Year:

  1.  1
    To Be or to Know? Information in the Pristine Present.Larissa Albantakis - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    To be true of every experience, the axioms of Integrated information theory are necessarily basic properties and should not be “over-psychologized.” Information, for example, merely asserts that experience is specific, not generic. It does not require “access.” The information a system specifies about itself in its current state is revealed by its unfolded cause–effect structure and quantified by its integrated information.
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  2.  1
    There is No Psychology Without Inferential Statistics.Shilaan Alzahawi & Benoît Monin - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Quantification has been constitutive of psychology since its inception and is core to its scientific status. The adoption of qualitative methods eschewing inferential statistics is therefore unlikely to obtain. Rather than discarding useful tools because of improper use, we recommend highlighting how inferential statistics can be more thoughtfully applied.
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  3.  1
    Practical Consequences of Flawed Social Psychological Research on Bias.Hal R. Arkes - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The flaws in social psychological research pointed out by Cesario have societal costs. These include ignoring crucial base rates thereby degrading the effectiveness of policy decisions, generalizing the conclusions derived from experiments on non-professionals thereby distorting the public's view of professional law enforcement personnel, questionable accusations of racism, and mis-attributions of the causes of racial differences in behavior.
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  4.  2
    Random Effects Won't Solve the Problem of Generalizability.Adam Bear & Jonathan Phillips - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni argues that researchers making broad inferences often use impoverished statistical models that fail to include important sources of variation as random effects. We argue, however, that for many common study designs, random effects are inappropriate and insufficient to draw general inferences, as the source of variation is not random, but systematic.
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  5.  2
    Social Bias Insights Concern Judgments Rather Than Real-World Decisions.Michał Białek & Igor Grossmann - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Judgments differ from decisions. Judgments are more abstract, decontextualized, and bear fewer consequences for the agent. In pursuit of experimental control, psychological experiments on bias create a simplified, bare-bone representation of social behavior. These experiments resemble conditions in which people judge others, but not how they make real-world decisions.
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  6.  1
    The Missing Consequences: A Fourth Flaw of Experiments.Adam Thomas Biggs - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Decisions are affected by the potential consequences as much as any factor during the decision-making process. This prospective influence represents another flaw overlooked by most experiments that raises questions about the use of certain laboratory paradigms. Lethal force encounters are a prime example of this problem, where negative consequences of slow decisions and wrong decisions should be considered alongside behavior.
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  7.  1
    A Skeptical Reflection: Contextualizing Police Shooting Decisions with Skin-Tone.David M. Blake - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    This commentary expands the discussion of Cesario's Missing Forces Flaw by identifying and discussing variables that influence police shooting decisions but are often absent from bias-based research. Additionally, the closing identifies novel recommendations for future contextually related research.
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  8.  1
    Causal Analysis as a Bridge Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research.Rosemary Blersch, Neil Franchuk, Miranda Lucas, Christina M. Nord, Stephanie Varsanyi & Tyler R. Bonnell - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni argues that one solution is to abandon quantitative methods for qualitative ones. While we agree that qualitative methods are undervalued, we argue that both are necessary for thoroughgoing psychological research, complementing one another through the use of causal analysis. We illustrate how directed acyclic graphs can bridge qualitative and quantitative methods, thereby fostering understanding between different psychological methodologies.
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  9.  1
    Increasing Generalizability Via the Principle of Minimum Description Length.Wes Bonifay - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Traditional statistical model evaluation typically relies on goodness-of-fit testing and quantifying model complexity by counting parameters. Both of these practices may result in overfitting and have thereby contributed to the generalizability crisis. The information-theoretic principle of minimum description length addresses both of these concerns by filtering noise from the observed data and consequently increasing generalizability to unseen data.
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  10. We Need to Be Braver About the Generalizability Crisis.Todd S. Braver & Sanford L. Braver - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We applaud the effort to draw attention to generalizability concerns in twenty-first-century psychological research. Yet we do not feel that a pessimistic perspective is warranted. We outline a continuum of available methodological tools and perspectives, including incremental steps and meta-analytic approaches that can be readily and easily deployed by researchers to advance generalizability claims in a forward-looking manner.
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  11.  1
    Does the Present Moment Depend on the Moments Not Lived?Romain Brette - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Integrated information theory postulates that a conscious experience depends on a repertoire of hypothetical experiences. This makes consciousness depend on the context that constrains the set of possibilities and on the scenarios imagined by the external observer, and not only on the system itself.
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  12.  1
    Impact on the Legal System of the Generalizability Crisis in Psychology.Chris R. Brewin - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Overgeneralizations by psychologists of the research evidence on memory and eyewitness testimony, such as “memory decays with time” or “memories are fluid and malleable,” are beginning to appear in legal judgements and guidance documents, accompanied by unwarranted disparagement of lay beliefs about memory. These overgeneralizations could have significant adverse consequences for the conduct of civil and criminal law.
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  13.  98
    Taking Social Psychology Out of Context.Michael Brownstein, Daniel Kelly & Alex Madva - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We endorse Cesario's call for more research into the complexities of “real-world” decisions and the comparative power of different causes of group disparities. Unfortunately, these reasonable suggestions are overshadowed by a barrage of non sequiturs, misdirected criticisms of methodology, and unsubstantiated claims about the assumptions and inferences of social psychologists.
