Year:

  1. Unethical Admissions: Academic Integrity in Question.Richard Hannis Ansah, Daniel O. Aikhuele & Liu Yao - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1237-1239.
    The increasing unethical practices of graduates’ admissions have heightened concerns about the integrity of the academy. This article informs this important subject that affects the students, admission systems, and the entire scientific community, thus, representing an approach against scholarly black market activities including falsified documents and unethical practices by consultants and students’ recruitment agencies.
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  2.  8
    Engineering Student’s Ethical Awareness and Behavior: A New Motivational Model.Diana Bairaktarova & Anna Woodcock - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1129-1157.
    Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods (...)
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  3.  1
    Plagiarism, Cheating and Research Integrity: Case Studies From a Masters Program in Peru.Andres M. Carnero, Percy Mayta-Tristan, Kelika A. Konda, Edward Mezones-Holguin, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, German F. Alvarado, Carlos Canelo-Aybar, Jorge L. Maguiña, Eddy R. Segura, Antonio M. Quispe, Edward S. Smith, Angela M. Bayer & Andres G. Lescano - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1183-1197.
    Plagiarism is a serious, yet widespread type of research misconduct, and is often neglected in developing countries. Despite its far-reaching implications, plagiarism is poorly acknowledged and discussed in the academic setting, and insufficient evidence exists in Latin America and developing countries to inform the development of preventive strategies. In this context, we present a longitudinal case study of seven instances of plagiarism and cheating arising in four consecutive classes of an Epidemiology Masters program in Lima, Peru, and describes the implementation (...)
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  4. Fortifying the Corrective Nature of Post-Publication Peer Review: Identifying Weaknesses, Use of Journal Clubs, and Rewarding Conscientious Behavior.Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib & Judit Dobránszki - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1213-1226.
    Most departments in any field of science that have a sound academic basis have discussion groups or journal clubs in which pertinent and relevant literature is frequently discussed, as a group. This paper shows how such discussions could help to fortify the post-publication peer review movement, and could thus fortify the value of traditional peer review, if their content and conclusions were made known to the wider academic community. Recently, there are some tools available for making PPPR viable, either as (...)
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  5. Do You Ignore Information Security in Your Journal Website?Mehdi Dadkhah, Glenn Borchardt & Mohammad Lagzian - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1227-1231.
    Nowadays, web-based applications extend to all businesses due to their advantages and easy usability. The most important issue in web-based applications is security. Due to their advantages, most academic journals are now using these applications, with papers being submitted and published through their websites. As these websites are resources for knowledge, information security is primary for maintaining their integrity. In this opinion piece, we point out vulnerabilities in certain websites and introduce the potential for future threats. We intend to present (...)
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  6. Institutional Responsibility and the Flawed Genomic Biomarkers at Duke University: A Missed Opportunity for Transparency and Accountability.David L. DeMets, Thomas R. Fleming, Gail Geller & David F. Ransohoff - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1199-1205.
    When there have been substantial failures by institutional leadership in their oversight responsibility to protect research integrity, the public should demand that these be recognized and addressed by the institution itself, or the funding bodies. This commentary discusses a case of research failures in developing genomic predictors for cancer risk assessment and treatment at a leading university. In its review of this case, the Office of Research Integrity, an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services, focused their (...)
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  7.  1
    The Peñalosa Principle of Transportation Democracy: Lessons From Bogotá on the Morality of Urban Mobility.Epting Shane - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1085-1096.
    The mayor of Bogotá, Enrique Peñalosa strives to deliver transit services that promote social equity through bicycle lanes, improved sidewalks, and a world-famous Bus Rapid Transit system, “TransMilenio.” Through examining the principles that guide his planning, we can flesh out a starting point for socially just transit systems. While such measures can alleviate several harms that transit systems cause, they rest on an incomplete foundation due to their top-down nature. To amend this situation, the author argues for a restorative justice (...)
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  8. A ‘Knowledge Ecologies’ Analysis of Co-Designing Water and Sanitation Services in Alaska.Dena Fam & Zoë Sofoulis - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1059-1083.
    Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge, an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to (...)
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  9. A Review of the Scientific Misconduct Inquiry Process, Ankara Chamber of Medicine, Turkey. [REVIEW]Banu Gökçay & Berna Arda - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1097-1112.
