Year:

  1.  4
    Thinking Through Prior Bodies: Autonomic Uncertainty and Interoceptive Self-Inference.Micah Allen, Nicolas Legrand, Camile Maria Costa Correa & Francesca Fardo - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The Bayesian brain hypothesis, as formalized by the free-energy principle, is ascendant in cognitive science. But, how does the Bayesian brain obtain prior beliefs? Veissière and colleagues argue that sociocultural interaction is one important source. We offer a complementary model in which “interoceptive self-inference” guides the estimation of expected uncertainty both in ourselves and in our social conspecifics.
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  2.  3
    Rationalizations Primarily Serve Reputation Management, Not Decision Making.Sacha Altay & Hugo Mercier - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We agree with Cushman that rationalizations are the product of biological adaptations, but we disagree about their function. The data available do not show that rationalizations allow us to reason better and make better decisions. The data suggest instead that rationalizations serve reputation management goals, and that they affect our behaviors because we are held accountable by our peers.
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  3.  1
    Differentiating Between Different Forms of Moral Obligations.Rajen A. Anderson, Benjamin C. Ruisch & David A. Pizarro - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We argue that Tomasello's account overlooks important psychological distinctions between how humans judge different types of moral obligations, such as prescriptive obligations and proscriptive obligations. Specifically, evaluating these different types of obligations rests on different psychological inputs and has distinct downstream consequences for judgments of moral character.
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  4.  7
    Thinking with Other Minds.Edward Baggs & Anthony Chemero - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We applaud the ambition of Veissière et al.'s account of cultural learning, and the attempt to ground higher order thinking in embodied theory. However, the account is limited by loose terminology, and by its commitment to a view of the child learner as inference-maker. Vygotsky offers a more powerful view of cultural learning, one that is fully compatible with embodiment.
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  5.  1
    Children's Everyday Moral Conversation Speaks to the Emergence of Obligation.Karen Bartsch - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    For Tomasello's proposed ontology of the human sense of moral obligation, observations of early moral language may provide useful evidence complementary to that afforded by experimental research. Extant reports of children's everyday moral talk reveal patterns of participation and content that accord with the proposal and hint at extensions addressing individual differences.
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  6.  3
    The Role of Affect in Feelings of Obligation.Stefen Beeler-Duden, Meltem Yucel & Amrisha Vaish - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello offers a compelling account of the emergence of humans’ sense of obligation. We suggest that more needs to be said about the role of affect in the creation of obligations. We also argue that positive emotions such as gratitude evolved to encourage individuals to fulfill cooperative obligations without the negative quality that Tomasello proposes is inherent in obligations.
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  7.  1
    The Sense of Obligation is Culturally Modulated.Andrea Bender - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello argues in the target article that, in generalizing the concrete obligations originating from interdependent collaboration to one's entire cultural group, humans become “ultra-cooperators.” But are all human populations cooperative in similar ways? Based on cross-cultural studies and my own fieldwork in Polynesia, I argue that cooperation varies along several dimensions, and that the underlying sense of obligation is culturally modulated.
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  8.  3
    Means and Ends of Habitual Action.Samantha Berthelette & Christopher Kalbach - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:17-18.
    Cushman claims that post hoc rationalization of habitual behavior can improve future reasoning. His characterization of habits includes two components: habitual behavior is a non-rational process, and habitual behavior is sometimes rationalized. We argue that Cushman fails to show any habits that are apt targets for rationalization. Thus, it's unclear when – if ever – rationalizing habits would improve reasoning.
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  9.  5
    “Through Others We Become Ourselves”: The Dialectics of Predictive Coding and Active Inference.Dimitris Bolis & Leonhard Schilbach - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Thinking through other minds creatively situates the free-energy principle within real-life cultural processes, thereby enriching both sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of cognition. Here, shifting the attention from thinking-through to becoming-with, we suggest complementing such an account by focusing on the empirical, computational, and conceptual investigation of the multiscale dynamics of social interaction.
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  10.  3
    Have We Lost the Thinker in Other Minds? Human Thinking Beyond Social Norms.Nabil Bouizegarene - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière and colleagues suggest that thinking is entirely based on social norms. I point out that despite the fact that social norms are commonly used to alleviate cognitive processing, some individuals are willing and able to go about the costly process of questioning them and exploring other valuable ways of thinking.
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  11.  6
    Tomasello on “We” and the Sense of Obligation.Michael E. Bratman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello explores four interrelated phenomena: joint intentional collaboration; joint commitment; “self-regulative pressure from ‘we’”; and the sense of interpersonal obligation. He argues that the version of that involves is the “source” of and so the source of. I note an issue that arises once we distinguish two versions of.
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  12.  1
    Rationalization is a Suboptimal Defense Mechanism Associated with Clinical and Forensic Problems.Stuart Brody & Rui Miguel Costa - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman argues that “rationalization is rational.” We show that there is reasonable empirical clinical and forensic psychological evidence to support viewing rationalization as a quite suboptimal defense mechanism. Rationalization has been found to be associated not only with poorer emotional development, but also with a broad range of antisocial behavior, including not only shoplifting, but also pedophilia and murder.