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  14.  1
    Experimental Studies of Bias: Imperfect but Neither Useless nor Unique.Callie H. Burt & Brian B. Boutwell - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario provides a compelling critique of the use of experimental social psychology to explain real-world group disparities. We concur with his targeted critique and extend “the problem of missing information” to another common measures of bias. We disagree with Cesario's broader argument that the entire enterprise be abandoned, suggesting instead targeted utilization. Finally, we question whether the critique is appropriately directed at experimental social psychologists.
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  15.  1
    Reply to the Commentaries: A Radical Revision of Experimental Social Psychology is Still Needed.Joseph Cesario - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Are the landscapes of real-world decisions adequately represented in our laboratory tasks? Are the goals and expertise of experimental participants the same as real-world decision-makers? Are we neglecting crucial forces that lead to group outcomes? Are the contingencies necessary for producing experimental demonstrations of bias present in the real world? In the target article, I argued that the answers to these questions are needed to understand whether and how laboratory research can inform real-world group disparities. Most of the commentaries defending (...)
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  16.  3
    What Can Experimental Studies of Bias Tell Us About Real-World Group Disparities?Joseph Cesario - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:1-80.
    This article questions the widespread use of experimental social psychology to understand real-world group disparities. Standard experimental practice is to design studies in which participants make judgments of targets who vary only on the social categories to which they belong. This is typically done under simplified decision landscapes and with untrained decision-makers. For example, to understand racial disparities in police shootings, researchers show pictures of armed and unarmed Black and White men to undergraduates and have them press “shoot” and “don't (...)
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  17.  1
    Exposing and Overcoming the Fixed-Effect Fallacy Through Crowd Science.Wilson Cyrus-Lai, Warren Tierney, Martin Schweinsberg & Eric Luis Uhlmann - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    By organizing crowds of scientists to independently tackle the same research questions, we can collectively overcome the generalizability crisis. Strategies to draw inferences from a heterogeneous set of research approaches include aggregation, for instance, meta-analyzing the effect sizes obtained by different investigators, and parsing, attempting to identify theoretically meaningful moderators that explain the variability in results.
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  18.  1
    Separate Substantive From Statistical Hypotheses and Treat Them Differently.Mike Dacey - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    I suggest addressing the problems Yarkoni identifies by separating substantive from statistical hypotheses, and treating them differently. A statistical test of experimental data only bears directly on statistical hypotheses. Evaluation of related substantive hypotheses requires an additional, qualitative inference to the best explanation. Statistical inference cannot do all of the work of theory choice.
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  19.  1
    Measurement Practices Exacerbate the Generalizability Crisis: Novel Digital Measures Can Help.Brittany I. Davidson, David A. Ellis, Clemens Stachl, Paul J. Taylor & Adam N. Joinson - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Psychology's tendency to focus on confirmatory analyses before ensuring constructs are clearly defined and accurately measured is exacerbating the generalizability crisis. Our growing use of digital behaviors as predictors has revealed the fragility of subjective measures and the latent constructs they scaffold. However, new technologies can provide opportunities to improve conceptualizations, theories, and measurement practices.
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  20.  1
    Generalizability, Transferability, and the Practice-to-Practice Gap.Joshua R. de Leeuw, Benjamin A. Motz, Emily R. Fyfe, Paulo F. Carvalho & Robert L. Goldstone - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Emphasizing the predictive success and practical utility of psychological science is an admirable goal but it will require a substantive shift in how we design research. Applied research often assumes that findings are transferable to all practices, insensitive to variation between implementations. We describe efforts to quantify and close this practice-to-practice gap in education research.
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  21.  1
    Consciousness Generates Agent Action.Jonathan Delafield-Butt & Colwyn Trevarthen - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Consciousness directs the actions of the agent for its own purposive gains. It re-organises a stimulus-response linear causality to deliver generative, creative agent action that evaluates the subsequent experience prospectively. This inversion of causality affords special properties of control that are not accounted for in integrated information theory, which is predicated on a linear, deterministic cause-effect model. IIT remains an incomplete, abstract, and disembodied theory without explanation of the psychobiology of consciousness that serves the vital agency the organism.
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  22.  1
    Searching in the Wrong Place: Might Consciousness Reside in the Brainstem?Marshall Devor, Mary Koukoui & Mark Baron - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Doubtless, the conscious brain integrates masses of information. But declaring that consciousness simply “emerges” when enough has accumulated, doesn't really explain how first person experience is implemented by neurons. Moreover, empirical observations challenge integrated information theory's reliance on thalamo–cortical interactions as the information integrator. More likely, the cortex streams processed information to a still-enigmatic consciousness generator, one perhaps located in the brainstem.
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  23.  2
    Lessons From Behaviorism: The Problem of Construct-Led Science.Thomas E. Dickins & Qazi Rahman - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni makes a number of valid points in his critical analysis of psychology, but he misses an opportunity to expose the root of its problems. That root is the poor practice around the derivation of explanatory constructs. We make comment on this with an example from behaviorist history and relate this to the recent discussion of scientific understanding in the philosophy of science.
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  24.  1
    Observing Effects in Various Contexts Won't Give Us General Psychological Theories.Chris Donkin, Aba Szollosi & Neil R. Bramley - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Generalization does not come from repeatedly observing phenomena in numerous settings, but from theories explaining what is general in those phenomena. Expecting future behavior to look like past observations is especially problematic in psychology, where behaviors change when people's knowledge changes. Psychology should thus focus on theories of people's capacity to create and apply new representations of their environments.