    The aim of this study is to review the inquiry process used in scientific misconduct cases in the Ankara Chamber of Medicine between the years 1998 and 2012. The violations of the “Disciplinary Regulations of the Turkish Medical Association” have been examined by keeping the names of the people, institutions, associations and journals secret. In total, 31 files have been studied and 11 of these files have been identified as related to scientific misconduct. The methods of inquiry, the decisions about (...)
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  10.  1
    Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences.Koppers Lars, Wormer Holger & Ickstadt Katja - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1113-1128.
    The quality and authenticity of images is essential for data presentation, especially in the life sciences. Questionable images may often be a first indicator for questionable results, too. Therefore, a tool that uses mathematical methods to detect suspicious images in large image archives can be a helpful instrument to improve quality assurance in publications. As a first step towards a systematic screening tool, especially for journal editors and other staff members who are responsible for quality assurance, such as laboratory supervisors, (...)
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  11. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan, Neha Baryah & Richa Mukhra - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1243-1246.
    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master’s level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.
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  12. Who Should Decide How Machines Make Morally Laden Decisions?Martin Dominic - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):951-967.
    Who should decide how a machine will decide what to do when it is driving a car, performing a medical procedure, or, more generally, when it is facing any kind of morally laden decision? More and more, machines are making complex decisions with a considerable level of autonomy. We should be much more preoccupied by this problem than we currently are. After a series of preliminary remarks, this paper will go over four possible answers to the question raised above. First, (...)
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  13.  1
    How Can Ethics Be Considered as a Criterion for Universities Ranking?Zohrehsadat Naji & Payman Salamati - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1241-1242.
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  14. New Issues for New Methods: Ethical and Editorial Challenges for an Experimental Philosophy.Andrea Polonioli - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1009-1034.
    This paper examines a constellation of ethical and editorial issues that have arisen since philosophers started to conduct, submit and publish empirical research. These issues encompass concerns over responsible authorship, fair treatment of human subjects, ethicality of experimental procedures, availability of data, unselective reporting and publishability of research findings. This study aims to assess whether the philosophical community has as yet successfully addressed such issues. To do so, the instructions for authors, submission process and published research papers of 29 main (...)
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  15.  2
    Media Portrayal of a Landmark Neuroscience Experiment on Free Will.Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle & Veljko Dubljevic - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):989-1007.
    The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet’s et al.’s :623–642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted (...)
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  16. Developing Tools to Counteract and Prevent Suicide Bomber Incidents: A Case Study in Value Sensitive Design.Lambèr Royakkers & Marc Steen - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1041-1058.
    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project. For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users’ perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into (...)
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  17.  2
    Personalized Medicine in a New Genomic Era: Ethical and Legal Aspects.Maria Shoaib, Mansoor Ali Merchant Rameez, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin & Ritesh G. Menezes - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1207-1212.
    The genome of two completely unrelated individuals is quite similar apart from minor variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms which contribute to the uniqueness of each and every person. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are of great interest clinically as they are useful in figuring out the susceptibility of certain individuals to particular diseases and for recognizing varied responses to pharmacological interventions. This gives rise to the idea of ‘personalized medicine’ as an exciting new therapeutic science in this genomic era. Personalized medicine (...)
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  18. Why Tu Youyou Makes Less Money Than Zhang Ziyi?Qinghui Suo, Yang Liu & Daming Zhang - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1233-1235.
    Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
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  19. Changing the Engineering Student Culture with Respect to Academic Integrity and Ethics.Tammy VanDeGrift, Heather Dillon & Loreal Camp - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1159-1182.
    Engineers create airplanes, buildings, medical devices, and software, amongst many other things. Engineers abide by a professional code of ethics to uphold people’s safety and the reputation of the profession. Likewise, students abide by a code of academic integrity while learning the knowledge and necessary skills to prepare them for the engineering and computing professions. This paper reports on studies designed to improve the engineering student culture with respect to academic integrity and ethics. To understand the existing culture at a (...)
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  20. Moral Polemics of Far-Reaching Economic Consequences of Antibiotics Overuse.Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková & Petr Šuleř - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1035-1040.