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  13.  2
    Unification at the Cost of Realism and Precision.Rachael L. Brown, Carl Brusse, Bryce Huebner & Ross Pain - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière et al. must sacrifice explanatory realism and precision in order to develop a unified formal model. Drawing on examples from cognitive archeology, we argue that this makes it difficult for them to derive the kinds of testable predictions that would allow them to resolve debates over the nature of human social cognition and cultural acquisition.
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  14.  1
    The Joy of Obligation: Human Cultural Worldviews Can Enhance the Rewards of Meeting Obligations.Emma E. Buchtel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Is it particularly human to feel coerced into fulfilling moral obligations, or is it particularly human to enjoy them? I argue for the importance of taking into account how culture promotes prosocial behavior, discussing how Confucian heritage culture enhances the satisfaction of meeting one's obligations.
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  15.  2
    Normativity, Social Change, and the Epistemological Framing of Culture.Andrew Buskell - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The authors deploy an epistemic framework to represent culture and model the acquisition of cultural behavior. Yet, the framing inherits familiar problems with explaining the acquisition of norms. Such problems are conspicuous with regard to human societies where norms are ubiquitous. This creates a new difficulty for the authors in explaining change to mutually exclusive organizational structures of human life.
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  16.  1
    Tomasello's Tin Man of Moral Obligation Needs a Heart.Jeremy I. M. Carpendale & Charlie Lewis - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In place of Tomasello's explanation for the source of moral obligation, we suggest that it develops from the concern for others already implicit in the human developmental system. Mutual affection and caring make the development of communication and thinking possible. Humans develop as persons within such relationships and this develops into respect and moral obligation.
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  17.  1
    Intuitive Theories Inform Children's Beliefs About Intergroup Obligation.Lisa Chalik - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In addition to emerging from children's direct experiences with collaborative partners and groups, children's beliefs about obligation also arise from a process of intuitive theory-building in early childhood. On this account, it is possible for at least some of children's beliefs to emerge in the absence of specific experiences where obligations are held among fellow members of a group “we.”.
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  18.  4
    The Multicultural Mind as an Epistemological Test and Extension for the Thinking Through Other Minds Approach.George I. Christopoulos & Ying-yi Hong - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The multicultural experience offers the intriguing possibility for an empirical examination of how free-energy principles explain dynamic cultural behaviors and pragmatic cultural phenomena and a challenging but decisive test of thinking through other minds predictions. We highlight that TTOM needs to treat individuals as active cultural agents instead of passive learners.
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  19.  2
    Digital Life, a Theory of Minds, and Mapping Human and Machine Cultural Universals.Kevin B. Clark - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Emerging cybertechnologies, such as social digibots, bend epistemological conventions of life and culture already complicated by human and animal relationships. Virtually-augmented niches of machines and organic life promise new free-energy-governed selection of intelligent digital life. These provocative eco-evolutionary contexts demand a theory of minds to characterize and validate the immersive social phenomena universally-shaping cultural affordances.
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  20.  3
    Who Are “We” and Why Are We Cooperating? Insights From Social Psychology.Margaret S. Clark, Brian D. Earp & Molly J. Crockett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello argues in the target article that a sense of moral obligation emerges from the creation of a collaborative “we” motivating us to fulfill our cooperative duties. We suggest that “we” takes many forms, entailing different obligations, depending on the type of the relationship in question. We sketch a framework of such types, functions, and obligations to guide future research in our commentary.
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  21.  2
    Affective Social Learning Serves as a Quick and Flexible Complement to TTOM.Fabrice Clément & Daniel Dukes - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although we applaud the general aims of the target article, we argue that Affective Social Learning completes TTOM by pointing out how emotions can provide another route to acquiring culture, a route which may be quicker, more flexible, and even closer to an axiological definition of culture than TTOM itself.
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  22.  2
    Maladaptive Social Norms, Cultural Progress, and the Free-Energy Principle.Matteo Colombo - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière and collaborators ground their account of culture and social norms in the free-energy principle, which postulates that the utility of an outcome is equivalent to its probability. This equivalence would mean that their account entails that complying with social norms has always adaptive value. But, this is false, because many social norms are obviously maladaptive.
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  23.  1
    Integrating Perspectives: How the Development of Second-Personal Competence Lays the Foundation for a Second-Personal Morality.John Corbit & Chris Moore - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The integration of first-, second-, and third-personal information within joint intentional collaboration provides the foundation for broad-based second-personal morality. We offer two additions to this framework: a description of the developmental process through which second-personal competence emerges from early triadic interactions, and empirical evidence that collaboration with a concrete goal may provide an essential focal point for this integrative process.