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  25.  1
    Understanding Causal Mechanisms in the Study of Group Bias.Dominik Duell & Dimitri Landa - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Causal mechanisms' portability and their predictions in sometimes counterfactual settings point to the value of studies with details of interactions and/or convenience samples that depart from those in the proximate contexts of the phenomena of interest. The proper role of such contexts must be construed within an explanatory framework attentive to the nature and properties of relevant causal mechanisms.
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  26.  1
    A Call for Comparing Theories of Consciousness and Data Sharing.Sarah L. Eagleman, David M. Eagleman, Vinod Menon & Kimford J. Meador - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Merker, Williford, and Rudrauf make several arguments against the integrated information theory of consciousness; whereas some have merit, their conclusion that the theory should be discarded is premature. Coming years promise advances in the empirical study of consciousness, and only after theories are independently tested with shared data can they be ruled in or out. We propose future research directions.
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  27.  1
    Beyond Stereotypes: Prejudice as an Important Missing Force Explaining Group Disparities.Iniobong Essien, Marleen Stelter, Anette Rohmann & Juliane Degner - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We comment on Cesario's assertion that social psychological intergroup research focuses solely on stereotypes, neglecting actual differences between groups to explain group disparities. This reasoning, however, misses yet another explaining force: In addition to stereotypes, ample laboratory and field research documents relationships between group disparities, discrimination, and prejudice, which cannot be explained by people's accurate judgments of real-world group differences.
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  28.  1
    Computation, Perception, and Mind.Jerome A. Feldman - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Advances in behavioral and brain sciences have engendered wide ranging efforts to help understand consciousness. The target article suggests that abstract computational models are ill-advised. This commentary broadens the discussion to include mysteries of subjective experience that are inconsistent with current neuroscience. It also discusses progress being made through demystifying specific cases and pursuing evolutionary considerations.
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  29.  1
    Why Evolve Consciousness? Neural Credit and Blame Allocation as a Core Function of Consciousness.W. Tecumseh Fitch - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    I concur with Merker and colleague's critiques, suggesting that hypotheses about the evolutionary function of consciousness can help address them. Brains are parallel systems that function to compute possible actions and predict outcomes. I hypothesize that a core function of consciousness per se is the global feedback of information about those actions actually executed, supporting local learning via neuronal updating.
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  30.  1
    Addressing a Crisis of Generalizability with Large-Scale Construct Validation.Jessica Kay Flake, Raymond Luong & Mairead Shaw - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Because of the misspecification of models and specificity of operationalizations, many studies produce claims of limited utility. We suggest a path forward that requires taking a few steps back. Researchers can retool large-scale replications to conduct the descriptive research which assesses the generalizability of constructs. Large-scale construct validation is feasible and a necessary next step in addressing the generalizability crisis.
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  31.  1
    Accuracy in Social Judgment Does Not Exclude the Potential for Bias.Jonathan B. Freeman, Kerri L. Johnson & Steven J. Stroessner - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario claims that all bias research tells us is that people “end up using the information they have come to learn as being probabilistically accurate in their daily lives”. We expose Cesario's flawed assumptions about the relationship between accuracy and bias. Through statistical simulations and empirical work, we show that even probabilistically accurate responses are regularly accompanied by bias.
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  32.  1
    Centering the Relationship Between Structural Racism and Individual Bias.Agustín Fuentes, Laurence Ralph & Dorothy E. Roberts - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario misrepresents or ignores data on real-world racist and sexist patterns and processes in an attempt to discredit the assumptions of implicit bias experimentation. His position stands in stark contradiction to substantive research across the social sciences recognizing the widespread, systematic, and structuring processes of racism and sexism. We argue for centering the relationship between structural racism and individual bias.
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  33.  1
    Mismatch Between Scientific Theories and Statistical Models.Andrew Gelman - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni recommends that psychology researchers should take care to align their statistical models to the verbal theories they are studying and testing. This principle applies not just to qualitative theories in psychology but also to more quantitative sciences: there, too, mismatch between open-ended theories and specific statistical models have led to confusion.
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  34.  7
    We Need to Think More About How We Conduct Research.Gerd Gigerenzer - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Research practice is too often shaped by routines rather than reflection. The routine of sampling subjects, but not stimuli, is a case in point, leading to unwarranted generalizations. It likely originated out of administrative rather than scientific concerns. The routine of sampling subjects and testing their averages for significance is reinforced by delusions about its meaningfulness, including the replicability delusion.
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  35.  1
    The Four Different Modes of Psychological Explanation, and Their Proper Evaluative Schemas.Michael Gilead - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    I apply Benjamin's taxonomy of common scientific “modes of explanation” to the psychological context. I argue that: in a “naming” mode, generalizability is not necessary; in an “analysis,” generalizability is desired; in a “causal ontology,” generalizability is merely one of the means to an end ; in a “synthesis,” generalizability is critical. A better appreciation of the diversity in psychologists' modes of explanation is crucial for cogent meta-psychological discussions.