    The unethical overuse of antibiotics to seek to achieve a shortening of the treatment period raises the cost of health services and poses a threat to humanity due to the gradual development of antibiotic resistance. Other consequences of our modern passion for antibiotics have appeared. Small concentrations of antibiotic residues in sewage waters slow down the metabolism of anaerobic microorganism thereby reducing the overall performance of the anaerobic fermentation used to detoxify and digest sewage and other collected organic wastes. Reduced (...)
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  21.  18
    Ethics Teaching in Higher Education for Principled Reasoning: A Gateway for Reconciling Scientific Practice with Ethical Deliberation.Mehmet Aközer & Emel Aközer - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):825-860.
    This paper proposes laying the groundwork for principled moral reasoning as a seminal goal of ethics interventions in higher education, and on this basis, makes a case for educating future specialists and professionals with a foundation in philosophical ethics. Identification of such a seminal goal is warranted by the progressive dissociation of scientific practice and ethical deliberation since the onset of a problematic relationship between science and ethics around the mid-19th century, and the extensive mistrust of integrating ethics in science (...)
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  22.  4
    What Rights Do Authors Have?Aceil Al-Khatib & Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):947-949.
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  23.  2
    Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.Michael J. Bernstein, Kiera Reifschneider, Ira Bennett & Jameson M. Wetmore - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):861-882.
    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. “Science Outside the Lab” is a program designed to help early-career scientists (...)
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  24.  3
    Copy-Paste: 2-Click Step to Success and Productivity That Underlies Self-Plagiarism.Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):943-944.
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  25.  3
    Stakeholder Views of Nanosilver Linings: Macroethics Education and Automated Text Analysis Through Participatory Governance Role Play in a Workshop Format.Joshua Dempsey, Justin Stamets & Kathleen Eggleson - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):913-939.
    The Nanosilver Linings role play case offers participants first-person experience with interpersonal interaction in the context of the wicked problems of emerging technology macroethics. In the fictional scenario, diverse societal stakeholders convene at a town hall meeting to consider whether a nanotechnology-enabled food packaging industry should be offered incentives to establish an operation in their economically struggling Midwestern city. This original creative work was built with a combination of elements, selected for their established pedagogical efficacy and as topical dimensions of (...)
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  26. Limited Awareness of the Essences of Certification or Compliance Markings on Medical Devices.Jong Yong Abdiel Foo & Xin Ji Alan Tan - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):653-661.
    Medical devices have been long used for odiagnostic, therapeutic or rehabilitation purposes. Currently, they can range from a low-cost portable device that is often used for personal health monitoring to high-end sophisticated equipment that can only be operated by trained professionals. Depending on the functional purposes, there are different certification or compliance markings on the device when it is sold. One common certification marking is the Conformité Européenne affixation but this has a range of certification mark numbering for a variety (...)
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  27.  39
    Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting.Jan Gogoll & Julian F. Müller - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):681-700.
    The recent progress in the development of autonomous cars has seen ethical questions come to the forefront. In particular, life and death decisions regarding the behavior of self-driving cars in trolley dilemma situations are attracting widespread interest in the recent debate. In this essay we want to ask whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting for the whole of society or, whether every driver should have the choice to select his own personal ethics setting. While the consensus view seems (...)
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  28.  4
    Smart-Glasses: Exposing and Elucidating the Ethical Issues.Bjørn Hofmann, Dušan Haustein & Laurens Landeweerd - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):701-721.
    The objective of this study is to provide an overview over the ethical issues relevant to the assessment, implementation, and use of smart-glasses. The purpose of the overview is to facilitate deliberation, decision making, and the formation of knowledge and norms for this emerging technology. An axiological question-based method for human cognitive enhancement including an extensive literature search on smart-glasses is used to identify relevant ethical issues. The search is supplemented with relevant ethical issues identified in the literature on human (...)
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  29.  2
    Remembering Vivian Weil.Rachelle D. Hollander, Michael Davis, Deni Elliott & Michael S. Pritchard - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):637-651.
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  30.  14
    Teledildonics and New Ways of “Being in Touch”: A Phenomenological Analysis of the Use of Haptic Devices for Intimate Relations.Nicola Liberati - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):801-823.