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  24.  4
    Rationalization as Representational Exchange: Scope and Mechanism.Fiery Cushman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The commentaries suggest many important improvements to the target article. They clearly distinguish two varieties of rationalization – the traditional “motivated reasoning” model, and the proposed representational exchange model – and show that they have distinct functions and consequences. They describe how representational exchange occurs not only by post hoc rationalization but also by ex ante rationalization and other more dynamic processes. They argue that the social benefits of representational exchange are at least as important as its direct personal benefits. (...)
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  25.  21
    Rationalization is Rational.Fiery Cushman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-69.
    Rationalization occurs when a person has performed an action and then concocts the beliefs and desires that would have made it rational. Then, people often adjust their own beliefs and desires to match the concocted ones. While many studies demonstrate rationalization, and a few theories describe its underlying cognitive mechanisms, we have little understanding of its function. Why is the mind designed to construct post hoc rationalizations of its behavior, and then to adopt them? This may accomplish an important task: (...)
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  26.  5
    Rationalization and Self-Sabotage.Jason D'Cruz - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In making the case that “rationalization is rational,” Cushman downplays its signature liability: Rationalization exposes a person to the hazard of delusion and self-sabotage. In paradigm cases, rationalization undermines instrumental rationality by introducing inaccuracies into the representational map required for planning and effective agency.
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  27.  4
    Rationalization is Rare, Reasoning is Pervasive.Audun Dahl & Talia Waltzer - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    If rationalization were ubiquitous, it would undermine a fundamental premise of human discourse. A review of key evidence indicates that rationalization is rare and confined to choices among comparable options. In contrast, reasoning is pervasive in human decision making. Within the constraints of reasoning, rationalization may operate in ambiguous situations. Studying these processes requires careful definitions and operationalizations.
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  28.  11
    Psychological Consequences of the Normativity of Moral Obligation.Stephen Darwall - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    An adequate moral psychology of obligation must bear in mind that although the “sense of obligation” is psychological, what it is a sense of, moral obligation itself, is not. It is irreducibly normative. I argue, therefore, that the “we” whose demands the sense of obligation presupposes must be an ideal rather than an actual “we.”.
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  29.  1
    Rational Rationalization and System 2.Wim De Neys - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary, I highlight the relevance of Cushman's target article for the popular dual-process framework of thinking. I point to the problematic characterization of rationalization in traditional dual-process models and suggest that in line with recent advances, Cushman's rational rationalization account offers a way out of the rationalization paradox.
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  30.  5
    Explaining or Redefining Mindreading?Krzysztof Dołęga, Tobias Schlicht & Daniel C. Dennett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière et al. disrupt current debates over the nature of mindreading by bringing multiple positions under the umbrella of free-energy. However, it is not clear whether integrating the opposing sides under a common formal framework will yield new insights into how mindreading is achieved, rather than offering a mere redescription of the target phenomenon.
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  31.  3
    “Social Physiology” for Psychiatric Semiology: How TTOM Can Initiate an Interactive Turn for Computational Psychiatry?Guillaume Dumas, Tudi Gozé & Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Thinking through other minds encompasses new dimensions in computational psychiatry: social interaction and mutual sense-making. It questions the nature of psychiatric manifestations in light of recent data on social interaction in neuroscience. We propose the concept of “social physiology” in response to the call by the conceivers of TTOM for the renewal of computational psychiatry.
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  32.  1
    Obligation at Zero Acquaintance.David Dunning, Detlef Fetchenhauer & Thomas Schlösser - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Social obligation begins far before people establish explicit cooperative relationships. Research on trust suggests that people feel obligated to trust other people even at zero acquaintance, thus trusting complete strangers even though they privately expect to be exploited. Such obligations promote mutually beneficial behavior among strangers and likely help people build goodwill needed for more long-lasting relationships.
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  33.  2
    Rationalization in the Pejorative Sense: Cushman's Account Overlooks the Scope and Costs of Rationalization.Jonathan Ellis & Eric Schwitzgebel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    According to Cushman, rationalization occurs when a person has performed an action and then concocts beliefs and desires that would have made it rational. We argue that this isn't the paradigmatic form of rationalization. Consequently, Cushman's explanation of the function and usefulness of rationalization is less broad-reaching than he intends. Cushman's account also obscures some of rationalization's pernicious consequences.
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  34.  3
    Enculturation Without TTOM and Bayesianism Without FEP: Another Bayesian Theory of Culture is Needed.Martin Fortier-Davy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    First, I discuss cross-cultural evidence showing that a good deal of enculturation takes place outside of thinking through other minds. Second, I review evidence challenging the claim that humans seek to minimize entropy. Finally, I argue that optimality claims should be avoided, and that descriptive Bayesianism offers a more promising avenue for the development of a Bayesian theory of culture.