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  36.  2
    Consciousness is Already Solved: The Continued Debate is Not About Science.Michael S. A. Graziano - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    A logical explanation of consciousness has been known for decades. The brain must construct a specific set of information about conscious feeling, causing people to believe, think, and claim to have consciousness. Theories that propose an actual, intangible feeling are non-explanatory. They add a magical red herring while leaving unexplained the objective phenomena: the believing, thinking, and claiming.
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  37.  1
    The Cost of Crisis in Clinical Psychological Science.Joshua B. Grubbs - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni has argued that psychology is facing a generalizability crisis, but the real cost of this crisis is obscured by a focus on topics from psychology's most academic subfields. Psychology is also filled with applied subfields, and it is within those subfields – especially clinical science – where the cost of a generalizability crisis will be most severe.
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  38.  1
    Anatomical, Physiological, and Psychophysical Data Show That the Nature of Conscious Perception is Incompatible with the Integrated Information Theory.Moshe Gur - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The integrated information theory equates levels of consciousness with the amount of information integrated over the elements that constitute a system. Conscious visual perception provides two observations that contradict the IIT. First, objects are accurately perceived when presented for ≪100 ms during which time no neural integration is possible. Second, an object is seen as an integrated whole and, concurrently, all constituent elements are evident. Because integration destroys information about details, IIT cannot account for perceptual detail preservation.
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  39.  1
    The Role of Generalizability in Moral and Political Psychology.Elizabeth A. Harris, Philip Pärnamets, William J. Brady, Claire E. Robertson & Jay J. Van Bavel - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The aim of the social and behavioral sciences is to understand human behavior across a wide array of contexts. Our theories often make sweeping claims about human nature, assuming that our ancestors or offspring will be prone to the same biases and preferences. Yet we gloss over the fact that our research is often based in a single temporal context with a limited set of stimuli. Political and moral psychology are domains in which the context and stimuli are likely to (...)
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  40.  1
    IIT is Ideally Positioned to Explain Perceptual Phenomena.Andrew M. Haun - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The target article's critique of the integrated information theory of consciousness is misguided on several fronts, which I hope are addressed in other comments, but here I focus on the connection between IIT and rigorous phenomenology, and IIT's connection to the psychophysics of perception.
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  41.  4
    Without More Theory, Psychology Will Be a Headless Rider.Witold M. Hensel, Marcin Miłkowski & Przemysław Nowakowski - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We argue that Yarkoni's proposed solutions to the generalizability crisis are half-measures because he does not recognize that the crisis arises from investigators' underappreciation of the roles of theory in experimental research. Rather than embracing qualitative analysis, the research community should make an effort to develop better theories and work toward consistently incorporating theoretical results into experimental practice.
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  42.  1
    Citizen Science Can Help to Alleviate the Generalizability Crisis.Courtney B. Hilton & Samuel A. Mehr - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Improving generalization in psychology will require more expansive data collection to fuel more expansive statistical models, beyond the scale of traditional lab research. We argue that citizen science is uniquely positioned to scale up data collection and, that in spite of certain limitations, can help to alleviate the generalizability crisis.
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  43.  1
    Fighting Over Who Dictates the Nature of Prejudice.Gordon Hodson - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    A growing trend, reflected in the target article, effectively shifts control of prejudice operationalization to align with right-leaning priorities. The article would only be compelling if experiments misaligned with real-world findings, if experimenters ignored nuances and moderators, and if the call to consider the social context included the macro-level societal context.
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  44.  1
    Look to the Field.Rumen Iliev, Douglas Medin & Megan Bang - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni's paper makes an important contribution to psychological research by its insightful analysis of generalizability. We suggest, however, that broadening research practices to include field research and the correlated use of both converging and complementary observations gives reason for optimism.
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  45.  2
    Science with or Without Statistics: Discover-Generalize-Replicate? Discover-Replicate-Generalize?John P. A. Ioannidis - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Overstated generalizability is common in research. It may coexist with inflation of the magnitude and statistical support for effects and dismissal of internal validity problems. Generalizability may be secured before attempting replication of proposed discoveries or replication may precede efforts to generalize. These opposite approaches may decrease or increase, respectively, the use of inferential statistics with advantages and disadvantages.
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  46.  1
    Missing Context From Experimental Studies Amplifies, Rather Than Negates, Racial Bias in the Real World.Leland Jasperse, Benjamin S. Stillerman & David M. Amodio - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We agree with Cesario's premise but reject his conclusion: Although experimental studies of racial stereotyping, weapons perception, and shoot decisions typically exclude real-world contextual factors and thus have limited relevance to race disparities, these excluded factors comprise systemic, institutional, and individual-level biases that are more likely to amplify racial disparities than negate them.
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  47. Experiments Make a Good Breakfast, but a Poor Supper.Jolanda Jetten, Hema Preya Selvanathan, Charlie R. Crimston, Sarah V. Bentley & S. Alexander Haslam - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario's analysis has three key flaws. First, the focus on whether an effect is “real” overlooks the importance of theory testing. Second, obsession with effects sidelines theoretically informed questions about when and why an effect may arise. Third, failure to take stock of cultural and historical context strips findings of meaning.
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  48.  2
    A Crisis of Generalizability or a Crisis of Constructs?Kevin M. King & Aidan G. C. Wright - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Psychologists wish to identify and study the mechanisms and implications of nomothetic constructs that reveal truths about human nature and span across operationalizations. To achieve this goal, psychologists should spend more time carefully describing and measuring constructs across a wide range of methods and measures, and less time rushing to explain and predict.
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  49.  1
    Meta-Criteria to Formulate Criteria of Consciousness.Boris Kotchoubey - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Any neurobiological model claiming explanation of a complex human phenomenon should start with an explicit definition of the explanandum. If a classical intensional definition is impossible, we can use a descriptive definition by listing necessary criteria. This commentary suggests four meta-criteria that different proposed criteria of consciousness should fulfill: phenomenological consensus, empirical evidence, domain specificity, and non-circularity.
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  50.  1
    What Can the Implicit Social Cognition Literature Teach Us About Implicit Social Cognition?Benedek Kurdi & Yarrow Dunham - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We highlight several sets of findings from the past decade elucidating the relationship between implicit social cognition and real-world inequality: Studies focusing on practical ramifications of implicit social cognition in applied contexts, the relationship between implicit social cognition and consequential real-world outcomes at the level of individuals and geographic units, and convergence between individual-level and corpus-based measures of implicit bias.
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  51.  1
    There is No Generalizability Crisis.Daniël Lakens, Duygu Uygun Tunç & Mehmet Necip Tunç - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Falsificationist and confirmationist approaches provide two well-established ways of evaluating generalizability. Yarkoni rejects both and invents a third approach we call neo-operationalism. His proposal cannot work for the hypothetical concepts psychologists use, because the universe of operationalizations is impossible to define, and hypothetical concepts cannot be reduced to their operationalizations. We conclude that he is wrong in his generalizability-crisis diagnosis.
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  52.  1
    Publishing Fast and Slow: A Path Toward Generalizability in Psychology and AI.Andrew K. Lampinen, Stephanie C. Y. Chan, Adam Santoro & Felix Hill - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Artificial intelligence shares many generalizability challenges with psychology. But the fields publish differently. AI publishes fast, through rapid preprint sharing and conference publications. Psychology publishes more slowly, but creates integrative reviews and meta-analyses. We discuss the complementary advantages of each strategy, and suggest that incorporating both types of strategies could lead to more generalizable research in both fields.
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  53.  1
    The Unbearable Limitations of Solo Science: Team Science as a Path for More Rigorous and Relevant Research.Alison Ledgerwood, Cynthia Pickett, Danielle Navarro, Jessica D. Remedios & Neil A. Lewis - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Both early social psychologists and the modern, interdisciplinary scientific community have advocated for diverse team science. We echo this call and describe three common pitfalls of solo science illustrated by the target article. We discuss how a collaborative and inclusive approach to science can both help researchers avoid these pitfalls and pave the way for more rigorous and relevant research.
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  54.  1
    Is Formalism the Key to Resolving the Generalizability Crisis? An Experimental Economics Perspective.Zacharias Maniadis - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    I draw lessons from experimental economics. I argue that the lack of mathematical formalism cannot be usefully thought as the cause of the underappreciation of contextual and generalizability considerations. Instead, this lack is problematic because it hinders a clear relationship between theory and quantitative predictions. I also advocate a pragmatic policy-focused approach as a partial remedy to the generalizability problem.
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  55.  1
    Measures of Differentiation and Integration: One Step Closer to Consciousness.Marcello Massimini, Simone Sarasso, Silvia Casarotto & Mario Rosanova - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Interpreting empirical measures of integration and differentiation as indices of cortical performance and memory consolidation during wakefulness rather than consciousness per se is inconsistent with the literature. Recent studies show that these theory-inspired measures can dissociate from such processes and reliably index the brain's capacity for experience. We consider this as a positive trend in consciousness research.
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  56.  1
    Missing Perspective: Marginalized Groups in the Social Psychological Study of Social Disparities.Jes L. Matsick, Flora Oswald & Mary Kruk - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Drawing on interdisciplinary, feminist insights, we encourage social psychologists to embrace the active participation of marginalized groups in social disparities research. We explain how the absence of marginalized groups' perspectives in research presents a serious challenge to understanding intergroup dynamics and concomitant disparities, and how their inclusion could assuage some of social psychology's “fatal flaws.”.
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  57.  1
    The “‘Crisis’ Crisis” in Psychology.John D. Medaglia & Kiante A. Fernandez - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The recent trend to label dilemmas in psychology as “crises” is insidious. The “‘Crisis’ Crisis” in psychology can distract us from actionable practices. As a case in point, “The Generalizability Crisis” offers the valuable central thesis that verbal-quantitative gaps imperil psychological science. Focusing on the key issues rather than crisis narratives can lead to progress in our discourse and research.
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  58.  33
    The Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness: A Case of Mistaken Identity.Bjorn Merker, Kenneth Williford & David Rudrauf - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:1-72.
    Giulio Tononi's integrated information theory proposes explaining consciousness by directly identifying it with integrated information. We examine the construct validity of IIT's measure of consciousness, phi, by analyzing its formal properties, its relation to key aspects of consciousness, and its co-variation with relevant empirical circumstances. Our analysis shows that IIT's identification of consciousness with the causal efficacy with which differentiated networks accomplish global information transfer is mistaken. This misidentification has the consequence of requiring the attribution of consciousness to a range (...)
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  59.  7
    The Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness: Unmasked and Identified.Bjorn Merker, Kenneth Williford & David Rudrauf - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    In our response to a truly diverse set of commentaries, we first summarize the principal topical themes around which they cluster, then address two “outlier” positions. Next, we address ways in which commentaries by non-integrated information theory authors engage with the specifics of our IIT critique, turning finally to the four commentaries by IIT authors.
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  60.  1
    The Internal Validity Obsession.Gregory Mitchell & Philip E. Tetlock - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Until social psychology devotes as much attention to construct and external validity as it does to internal validity, the field will continue to produce theories that fail to replicate in the field and cannot be used to meliorate social problems.
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  61.  1
    External Validity of Social Psychological Experiments is a Concern, but These Models Are Useful.Youri L. Mora, Olivier Klein, Christophe Leys & Annique Smeding - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We agree that external validity of social psychological experiments is a concern, we disagree these models are useless. Experiments, reconsidered from a situated cognition perspective and non-linearly combined with other methods allow grasping decision dynamics beyond bias outcomes. Dynamic insights regarding these processes are key to understand missing forces and bias in real-world social groups.
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  62.  1
    Encapsulation and Subjectivity From the Standpoint of Viewpoint Theory.Ezequiel Morsella, Anthony G. Velasquez, Jessica K. Yankulova, Yanming Li & Adam Gazzaley - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The groundbreaking, viewpoint theory of Merker et al. explains several properties of the conscious field, including why the observer cannot directly apprehend itself. We propose that viewpoint theory might also provide a progressive, constitutive marker of consciousness and shed light on why most of the contents of consciousness are encapsulated.
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  63.  3
    Axioms and Postulates: Finding the Right Match Through Logical Inference.Niccolò Negro - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Merker et al. argue that integrated information theory is not a theory of consciousness because the IIT formalism does not match phenomenology. I argue that the authors ultimately fail to articulate the problem of the inference of the postulates from the axioms. I suggest a different version of this problem, and argue that this can help rethink IIT's potential for consciousness science.
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  64.  1
    Controlled Lab Experiments Are One of Many Useful Scientific Methods to Investigate Bias.Jason A. Okonofua - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Ecological validity is key in science and laboratory experiments alone cannot fully explain complex real-world phenomena. Yet the three flaws Cesario proposes do not characterize the field and are not “methodological trickery,” designed to intentionally mislead practitioners. In school discipline alone, these alleged flaws are indeed addressed and laboratory experimentation has contributed to mitigation of a real-world problem.
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  65.  1
    Culturally Fluent Real-World Disparities Can Blind Us to Bias: Experiments Using a Cultural Lens Can Help.Daphna Oyserman & Amabel Youngbin Jeon - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Culture provides people with rich, detailed, implicit, and explicit knowledge about associations and contingencies. These culture-based expectations allow people to get through their days without much systematic reasoning. Experimental designs that unpack these situated effects of culture on thinking, feeling, and doing can advance bias research and direct policy and intervention.
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  66.  1
    Two Thousand Years After Archimedes, Psychologist Finds Three Topics That Will Simply Not Yield to the Experimental Method.B. Keith Payne & Mahzarin R. Banaji - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario argues that experiments cannot illuminate real group disparities because they leave out factors that operate in ordinary life. But what Cesario calls flaws are, in fact, the point of the experimental method. Of all the topics in science, we have to wonder why racial discrimination would be uniquely unsuited for investigating with experiments. The argument to give up the most powerful scientific method to study one of the hardest problems we confront is laughable.
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  67.  1
    What is Exactly the Problem with Panpsychism?Cyriel M. A. Pennartz - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Merker et al.'s critique calls for a deeper analysis of panpsychism. In principle, the concept of integrated information can be applied to photodiodes and subatomic particles, but I suggest the main obstacle is the lack of any evidence to confirm the presence of consciousness. Also MRW's perspectivalist theory illustrates the difficulties in synthesizing a full-fledged theory of consciousness.
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  68.  1
    The Call for Ecological Validity is Right but Missing Perceptual Idiosyncrasies is Wrong.Jennie Qu-Lee & Emily Balcetis - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Although psychology has long professed that perception predicts action, the strength of the evidence supporting the statement depends on the ecological validity of the technologies and paradigms used, particularly those that track eye movements, supporting Cesario's argument. While right to call for ecological validity, Cesario's model fails to account for individual differences in visual experience perceivers have when presented with the same stimulus.
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  69.  1
    Developmental Research Assessing Bias Would Benefit From Naturalistic Observation Data.Jennifer L. Rennels & Kindy Insouvanh - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario's critiques and suggestions for redesigning social psychology experiments echo Dahl's call for developmental researchers to use experimental and naturalistic methods in a complementary manner for understanding children's development. We provide examples of how naturalistic observations can rectify Cesario's missing flaws for developmental studies investigating children's social biases and help researchers derive theories they can then experimentally test.
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  70.  2
    The Logic of Challenging Research Into Bias and Social Disparity.Regina Rini - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    There are two problems with the logic of Cesario's argument for abandoning existing research on social bias. First, laboratory findings of decisional bias have social significance even if Cesario is right that the research strips away real-world context. Second, the argument makes overly skeptical demands of a research program seeking complex causal linkages between micro- and macro-scale phenomena.
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  71.  1
    Is the Neuroscientist's Grandmother in the Notebook? Integrated Information and Reference Frames in the Search for Consciousness.Giuseppe Riva - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    This commentary suggests that the physical substrate of integrated information is dependent on the reference frame used to observe it. Furthermore, it uses a thought experiment – can a neuroscientist, locked in a closed room and connected through Zoom with his grandmother to demonstrate that the consciousness of his grannie is NOT in the PC? – to underline the problems that neglecting reference frames may cause to consciousness research.
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  72.  1
    The Only Thing That Can Stop Bad Causal Inference is Good Causal Inference.Julia M. Rohrer, Stefan C. Schmukle & Richard McElreath - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    In psychology, causal inference – both the transport from lab estimates to the real world and estimation on the basis of observational data – is often pursued in a casual manner. Underlying assumptions remain unarticulated; potential pitfalls are compiled in post-hoc lists of flaws. The field should move on to coherent frameworks of causal inference and generalizability that have been developed elsewhere.
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  73.  5
    Psychologists Should Learn Structural Specification and Experimental Econometrics.Don Ross - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The most plausible of Yarkoni's paths to recovery for psychology is the least radical one: psychologists need truly quantitative methods that exploit the informational power of variance and heterogeneity in multiple variables. If they drop ambitions to explain entire behaviors, they could find a box full of design and econometric tools in the parts of experimental economics that don't ape psychology.
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  74.  1
    The Importance of Ecological Validity, Ultimate Causation, and Natural Categories.Catherine A. Salmon & Jessica A. Hehman - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The target article raises important questions about the applicability of experimental social psychology research on topics with policy implications. This commentary focuses on the importance of attending to a variety of factors to improve ecological validity as well as considering the ultimate factors shaping behavior and the role of natural categories in the stability of stereotypes and their influence.
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  75.  1
    The Crisis From Above: Gatekeepers Need Better Standards.Sarah R. Schiavone, Julia G. Bottesini & Simine Vazire - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Improvements to the validity of psychological science depend upon more than the actions of individual researchers. Editors, journals, and publishers wield considerable power in shaping the incentives that have ushered in the generalizability crisis. These gatekeepers must raise their standards to ensure authors' claims are supported by evidence. Unless gatekeepers change, changes made by individual scientists will not be sustainable.
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  76.  5
    Explaining the Gradient: Requirements for Theories of Visual Awareness.Thomas Schmidt & Melanie Biafora - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    We propose that any theory of visual awareness must explain the gradient of different awareness measures over experimental conditions, especially when those measures form double dissociations among each other. Theories meeting this requirement must be specific to the measured facets of awareness, such as motion, contrast, or color. Integrated information theory lacks such specificity because it is an underconstrained theory with unspecific predictions.
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  77.  1
    How Should We Understand “Bias” as a Thick Concept in Recruitment Discrimination Studies?Päivi Seppälä - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario criticizes the experimental design of studies of bias by claiming that acting on stereotypes in the experimental situation might not be an “error” from a Bayesian perspective. However, social psychologists might have an ethical reason to label the observed decision-maker biases as “erroneous.” Decision-making can be considered as “biased” and “erroneous,” because it reflects illegal and morally condemnable discrimination.
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  78.  1
    Causal Complexity Demands Community Coordination.Beau Sievers & Evan DeFilippis - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni's argument risks skepticism about the very possibility of social science: If social phenomena are too causally complex, normal scientific methods could not possibly untangle them. We argue that the problem of causal complexity is best approached at the level of scientific communities and institutions, not the modeling practices of individual scientists.
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  79.  1
    Disentangling Paradigm and Method Can Help Bring Qualitative Research to Post-Positivist Psychology and Address the Generalizability Crisis.Moin Syed & Kate C. McLean - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    For decades, psychological research has heavily favored quantitative over qualitative methods. One reason for this imbalance is the perception that quantitative methods follow from a post-positivist paradigm, which guides mainstream psychology, whereas qualitative methods follow from a constructivist paradigm. However, methods and paradigms are independent, and embracing qualitative methods within mainstream psychology is one way of addressing the generalizability crisis.
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  80.  11
    IIT, Half Masked and Half Disfigured.Giulio Tononi, Melanie Boly, Matteo Grasso, Jeremiah Hendren, Bjorn E. Juel, William G. P. Mayner, William Marshall & Christof Koch - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The target article misrepresents the foundations of integrated information theory and ignores many essential publications. It, thus, falls to this lead commentary to outline the axioms and postulates of IIT and correct major misconceptions. The commentary also explains why IIT starts from phenomenology and why it predicts that only select physical substrates can support consciousness. Finally, it highlights that IIT's account of experience – a cause–effect structure quantified by integrated information – has nothing to do with “information transfer.”.
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  81.  1
    Mechanistic Modeling for the Masses.Matthew A. Turner & Paul E. Smaldino - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The generalizability crisis is compounded, or even partially caused, by a lack of specificity in psychological theories. Expanding the use of mechanistic models among psychologists is therefore important, but faces numerous hurdles. A cultural evolutionary approach can help guide and evaluate interventions to improve modeling efforts in psychology, such as developing standards and implementing them at the institutional level.
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  82.  1
    Generalizability in Mixed Models: Lessons From Corpus Linguistics.Freek Van de Velde, Stefano De Pascale & Dirk Speelman - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Part of the generalizability issues that haunt controlled lab experiment designs in psychology, and more particularly in psycholinguistics, can be alleviated by adopting corpus linguistic methods. These work with natural data. This advantage comes at a cost: in corpus studies, lexemes and language users can show different kinds of skew. We discuss a number of solutions to bolster the control.
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  83.  7
    Consciousness, Complexity, and Evolution.Walter Veit - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The idea that consciousness and complexity are closely related has been a major driver of the popularity of integrated information theory of consciousness, despite its major formal, phenomenological, and neuroscientific shortcomings. Here, I argue that we can recover this intuition by replacing its biologically neutral notion of complexity with an evolutionary one that I shall dub “pathological complexity.”.
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  84.  3
    Functional Theories Can Describe Many Features of Conscious Phenomenology but Cannot Account for its Existence.Max Velmans - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Merker, Williford, and Rudrauf argue persuasively that integrated information is not identical to or sufficient for consciousness, and that projective geometries more closely formalize the spatial features of conscious phenomenology. However, these too are not identical to or sufficient for consciousness. Although such third-person specifiable functional theories can describe the many forms of consciousness, they cannot account for its existence.
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  85.  1
    Escaping From the IIT Munchausen Method: Re-Establishing the Scientific Method in the Study of Consciousness.Paul Verschure - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Integrated information theory is an example of “ironic science” and obstructs the scientific study of consciousness. By confusing the ontological status of a method to quantify network complexity with that of a theory of consciousness, IIT has to square the circle and spirals toward its panpsychism conclusion. I analyze the consequences of this fallacy and suggest how the study of consciousness can be brought back into the realm of rational, empirical science.
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  86.  1
    Improving the Generalizability of Infant Psychological Research: The ManyBabies Model.Ingmar Visser, Christina Bergmann, Krista Byers-Heinlein, Rodrigo Dal Ben, Wlodzislaw Duch, Samuel Forbes, Laura Franchin, Michael C. Frank, Alessandra Geraci, J. Kiley Hamlin, Zsuzsa Kaldy, Louisa Kulke, Catherine Laverty, Casey Lew-Williams, Victoria Mateu, Julien Mayor, David Moreau, Iris Nomikou, Tobias Schuwerk, Elizabeth A. Simpson, Leher Singh, Melanie Soderstrom, Jessica Sullivan, Marion I. van den Heuvel, Gert Westermann, Yuki Yamada, Lorijn Zaadnoordijk & Martin Zettersten - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni's analysis clearly articulates a number of concerns limiting the generalizability and explanatory power of psychological findings, many of which are compounded in infancy research. ManyBabies addresses these concerns via a radically collaborative, large-scale and open approach to research that is grounded in theory-building, committed to diversification, and focused on understanding sources of variation.
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  87.  1
    An Accelerating Crisis: Metascience is Out-Reproducing Psychological Science.Patrick D. Watson - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Scientific claims are selected in part for their ability to survive. Scientists can pursue an r-strategy of broad, easy-to-spread ideas, or a K-strategy of stress-tested, bulletproof statements. The “generalizability crisis” is an exquisite mutation that allows dull, K-strategic methodology articles to spread nearly as quickly as the fast-breeding, r-strategic memes of pop-psychology.
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  88.  1
    Cesario's Framework for Understanding Group Disparities is Radically Incomplete.Morgan Weaving & Cordelia Fine - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario argues that experimental studies of bias tell us little about why group disparities exist. We argue that Cesario's alternative approach implicitly frames understanding of group disparities as a false binary between “bias” and “group differences.” This, we suggest, will contribute little to our understanding of the complex dynamics that produce group disparities, and risks inappropriately rationalizing them.
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  89.  2
    From Description to Generalization, or There and Back Again.Kelsey L. West, Kasey C. Soska, Whitney G. Cole, Danyang Han, Justine E. Hoch, Christina M. Hospodar & Brianna E. Kaplan - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    In his target article, Yarkoni prescribes descriptive research as a potential antidote for the generalizability crisis. In our commentary, we offer four guiding principles for conducting descriptive research that is generalizable and enduring: prioritize context over control; let naturalistic observations contextualize structured tasks; operationalize the target phenomena rigorously and transparently; and attend to individual data.
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  90.  1
    Surely Not All Experimental Studies of Bias Need Abandoning?Fiona A. White - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Cesario misrepresents experimental social psychology. The discipline encompasses significantly more than implicit bias research, including controlled decision making and real-world behavioral observations. Paradoxically, while critiquing popular implicit bias tasks, Cesario also describes task refinements that have significantly advanced their external validity and our contextual understanding of bias. Thus rather than abandonment, a call for “continued improvement” is a far more sensible proposition.
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  91.  1
    Generalizability Challenges in Applied Psychological and Organizational Research and Practice.Brenton M. Wiernik, Mukhunth Raghavan, Tyler Allan & Alex J. Denison - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni highlights patterns of overgeneralization in psychology research. In this comment, we note that such challenges also pertain to applied psychological and organizational research and practice. We use two examples – cross-cultural generalizability and implicit bias training – to illustrate common practices of overgeneralization from narrow research samples to broader operational populations. We conclude with recommendations for research and practice.
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  92.  2
    The Stimulus-Response Crisis.Robyn Wilford, Juan Ardila-Cifuentes, Edward Baggs & Michael L. