, Benoit Nemery, Daniel Pizzolato & Shila Abdi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-19.
    No university or research institution is immune to research misconduct or the more widespread problem of questionable research practices. To strengthen integrity in research, universities worldwide have developed education in research integrity. However, little is known about education in research integrity for PhD students in European research-intensive universities. We conducted a content analysis of didactic materials of 11 of the 23 members of the League of European Research Universities to map out the content, format, frequency, duration, timing, and compulsory status (...)
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  20.  2
    Leadership, Engineering and Ethical Clashes at Boeing.Elaine Englehardt, Patricia H. Werhane & Lisa H. Newton - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-17.
    When there are disasters in our society, whether on an individual, organizational or systemic level, individuals or groups of individuals are often singled out for blame, and commonly it is assumed that the alleged culprits engaged in deliberate misdeeds. But sometimes, at least, these disasters occur not because of deliberate malfeasance, but rather because of complex organizational and systemic circumstances that result in these negative outcomes. Using the Boeing Corporation and its 737 MAX aircraft crashes as an example, this ethical (...)
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  21.  4
    Research Misconduct in the Fields of Ethics and Philosophy: Researchers’ Perceptions in Spain.Ramón A. Feenstra, Emilio Delgado López-Cózar & Daniel Pallarés-Domínguez - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-21.
    Empirical studies have revealed a disturbing prevalence of research misconduct in a wide variety of disciplines, although not, to date, in the areas of ethics and philosophy. This study aims to provide empirical evidence on perceptions of how serious a problem research misconduct is in these two disciplines in Spain, particularly regarding the effects that the model used to evaluate academics’ research performance may have on their ethical behaviour. The methodological triangulation applied in the study combines a questionnaire, a debate (...)
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  22.  3
    Three Risks That Caution Against a Premature Implementation of Artificial Moral Agents for Practical and Economical Use.Christian Herzog - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-15.
    In the present article, I will advocate caution against developing artificial moral agents based on the notion that the utilization of preliminary forms of AMAs will potentially negatively feed back on the human social system and on human moral thought itself and its value—e.g., by reinforcing social inequalities, diminishing the breadth of employed ethical arguments and the value of character. While scientific investigations into AMAs pose no direct significant threat, I will argue against their premature utilization for practical and economical (...)
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  23.  2
    Contextualizing Security Innovation: Responsible Research and Innovation at the Smart Border?Frederik C. Huettenrauch & Nina Klimburg-Witjes - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-19.
    Current European innovation and security policies are increasingly channeled into efforts to address the assumed challenges that threaten European societies. A field in which this has become particularly salient is digitized EU border management. Here, the framework of responsible research and innovation has recently been used to point to the alleged sensitivity of political actors towards the contingent dimensions of emerging security technologies. RRI, in general, is concerned with societal needs and the engagement and inclusion of various stakeholder groups in (...)
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  24.  3
    The Value of ‘Traditionality’: The Epistemological and Ethical Significance of Non-Western Alternatives in Science.Mahdi Kafaee & Mostafa Taqavi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-20.
    After a brief review of the relationship between science and value, this paper introduces the value of ‘traditionality’ as a value in the pure and applied sciences. Along with other recognized values, this value can also contribute to formulating hypotheses and determining theories. There are three reasons for legitimizing the internal role of this value in science: first, this value can contribute to scientific progress by presenting more diverse hypotheses; second, the value of external consistency in science entails this value; (...)
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  25. Domain Experts on Dementia-Care Technologies: Mitigating Risk in Design and Implementation.Jeffrey Kaye, George Demiris & Clara Berridge - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-24.
    There is an urgent need to learn how to appropriately integrate technologies into dementia care. The aims of this Delphi study were to project which technologies will be most prevalent in dementia care in five years, articulate potential benefits and risks, and identify specific options to mitigate risks. Participants were also asked to identify technologies that are most likely to cause value tensions and thus most warrant a conversation with an older person with mild dementia when families are deciding about (...)
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  26.  1
    Ethical Issues in Consent for the Reuse of Data in Health Data Platforms.Alex McKeown, Miranda Mourby, Paul Harrison, Sophie Walker, Mark Sheehan & Ilina Singh - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-21.
    Data platforms represent a new paradigm for carrying out health research. In the platform model, datasets are pooled for remote access and analysis, so novel insights for developing better stratified and/or personalised medicine approaches can be derived from their integration. If the integration of diverse datasets enables development of more accurate risk indicators, prognostic factors, or better treatments and interventions, this obviates the need for the sharing and reuse of data; and a platform-based approach is an appropriate model for facilitating (...)
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  27.  8
    A Framework for Ethical Research and Innovation.Andreas Pyka, Alan E. Singer & Harold Paredes-Frigolett - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-40.
    In this contribution, we set out a framework for ethical research and innovation. Our framework draws upon recent scholarly work recommending the introduction of new models at the intersection of ethics, strategy, and science and technology studies to inform and explicate how the decisions of researchers can be considered ethical. Ethical research and innovation is construed in our framework as a dynamic process emerging from decisions of multiple stakeholders in innovation ecosystems prior to, during and after the execution of a (...)
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  28.  2
    Practices for Research Integrity Promotion in Research Performing Organisations and Research Funding Organisations: A Scoping Review.Rea Ščepanović, Krishma Labib, Ivan Buljan, Joeri Tijdink & Ana Marušić - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-20.
    Research integrity is a continuously developing concept, and increasing emphasis is put on creating RI promotion practices. This study aimed to map the existing RI guidance documents at research performing organisations and research funding organisations. A search of bibliographic databases and grey literature sources was performed, and retrieved documents were screened for eligibility. The search of bibliographical databases and reference lists of selected articles identified a total of 92 documents while the search of grey literature sources identified 118 documents for (...)
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  29.  6
    Actionable Principles for Artificial Intelligence Policy: Three Pathways.Charlotte Stix - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-17.
    In the development of governmental policy for artificial intelligence that is informed by ethics, one avenue currently pursued is that of drawing on “AI Ethics Principles”. However, these AI Ethics Principles often fail to be actioned in governmental policy. This paper proposes a novel framework for the development of ‘Actionable Principles for AI’. The approach acknowledges the relevance of AI Ethics Principles and homes in on methodological elements to increase their practical implementability in policy processes. As a case study, elements (...)
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  30.  2
    Expanding Research Integrity: A Cultural-Practice Perspective.Govert Valkenburg, Guus Dix, Joeri Tijdink & Sarah de Rijcke - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-23.
    Research integrity is usually discussed in terms of responsibilities that individual researchers bear towards the scientific work they conduct, as well as responsibilities that institutions have to enable those individual researchers to do so. In addition to these two bearers of responsibility, a third category often surfaces, which is variably referred to as culture and practice. These notions merit further development beyond a residual category that is to contain everything that is not covered by attributions to individuals and institutions. This (...)
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  31.  2
    Weak Signal-Oriented Investigation of Ethical Dissonance Applied to Unsuccessful Mobility Experiences Linked to Human–Machine Interactions.F. Vanderhaegen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-25.
    Ethical dissonance arises from conflicts between beliefs or behaviors and affects ethical factors such as normality or conformity. This paper proposes a weak signal-oriented framework to investigate ethical dissonance from experiences linked to human–machine interactions. It is based on a systems engineering principle called human-systems inclusion, which considers any experience feedback of weak signals as beneficial to learn. The framework studies weak signal-based scenarios from testimonies of individual experiences and these scenarios are assessed by other people. For this purpose, the (...)
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