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  35.  1
    The Divided We and Multiple Obligations.Bradley Franks & Andrew Stewart - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's account of the origins and nature of moral obligation rightly emphasises the key roles of social relations and a cooperative sense of “we.” However, we suggest that it overlooks the complexity of those social relations and the resulting prevalence of a divided “we” in moral social groups. We argue that the social identity dynamics that arise can lead to competing obligations in a single group, and this has implications for the evolution of obligation.
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  36. Belief as a Non-Epistemic Adaptive Benefit.Rebekah Gelpi, William Andrew Cunningham & Daphna Buchsbaum - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although rationalization about one's own beliefs and actions can improve an individual's future decisions, beliefs can provide other benefits unrelated to their epistemic truth value, such as group cohesion and identity. A model of resource-rational cognition that accounts for these benefits may explain unexpected and seemingly irrational thought patterns, such as belief polarization.
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  37.  3
    Shared Intentionality, Joint Commitment, and Directed Obligation.Margaret Gilbert - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello frequently refers to joint commitment, but does not fully characterize it. In earlier publications, I have offered a detailed account of joint commitment, tying it to a sense that the parties form a “we,” and arguing that it grounds directed obligations and rights. Here I outline my understanding of joint commitment and its normative impact.
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  38.  1
    Ideology, Shared Moral Narratives, and the Dark Side of Collective Rationalization.Jesse Graham - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary extends the target article's useful concepts to consider collective instances of representational exchange. When groups collectively rationalize their actions, entire networks of beliefs and desires can be created and maintained in the form of shared moral narratives and system-justifying ideologies. These collective rationalization cases illustrate how adaptive advantages can come at the expense of the truth.
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  39.  3
    The Role of Communication in Acquisition, Curation, and Transmission of Culture.Hyowon Gweon - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière et al.'s proposal aims to explain how cognition enables cultural learning, but fails to acknowledge a distinctively human behavior critical to this process: communication. Recent advances in developmental and computational cognitive science suggest that the social-cognitive capacities central to TTOM also support sophisticated yet remarkably early-emerging inferences and communicative behaviors that allow us to learn and share abstract knowledge.
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  40.  1
    Cognitive Dissonance Processes Serve an Action-Oriented Adaptive Function.Eddie Harmon-Jones & Cindy Harmon-Jones - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The action-based model of cognitive dissonance proposes an adaptive function for rationalization that differs from the one offered by Cushman. The one proposed by Cushman is concerned more with the cold construction of cognitions, whereas the one proposed by the action-based model is a motivated protection of a strongly held cognition.
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  41.  1
    Conflicting Obligations in Human Social Life.Jacob B. Hirsh, Garriy Shteynberg & Michele J. Gelfand - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello describes how the sense of moral obligation emerges from a shared perspective with collaborative partners and in-group members. Our commentary expands this framework to accommodate multiple social identities, where the normative standards associated with diverse group memberships can often conflict with one another. Reconciling these conflicting obligations is argued to be a central part of human morality.
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  42.  5
    The Cost of Over-Intellectualizing the Free-Energy Principle.Daniel D. Hutto - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary raises a question about the target article's proposed explanation of what goes on when we think through other minds. It highlights a tension between non-mindreading characterizations of everyday social cognition and the individualist, cognitivist assumptions that target article's explanatory proposal inherits from the predictive processing framework it favours.
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  43.  1
    Personalizing the Demands of Reason.Charles Kalish - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Children come to joint action with a generalized sense of “reason,” which carries normative implications, before personalizing reasons. A general sense of ought precedes specific notions of individual perspective.
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  44. Is That All There Is? Or is Chimpanzees Group Hunt “Fair” Enough?Angelica Kaufmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello claims that we lack convincing evidence that nonhuman animals manifest a sense of moral obligation in their group activities. The philosophical analysis of distinctive evidence from ethology, namely group hunting practices among chimpanzees, can help the author appreciate the distinctive character of this behaviour as a display of fairness put into practice.
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  45. The Moral Obligations of Conflict and Resistance.Melanie Killen & Audun Dahl - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Morality has two key features: moral judgments are not solely determined by what your group thinks, and moral judgments are often applied to members of other groups as well as your own group. Cooperative motives do not explain how young children reject unfairness, and assert moral obligations, both inside and outside their groups. Resistance and experience with conflicts, alongside cooperation, is key to the emergence and development of moral obligation.
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  46.  3
    Obligations to Whom, Obligations to What? A Philosophical Perspective on the Objects of Our Obligations.Kati Kish Bar-On - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello strives to understand the underlying psychology behind the human sense of obligation, but he only addresses a specific kind of obligation: to other human beings. We argue that in order to account for the psychological underpinning of human behavior, one should also consider people's sense of commitment to non-human entities, such as ideals, values, and moral principles.
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  47.  4
    Skill-Based Engagement with a Rich Landscape of Affordances as an Alternative to Thinking Through Other Minds.Julian Kiverstein & Erik Rietveld - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière and colleagues make a valiant attempt at reconciling an internalist account of implicit cultural learning with an externalist account that understands social behaviour in terms of its environment-involving dynamics. However, unfortunately the author's attempt to forge a middle way between internalism and externalism fails. We argue their failure stems from the overly individualistic understanding of the perception of cultural affordances they propose.
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  48.  2
    Rationalization May Improve Predictability Rather Than Accuracy.P. Kyle Stanford, Ashley J. Thomas & Barbara W. Sarnecka - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We present a theoretical and an empirical challenge to Cushman's claim that rationalization is adaptive because it allows humans to extract more accurate beliefs from our non-rational motivations for behavior. Rationalization sometimes generates more adaptive decisions by making our beliefs about the world less accurate. We suggest that the most important adaptive advantage of rationalization is instead that it increases our predictability as potential partners in cooperative social interactions.
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  49. What Kind of Rationalization is System Justification?Kristin Laurin & William M. Jettinghoff - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman uses rationalization to refer to people's explanations for their own actions. In system justification theory, scholars use the same term to refer to people's efforts to cast their current status quo in an exaggeratedly positive light. We try to reconcile these two meanings, positing that system justification could result from people trying to explain their own failure to take action to combat inequality. We highlight two novel and contested predictions emerging from this interpretation.
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  50.  5
    Rationalization Enables Cooperation and Cultural Evolution.Neil Levy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman argues that the function of rationalization is to attribute mental representations to ourselves, thereby making these representations available for future planning. I argue that such attribution is often not necessary and sometimes maladaptive. I suggest a different explanation of rationalization: making representations available to other agents, to facilitate cooperation, transmission, and the ratchet effect that underlies cumulative cultural evolution.
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  51. The Sense of Obligation in Children's Testimonial Learning.Pearl Han Li, Annelise Pesch & Melissa A. Koenig - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We extend Tomasello's discussion of children's developing sense of obligation to testimonial learning. First, we review a battery of behaviors in testimonial exchanges that parallel those described by Tomasello. Second, we explore the variable ways in which children hold others accountable, suggestive that children's evaluations of moral and epistemic responsibilities in joint collaborative activities are distinct.
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  52. A Lifelong Preoccupation with the Sociality of Moral Obligation.Zoe Liberman & John W. Du Bois - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello provides compelling evidence that children understand that people are morally obligated toward members of their social group. We call for expanding the scope of inquiry to encompass the full developmental trajectory of humans’ understanding of the relation between moral obligation, sociality, and stancetaking in interaction. We suggest that humans display a lifelong preoccupation with the sociality of moral obligation.
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  53.  4
    Culture and the Plasticity of Perception.Michael Lifshitz & T. M. Luhrmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Culture shapes our basic sensory experience of the world. This is particularly striking in the study of religion and psychosis, where we and others have shown that cultural context determines both the structure and content of hallucination-like events. The cultural shaping of hallucinations may provide a rich case-study for linking cultural learning with emerging prediction-based models of perception.
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  54. The Sense of Moral Obligation Facilitates Information Agency and Culture.Heather M. Maranges, Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello argues that humans’ sense of moral obligation emerges early in development, relies on a shared “we,” and serves as the foundation of cooperation. This perspective complements our theoretical view of the human self as information agent. The shared “we” promotes not only proximal cooperative goals but also distal ones via the construction of shared understanding – it promotes culture.
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  55. Obligations Without Cooperation.Julia Marshall - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Our sense of obligation is evident outside of joint collaborative activities. Most notably, children and adults recognize that parents are obligated to care for and love their children. This is presumably not because we think parents view their children as worthy cooperative partners, but because special obligations and duties are inherent in certain relational dynamics, namely the parent-child relationship.
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  56.  3
    How Does Social Cognition Shape Enculturation?John Michael & Leon de Bruin - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Other people in our culture actively transform our behavioral dispositions and mental states by shaping them in various ways. In the following, we highlight three points which Veissière et al. may consider in leveraging their account to illuminate the dynamics by which this occurs, and in particular, to shed light on how social cognition supports, and is supported by, enculturation.
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  57.  2
    Encultured Minds, Not Error Reduction Minds.Robert Mirski, Mark H. Bickhard, David Eck & Arkadiusz Gut - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    There are serious theoretical problems with the free-energy principle model, which are shown in the current article. We discuss the proposed model's inability to account for culturally emergent normativities, and point out the foundational issues that we claim this inability stems from.
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  58.  2
    Importance of the “Thinking Through Other Minds” Process Explored Through Motor Correlates of Motivated Social Interactions.Harold Mouras - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We wanted to gather recent results supporting the idea of the central role of sharing agency in socioaffective and motivational information processing. Here, we want to support the idea that this process is quite arbitrary, early in the temporal chain of processes and not only influence the psychological, but also the motor correlates of socioaffective information processes.
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  59.  1
    The Nature of Obligation's Special Force.David Olbrich - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's characterization of obligation as demanding and coercive is not an implication of the centrality of collaborative commitment. Not only is this characterization contentious, it appears to be falsified in some cases of personal conviction. The theory would be strengthened if the nature of obligation's force and collaborative commitment were directly linked, possibly through Tomasello's notions of identity and identification.
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  60.  2
    The Future of TTOM.Søren Overgaard - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    “Thinking through other minds,” or TTOM, is defined in two different ways. On the one hand, it refers to something people do – for example, inferences they make about others’ expectations. On the other hand, it refers to a particular theoretical model of those things that people do. If the concept of TTOM is to have any future, this ambiguity must be redressed.
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  61. Letting Rationalizations Out of the Box.Philip Pärnamets, Petter Johansson & Lars Hall - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We are very happy that someone has finally tried to make sense of rationalization. But we are worried about the representational structure assumed by Cushman, particularly the “boxology” belief-desire model depicting the rational planner, and it seems to us he fails to accommodate many of the interpersonal aspects of representational exchange.
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  62.  3
    Choosing a Markov Blanket.Thomas Parr - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary focuses upon the relationship between two themes in the target article: the ways in which a Markov blanket may be defined and the role of precision and salience in mediating the interactions between what is internal and external to a system. These each rest upon the different perspectives we might take while “choosing” a Markov blanket.
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  63.  18
    A Hard Choice for Tomasello.Philip Pettit - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Michael Tomasello explains the human sense of obligation by the role it plays in negotiating practices of acting jointly and the commitments they underwrite. He draws in his work on two models of joint action, one from Michael Bratman, the other from Margaret Gilbert. But Bratman's makes the explanation too difficult to succeed, and Gilbert's makes it too easy.
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  64.  2
    Social Epistemic Actions.Giovanni Pezzulo, Laura Barca, Domenico Maisto & Francesco Donnarumma - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We consider the ways humans engage in social epistemic actions, to guide each other's attention, prediction, and learning processes towards salient information, at the timescale of online social interaction and joint action. This parallels the active guidance of other's attention, prediction, and learning processes at the longer timescale of niche construction and cultural practices, as discussed in the target article.
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  65.  15
    Rationalization is Irrational and Self-Serving, but Useful.Jake Quilty-Dunn - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Rationalization through reduction of cognitive dissonance does not have the function of representational exchange. Instead, cognitive dissonance is part of the “psychological immune system” and functions to protect the self-concept against evidence of incompetence, immorality, and instability. The irrational forms of attitude change that protect the self-concept in dissonance reduction are useful primarily for maintaining motivation.
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  66.  6
    Rationalization of Emotion is Also Rational.Peter Railton - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman seeks to explain rationalization in terms of fundamental mental processes, and he hypotheses a selected-for function: information exchange between “rational” and “non-rational” processes in the brain. While this is plausible, his account overlooks the importance – and information value – of rationalizing the emotions of ourselves and others. Incorporating such rationalization would help explain the effectiveness of rationalization and its connection with valuation, as well as raise a challenge to his way of bifurcating “rational” and “non-rational” processes.
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  67.  2
    How is the Moral Stance Related to the Intentional Stance and Group Thinking?Hannes Rakoczy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The natural history of our moral stance told here in this commentary reveals the close nexus of morality and basic social-cognitive capacities. Big mysteries about morality thus transform into smaller and more manageable ones. Here, I raise questions regarding the conceptual, ontogenetic, and evolutionary relations of the moral stance to the intentional and group stances and to shared intentionality.
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  68. Caregiving Relationships as Evolutionary and Developmental Bases of Obligation.Rachna B. Reddy & Henry M. Wellman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Obligation as defined by Tomasello requires mutually capable parties, but one-sided caregiver relationships reveal its developmental and evolutionary precursors. Specifically, “coercive” emotions may prompt protective action by caregivers toward infant primates, and infants show distress toward caregivers when they appear to violate expectations in their relationships. We argue that these early social-relational expectations and emotions may form the base of obligation.
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  69.  2
    Does the Concept of Obligation Develop From the Inside-Out or Outside-In?Marjorie Rhodes - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello proposes that the concept of obligation develops “from the inside-out”: emerging first in experiences of shared agency and generalizing outward to shape children's broader understanding. Here I consider that obligation may also develop “from the outside-in,” emerging as a domain-specific instantiation of a more general conceptual bias to expect categories to prescribe how their members are supposed to behave.
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  70.  4
    Rationalization and the Status of Folk Psychology.Adina L. Roskies - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman's theory has implications for the philosophical debate about the nature of folk psychological states, for it entails realism about propositional attitudes. I point out a tension within his view and suggest a different view upon which rationalization emerges as a consequence of the adaptiveness of mentalizing. This alternative avoids the strong metaphysical implications of Cushman's theory.
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  71. Feelings of Obligation Are Valuations of Signaling-Mediated Social Payoffs.Amanda Rotella, Adam Maxwell Sparks & Pat Barclay - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We extend Tomasello's framework by addressing the functional challenge of obligation. If the long-run social consequences of a decision are sufficiently costly, obligation motivates the actor to forgo potential immediate benefits in favor of long-term social interests. Thus, obligation psychology balances the downstream socially-mediated payoffs from a decision. This perspective can predict when and why obligation will be experienced.
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  72.  1
    Rationalization: Why, When, and What For?Rebecca Saxe & Daniel Nettle - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary, we ask when rationalization is most likely to occur and to not occur, and about where to expect, and how to measure, its benefits.
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  73. Who Are “We”? Dealing with Conflicting Moral Obligations.Alex Shaw & Shoham Choshen-Hillel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Satisfying one's obligations is an important part of being human. However, people's obligations can often prescribe contradictory behaviors. Moral obligations conflict, and so do obligations to different groups. We propose that a broader framework is needed to account for how people balance different social and moral obligations.
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  74. Antecedent Rationalization: Rationalization Prior to Action.Eric Thomas Sievers - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Often times we find ourselves wrestling with the urge to commit a non-rational action. When this happens, we are quite good at adopting quasi-beliefs that, if true, would make the action rational. In other words, rationalization often occurs antecedent to a behavioral choice. A complete account of the evolutionary history of rationalization must include antecedent rationalization.
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  75. Ex Ante Coherence Shifts.Dan Simon & Keith J. Holyoak - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman characterizes rationalization as the inverse of rational reasoning, but this distinction is psychologically questionable. Coherence-based reasoning highlights a subtler form of bidirectionality: By distorting task attributes to make one course of action appear superior to its rivals, a patina of rationality is bestowed on the choice. This mechanism drives choice and action, rather than just following in their wake.
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  76.  13
    How Does Inequality Affect Our Sense of Moral Obligation?Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's novel and insightful theory of obligation explains why we sometimes sense an obligation to treat each other equally, but he has not yet explained why human morality also allows and enables much inequality in wealth and power. Ullman-Margalit's account of norms of partiality suggested a different source and kind of norms that might help to fill out Tomasello's picture.
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  77.  3
    Thinking Through Others’ Emotions: Incorporating the Role of Emotional State Inference in Thinking Through Other Minds.Ryan Smith & Richard D. Lane - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The active inference framework offers an attractive starting point for understanding cultural cognition. Here, we argue that affective dynamics are essential to include when constructing this type of theory. We highlight ways in which interactions between emotional responses and the perception of those responses, both within and between individuals, can play central roles in both motivating and constraining sociocultural practices.
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  78.  1
    Evidence for the Rationalisation Phenomenon is Exaggerated.Tom Stafford - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The evidence for rationalisation, which motivates the target article, is exaggerated. Experimental evidence shows that rationalisation effects are small rather than gross and, I argue, largely silent on the pervasiveness and persistence of the phenomenon. At least some examples taken to show rationalisation also have an interpretation compatible with deliberate, knowing reason-responsiveness on the part of participants.
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  79.  2
    A Deeper and Distributed Search for Culture.Paul S. Strand - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The target article does not address the neural mediation of complex social behavior. I review evidence that such mediation may be compatible with proposed Bayesian information-processing principles. Notably, however, such mediation occurs subcortically as well as cortically, concerns reward uncertainty and information uncertainty, and impacts culture via group-level payoff structures that define individualism and collectivism.
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  80.  1
    Cooperation and Obligation in Early Parent-Child Relationships.Ross A. Thompson - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's moral psychology of obligation would be developmentally deepened by greater attention to early experiences of cooperation and shared social agency between parents and infants, evolved to promote infant survival. They provide a foundation for developing understanding of the mutual obligations of close relationships that contribute to growing collaborative skills, fairness expectations, and fidelity to social norms.
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  81. Quantifying the Prevalence and Adaptiveness of Behavioral Rationalizations.Warren Tierney & Eric Luis Uhlmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Critical aspects of the “rationality of rationalizations” thesis are open empirical questions. These include the frequency with which past behavior determines attitudes, the extent to which post hoc justifications take on a life of their own and shape future actions, and whether rationalizers experience benefits in well-being, social influence, performance, or other desirable outcomes.
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  82.  9
    The Many Faces of Obligation.Michael Tomasello - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    My response to the commentaries focuses on four issues: the diversity both within and between cultures of the many different faces of obligation; the possible evolutionary roots of the sense of obligation, including possible sources that I did not consider; the possible ontogenetic roots of the sense of obligation, including especially children's understanding of groups from a third-party perspective ; and the relation between philosophical accounts of normative phenomena in general – which are pitched as not totally empirical – and (...)
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  83.  15
    The Moral Psychology of Obligation.Michael Tomasello - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-33.
    Although psychologists have paid scant attention to the sense of obligation as a distinctly human motivation, moral philosophers have identified two of its key features: First, it has a peremptory, demanding force, with a kind of coercive quality, and second, it is often tied to agreement-like social interactions in which breaches prompt normative protest, on the one side, and apologies, excuses, justifications, and guilt on the other. Drawing on empirical research in comparative and developmental psychology, I provide here a psychological (...)
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  84. Heroes of Our Own Story: Self-Image and Rationalizing in Thought Experiments.Tomer David Ullman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman's rationalization account can be extended to cover another part of his portrayal of representational exchange: thought experiments that lead to conclusions about the self. While Cushman's argument is compelling, a full account of rationalization as adaptive will need to account for the divergence in rationalizing one's actions compared to the actions of others.
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  85. The Social Function of Rationalization: An Identity Perspective.Jay J. Van Bavel, Anni Sternisko, Elizabeth Harris & Claire Robertson - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary, we offer an additional function of rationalization. Namely, in certain social contexts, the proximal and ultimate function of beliefs and desires is social inclusion. In such contexts, rationalization often facilitates distortion of rather than approximation to truth. Understanding the role of social identity is not only timely and important, but also critical to fully understand the function of rationalization.
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  86.  2
    The Dark Side of Thinking Through Other Minds.Sander Van de Cruys & Francis Heylighen - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We show that TTOM has a lot to offer for the study of the evolution of cultures, but that this also brings to the fore the dark implications of TTOM, unexposed in Veissière et al. Those implications lead us to move beyond meme-centered or an organism-centered concept of fitness based on free-energy minimization, toward a social system-centered view.
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  87.  5
    TTOM in Action: Refining the Variational Approach to Cognition and Culture.Samuel P. L. Veissière, Axel Constant, Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Karl J. Friston & Laurence J. Kirmayer - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The target article “Thinking Through Other Minds” offered an account of the distinctively human capacity to acquire cultural knowledge, norms, and practices. To this end, we leveraged recent ideas from theoretical neurobiology to understand the human mind in social and cultural contexts. Our aim was both synthetic – building an integrative model adequate to account for key features of cultural learning and adaptation; and prescriptive – showing how the tools developed to explain brain dynamics can be applied to the emergence (...)
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  88.  28
    Thinking Through Other Minds: A Variational Approach to Cognition and Culture.Samuel P. L. Veissière, Axel Constant, Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Karl J. Friston & Laurence J. Kirmayer - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-97.
    The processes underwriting the acquisition of culture remain unclear. How are shared habits, norms, and expectations learned and maintained with precision and reliability across large-scale sociocultural ensembles? Is there a unifying account of the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of culture? Notions such as “shared expectations,” the “selective patterning of attention and behaviour,” “cultural evolution,” “cultural inheritance,” and “implicit learning” are the main candidates to underpin a unifying account of cognition and the acquisition of culture; however, their interactions require greater (...)
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  89.  6
    The Rationale of Rationalization.Walter Veit, Joe Dewhurst, Krzysztof Dołęga, Max Jones, Shaun Stanley, Keith Frankish & Daniel C. Dennett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    While we agree in broad strokes with the characterisation of rationalization as a “useful fiction,” we think that Fiery Cushman's claim remains ambiguous in two crucial respects: the reality of beliefs and desires, that is, the fictional status of folk-psychological entities and the degree to which they should be understood as useful. Our aim is to clarify both points and explicate the rationale of rationalization.
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  90.  2
    Participating in a Musician's Stream of Consciousness.Björn Vickhoff - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Do we acquire culture through other minds, or do we get access to other minds through culture? Music culture is a practice as well as the people involved. Sounding music works as a script guiding action, as do, to varying degrees, many rituals and customs. Collective co-performance of the script enables inter-subjectivity, which arguably contributes to the formation of subcultures. Shared-emotional experiences give material to the narrative of who we are.
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  91.  1
    Hard Domains, Biased Rationalizations, and Unanswered Empirical Questions.Stephen E. Weinberg & Jonathan M. Weinberg - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman raises the intriguing possibility that rationalization accesses/constructs intuitions that are not otherwise cognitively available. However, he substantially over-reaches in arguing that rationalization is mostly right on average, based on claims that the process must have emerged adaptively. The adaptiveness of “bounded rationalization” is domain specific and is unlikely to be adaptive in a large number of important applications.
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  92.  2
    A Unified Account of Culture Should Accommodate Animal Cultures.Andrew Whiten - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Discoveries about social learning and culture in non-human animals have burgeoned this century, yet despite aspiring to offer a unified account of culture, the target article neglects these discoveries almost totally. I offer an overview of principal findings in this field including phylogenetic reach, intraspecies pervasiveness, stability, fidelity, and attentional funnelling in social learning. Can the authors’ approach accommodate these?
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  93.  2
    Integrating Models of Cognition and Culture Will Require a Bit More Math.Matthew R. Zefferman & Paul E. Smaldino - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We support the goal to integrate models of culture and cognition. However, we are not convinced that the free energy principle and Thinking Through Other Minds will be useful in achieving it. There are long traditions of modeling both cultural evolution and cognition. Demonstrating that FEP or TTOM can integrate these models will require a bit more math.
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