    The aim of this paper is to analyse teledildonics from a phenomenological perspective in order to show the possible effects they will have on ourselves and on our society. The new way of using digital technologies is to merge digital activities with our everyday praxes, and there are already devices which enable subjects to be digitally connected in every moment of their lives. Even the most intimate ones are becoming mediated by devices such as teledildonics which digitally provide a tactual (...)
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  31.  2
    Moral Values Congruence and Miners’ Policy Following Behavior: The Role of Supervisor Morality.Hui Lu, Hong Chen, Wei Du & Ruyin Long - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):769-791.
    Ethical culture construction is beneficial to maximize policy following behavior and avoid accidents of coal miners in an economic downturn. This paper examines the congruence between coal mine ethical culture values and miners’ moral values and the relationship with PFB. To shed light on this relationship, supervisor moral values act as a key moderator. We build on the initial structure of values to measure ECVs, MVs, and SMVs. At the same time, available congruence was defined to describe the relationship between (...)
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  32.  5
    Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education. [REVIEW]J. Mulhearn Tyler, M. Steele Logan, L. Watts Logan, E. Medeiros Kelsey, D. Mumford Michael & Connelly Shane - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):883-912.
    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were (...)
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  33.  1
    What Do Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiology Say About an Ethics Review? A Qualitative Systematic Review.Jan Piasecki, Marcin Waligora & Vilius Dranseika - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):743-768.
    Epidemiological research is subject to an ethics review. The aim of this qualitative review is to compare existing ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research and public health practice in regard to the scope and matter of an ethics review. Authors systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar and Google Search for ethical guidelines. Qualitative analysis was applied to categorize important aspects of the an ethics review process. Eight ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research were retrieved. Five main categories that are (...)
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  34.  2
    May Stakeholders Be Involved in Design Without Informed Consent? The Case of Hidden Design.A. J. K. Pols - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):723-742.
    Stakeholder involvement in design is desirable from both a practical and an ethical point of view. It is difficult to do well, however, and some problems recur again and again, both of a practical nature, e.g. stakeholders acting strategically rather than openly, and of an ethical nature, e.g. power imbalances unduly affecting the outcome of the process. Hidden Design has been proposed as a method to deal with the practical problems of stakeholder involvement. It aims to do so by taking (...)
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  35.  1
    The Application of Standards and Recommendations to Clinical Ethics Consultation in Practice: An Evaluation at German Hospitals.Maximilian Schochow, Giovanni Rubeis & Florian Steger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):793-799.
    The executive board of the Academy for Ethics in Medicine and two AEM working groups formulated standards and recommendations for clinical ethics consultation in 2010, 2011, and 2013. These guidelines comply with the international standards like those set by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. There is no empirical data available yet that could indicate whether these standards and recommendations have been implemented in German hospitals. This desideratum is addressed in the present study. We contacted 1.858 German hospitals between (...)
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  36.  3
    Fake Graduates.Shahryar Sorooshian - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):941-942.
    There is growing concern regarding the erosion of industries’ trust in the reliability and validity of university graduates. Fake graduates are described in this letter. This article endeavors to warn of a new version of the scholarly black market, in which theses and dissertations are sold to students seeking to graduate under false pretenses.
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  37.  3
    Viva Delay.Hossein Yahaghi, Shahryar Sorooshian & Javad Yahaghi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):945-946.
    The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers’ attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.
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  38.  4
    A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Decision-Making in Engineering Practice: Characteristics, Evaluation Criteria, and Implications for Instruction and Assessment.Qin Zhu & Brent K. Jesiek - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):663-679.
    This paper begins by reviewing dominant themes in current teaching of professional ethics in engineering education. In contrast to more traditional approaches that simulate ethical practice by using ethical theories to reason through micro-level ethical dilemmas, this paper proposes a pragmatic approach to ethics that places more emphasis on the practical plausibility of ethical decision-making. In addition to the quality of ethical justification, the value of a moral action also depends on its effectiveness in solving an ethical dilemma, cultivating healthy (...)
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  39.  3
    Multiple First Authors as Equal Contributors: Is It Ethical?Govindasamy Agoramoorthy - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):625-627.
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  40.  29
    Can Artificial Intelligences Suffer From Mental Illness? A Philosophical Matter to Consider.Hutan Ashrafian - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):403-412.
    The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, (...)
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  41.  10
    Risk, Uncertainty and Precaution in Science: The Threshold of the Toxicological Concern Approach in Food Toxicology.Karim Bschir - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):489-508.
    Environmental risk assessment is often affected by severe uncertainty. The frequently invoked precautionary principle helps to guide risk assessment and decision-making in the face of scientific uncertainty. In many contexts, however, uncertainties play a role not only in the application of scientific models but also in their development. Building on recent literature in the philosophy of science, this paper argues that precaution should be exercised at the stage when tools for risk assessment are developed as well as when they are (...)
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  42.  3
    Engineers’ Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens.Ryan C. Campbell & Denise Wilson - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):591-622.
    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student’s writing on the human health and environmental impacts of “backyard” electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers (...)
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  43.  16
    The Design of the Internet’s Architecture by the Internet Engineering Task Force and Human Rights.Corinne Cath & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):449-468.
    The debate on whether and how the Internet can protect and foster human rights has become a defining issue of our time. This debate often focuses on Internet governance from a regulatory perspective, underestimating the influence and power of the governance of the Internet’s architecture. The technical decisions made by Internet Standard Developing Organisations that build and maintain the technical infrastructure of the Internet influences how information flows. They rearrange the shape of the technically mediated public sphere, including which rights (...)
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  44.  4
    Biological Dual-Use Research and Synthetic Biology of Yeast.Angela Cirigliano, Orlando Cenciarelli, Andrea Malizia, Carlo Bellecci, Pasquale Gaudio, Michele Lioj & Teresa Rinaldi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):365-374.
    In recent years, the publication of the studies on the transmissibility in mammals of the H5N1 influenza virus and synthetic genomes has triggered heated and concerned debate within the community of scientists on biological dual-use research; these papers have raised the awareness that, in some cases, fundamental research could be directed to harmful experiments, with the purpose of developing a weapon that could be used by a bioterrorist. Here is presented an overview regarding the dual-use concept and its related international (...)
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  45.  4
    Erratum To: The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results From a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.E. Hall Troy, Engebretson Jesse, O’Rourke Michael, Piso Zach, Whyte Kyle & Valles Sean - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):589-589.
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  46.  2
    The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results From a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.Troy E. Hall, Jesse Engebretson, Michael O’Rourke, Zach Piso, Kyle Whyte & Sean Valles - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):565-588.
    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs in these issues, which we refer to as “social ethics.” A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty (...)
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  47.  14
    Aristotle and Autism: Reconsidering a Radical Shift to Virtue Ethics in Engineering.Heidi Furey - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):469-488.
    Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum (...)
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  48.  1
    The Legitimate Name of a Fungal Plant Pathogen and the Ethics of Publication in the Era of Traceability.Paolo Gonthier, Ivan Visentin, Danila Valentino, Giacomo Tamietti & Francesca Cardinale - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):631-633.
    When more scientists describe independently the same species under different valid Latin names, a case of synonymy occurs. In such a case, the international nomenclature rules stipulate that the first name to appear on a peer-reviewed publication has priority over the others. Based on a recent episode involving priority determination between two competing names of the same fungal plant pathogen, this letter wishes to open a discussion on the ethics of scientific publications and points out the necessity of a correct (...)
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  49.  8
    Ethical Risk Management Education in Engineering: A Systematic Review.Yoann Guntzburger, Thierry C. Pauchant & Philippe A. Tanguy - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):323-350.
    Risk management is certainly one of the most important professional responsibilities of an engineer. As such, this activity needs to be combined with complex ethical reflections, and this requirement should therefore be explicitly integrated in engineering education. In this article, we analyse how this nexus between ethics and risk management is expressed in the engineering education research literature. It was done by reviewing 135 articles published between 1980 and March 1, 2016. These articles have been selected from 21 major journals (...)
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  50.  4
    Holistic Assessment and Ethical Disputation on a New Trend in Solid Biofuels.Simona Hašková - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):509-519.
    A new trend in the production technology of solid biof uels has appeared. There is a wide consensus that most solid biofuels will be produced according to the new production methods within a few years. Numerous samples were manufactured from agro-residues according to conventional methods as well as new methods. Robust analyses that reviewed the hygienic, environmental, financial and ethical aspects were performed. The hygienic and environmental aspect was assessed by robust chemical and technical analyses. The financial aspect was assessed (...)
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  51. Distributed Cognition and Distributed Morality: Agency, Artifacts and Systems.Richard Heersmink - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):431-448.
    There are various philosophical approaches and theories describing the intimate relation people have to artifacts. In this paper, I explore the relation between two such theories, namely distributed cognition and distributed morality theory. I point out a number of similarities and differences in these views regarding the ontological status they attribute to artifacts and the larger systems they are part of. Having evaluated and compared these views, I continue by focussing on the way cognitive artifacts are used in moral practice. (...)
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  52.  29
    CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology.Raheleh Heidari, David Martin Shaw & Bernice Simone Elger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):351-363.
    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have been the subject of in-depth debate; however, a lack of transparent regulatory guidelines, outdated governance codes, inefficient time-consuming clinical trial pathways and frequent misunderstanding of the scientific potential of cutting-edge technologies have created substantial obstacles to translational research in this area. While a precautionary principle (...)
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  53.  7
    Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):413-429.
    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement. The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot (...)
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  54.  14
    This “Ethical Trap” Is for Roboticists, Not Robots: On the Issue of Artificial Agent Ethical Decision-Making.Keith W. Miller, Marty J. Wolf & Frances Grodzinsky - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):389-401.
    In this paper we address the question of when a researcher is justified in describing his or her artificial agent as demonstrating ethical decision-making. The paper is motivated by the amount of research being done that attempts to imbue artificial agents with expertise in ethical decision-making. It seems clear that computing systems make decisions, in that they make choices between different options; and there is scholarship in philosophy that addresses the distinction between ethical decision-making and general decision-making. Essentially, the qualitative (...)
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  55.  6
    Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients’ Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.Milenko Rakic, Isabelle Wienand, David Shaw, Rebecca Nast & Bernice S. Elger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):375-388.
    We analyzed stable patients’ views regarding synthetic biology in general, the medical application of synthetic biology, and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients’ views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients, who suffered from diabetes or gout. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated and fully (...)
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  56.  7
    Commentary: Legacy of the Commission on Research Integrity.Barbara K. Redman - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):555-563.
    20 years ago, the Report of the Commission on Research Integrity was submitted to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services and to House and Senate Committees. As directed in enabling legislation, the Commission had provided recommendations on a new definition of research misconduct, oversight of scientific practices, and development of a regulation to protect whistleblowers. Reflecting the ethos of the time, the Commission recommended that institutions receiving Public Health Service research funding should provide oversight of all (...)
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  57.  2
    Scholarly Black Market.Shahryar Sorooshian - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):623-624.
    Fake and unethical publishers’ activities are known by most of the readers of Science and Engineering Ethics. This letter tries to draw the readers’ attention to the hidden side of some of these publishers’ business. Here the black market of scholarly articles, which negatively affects the validity and reliability of research in higher education, as well as science and engineering, will be introduced.
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  58.  1
    Unethical Postgraduate Supervision.Hossein Yahaghi, Shahryar Sorooshian & Javad Yahaghi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):629-630.
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  59.  2
    Plagiarism in Publications Using the Unpublished Raw Data of Archived Research.Javad Yahaghi, Salmia Bnt Beddu & Zakaria Che Muda - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):635-636.
    It is obligatory to educate student researchers before they start their work by teaching them about the various types of plagiarism and how to avoid them. It is also vital that research supervisors take into account the sources of data that are explored in their students’ manuscripts. This article tries to draw the reader’s attention to the importance of avoiding all types of plagiarism in their research.
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  60.  6
    Time for Revelation: Unmasking the Anonymity of Blind Reviewers.Govindasamy Agoramoorthy - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):313-315.
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  61.  5
    Online-Based Approaches to Identify Real Journals and Publishers From Hijacked Ones.Amin Asadi, Nader Rahbar, Meisam Asadi, Fahime Asadi & Kokab Khalili Paji - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):305-308.
    The aim of the present paper was to introduce some online-based approaches to evaluate scientific journals and publishers and to differentiate them from the hijacked ones, regardless of their disciplines. With the advent of open-access journals, many hijacked journals and publishers have deceitfully assumed the mantle of authenticity in order to take advantage of researchers and students. Although these hijacked journals and publishers can be identified through checking their advertisement techniques and their websites, these ways do not always result in (...)
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  62.  7
    Chinese and Iranian Scientific Publications: Fast Growth and Poor Ethics.Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):317-319.
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  63.  10
    Definitions and Conceptual Dimensions of Responsible Research and Innovation: A Literature Review.Mirjam Burget, Emanuele Bardone & Margus Pedaste - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):1-19.
    The aim of this study is to provide a discussion on the definitions and conceptual dimensions of Responsible Research and Innovation based on findings from the literature. In the study, the outcomes of a literature review of 235 RRI-related articles were presented. The articles were selected from the EBSCO and Google Scholar databases regarding the definitions and dimensions of RRI. The results of the study indicated that while administrative definitions were widely quoted in the reviewed literature, they were not substantially (...)
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  64. Will Life Be Worth Living in a World Without Work? Technological Unemployment and the Meaning of Life.John Danaher - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):41-64.
    Suppose we are about to enter an era of increasing technological unemployment. What implications does this have for society? Two distinct ethical/social issues would seem to arise. The first is one of distributive justice: how will the efficiency gains from automated labour be distributed through society? The second is one of personal fulfillment and meaning: if people no longer have to work, what will they do with their lives? In this article, I set aside the first issue and focus on (...)
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  65.  12
    Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure.Vilius Dranseika, Jan Piasecki & Marcin Waligora - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):215-225.
    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, (...)
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  66.  4
    A Mobilising Concept? Unpacking Academic Representations of Responsible Research and Innovation.E. Ribeiro Barbara, D. J. Smith Robert & Millar Kate - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):81-103.
    This paper makes a plea for more reflexive attempts to develop and anchor the emerging concept of responsible research and innovation. RRI has recently emerged as a buzzword in science policy, becoming a focus of concerted experimentation in many academic circles. Its performative capacity means that it is able to mobilise resources and spaces despite no common understanding of what it is or should be ‘made of’. In order to support reflection and practice amongst those who are interested in and (...)
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  67.  3
    A Gendered Approach to Science Ethics for US and UK Physicists.Elaine Howard Ecklund & Di Di - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):183-201.
    Some research indicates that women professionals—when compared to men—may be more ethical in the workplace. Existing literature that discusses gender and ethics is confined to the for-profit business sector and primarily to a US context. In particular, there is little attention paid to gender and ethics in science professions in a global context. This represents a significant gap, as science is a rapidly growing and global professional sector, as well as one with ethically ambiguous areas. Adopting an international comparative perspective, (...)
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  68.  7
    The Ethics of Doing Ethics.Sven Ove Hansson - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):105-120.
    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher’s integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our (...)
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  69.  3
    Coding Ethical Decision-Making in Research.David J. Hartmann, Thomas Van Valey & Wayne Fuqua - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):121-146.
    This paper presents methods and challenges attendant on the use of protocol analysis to develop a model of heuristic processing applied to research ethics. Participants are exposed to ethically complex scenarios and asked to verbalize their thoughts as they formulate a requested decision. The model identifies functional parts of the decision-making task: interpretation, retrieval, judgment and editing and seeks to reliably code participant verbalizations to those tasks as well as to a set of cognitive tools generally useful in such work. (...)
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  70.  6
    Assessing Freshman Engineering Students’ Understanding of Ethical Behavior.M. Henslee Amber, L. Murray Susan, R. Olbricht Gayla, K. Ludlow Douglas, E. Hays Malcolm & M. Nelson Hannah - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):287-304.
    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a (...)
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  71.  8
    Ethics: An Indispensable Dimension in the University Rankings.Khaki Sedigh Ali - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):65-80.
    University ranking systems attempt to provide an ordinal gauge to make an expert evaluation of the university’s performance for a general audience. University rankings have always had their pros and cons in the higher education community. Some seriously question the usefulness, accuracy, and lack of consensus in ranking systems and therefore multidimensional ranking systems have been proposed to overcome some shortcomings of the earlier systems. Although the present ranking results may rather be rough, they are the only available sources that (...)
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  72.  5
    Consented Autopsy and the Middle-East.Magdy A. Kharoshah, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin & Ritesh G. Menezes - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):321-322.
    Consented autopsy is almost non-existent in the Middle-East where established social and cultural beliefs regarding the procedure might discourage family members from requesting a consented autopsy. Evidence suggests that new information is obtained from consented autopsies. It would not be in the best interest of medicine if social and cultural misconceptions succeed in erasing the existence of consented autopsies entirely.
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  73.  8
    Strategies for Teaching Professional Ethics to IT Engineering Degree Students and Evaluating the Result.Rafael Miñano, Ángel Uruburu, Ana Moreno-Romero & Diego Pérez-López - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):263-286.
    This paper presents an experience in developing professional ethics by an approach that integrates knowledge, teaching methodologies and assessment coherently. It has been implemented for students in both the Software Engineering and Computer Engineering degree programs of the Technical University of Madrid, in which professional ethics is studied as a part of a required course. Our contribution of this paper is a model for formative assessment that clarifies the learning goals, enhances the results, simplifies the scoring and can be replicated (...)
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  74.  8
    Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.Robert T. Pennock & Michael O’Rourke - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):243-262.
    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock’s notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations—theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered—that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students (...)
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  75.  3
    Research Misconduct in the Croatian Scientific Community: A Survey Assessing the Forms and Characteristics of Research Misconduct.Vanja Pupovac, Snježana Prijić-Samaržija & Mladen Petrovečki - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):165-181.
    The prevalence and characteristics of research misconduct have mainly been studied in highly developed countries. In moderately or poorly developed countries such as Croatia, data on research misconduct are scarce. The primary aim of this study was to determine the rates at which scientists report committing or observing the most serious forms of research misconduct, such as falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, and violation of authorship rules in the Croatian scientific community. Additionally, we sought to determine the degree of development and the (...)
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  76.  5
    Bribery and Its Ethical Implications for Aid Workers in the Developing World.J. Scott Remer - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):227-241.
    Bribery is a complicated, multi-dimensional issue. Upon first glance, most westerners would immediately condemn it as an underhanded, unfair means of gaining an advantage in a competitive or legal situation, and so it is in virtually every case in the westernized world. However, the issue becomes much more complicated in the international context, particularly in developing nations, where giving and accepting bribes is often normal and expected. This paper serves to inform ethical decision-making in situations where the “right choice” is (...)
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  77.  4
    Aware, Yet Ignorant: Exploring the Views of Early Career Researchers About Funding and Conflicts of Interests in Science.Meghnaa Tallapragada, Gina M. Eosco & Katherine A. McComas - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):147-164.
    This study investigates the level of awareness about funding influences and potential conflicts of interests among early career researchers. The sample for this study included users of one or more of the 14 U.S. laboratories associated with the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network. To be eligible, respondents must have been either still completing graduate work or <5 years since graduation. In total, 713 early career researchers completed the web survey, with about half still in graduate school. Results indicate that although respondents (...)
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  78.  4
    Patients’ Awareness About Their Rights: A Study From Coastal South India.Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Divya Trivedi, Tanuj Kanchan, Thapar Rekha, Prasanna Mithra, Nithin Kumar, Vaman Kulkarni, Ramesh Holla & Mishaal Talish - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):203-214.
    Respecting patients’ rights is a fundamental aspect of providing quality healthcare. The present investigation attempts to explore the awareness among patients about their rights in a coastal township in India. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 patients admitted to the wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mangalore. Awareness among patients regarding their rights varied for various issues and ranged between 48.4 and 87.4 %. Awareness about patients’ rights was independent of gender, socio-economic and educational status. (...)
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  79.  8
    Responses of Authors Accused of Plagiarism by Journal Editors.Somsri Wiwanitkit & Viroj Wiwanitkit - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):309-311.
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  80.  36
    Publishers: Save Authors' Time.K. Moustafa - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-2.
    Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors’ time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to (...)
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  81.  36
    Publishers_Save Authors' Time.Khaled Moustafa - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics (naa):1-2.
    Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors’ time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to (...)
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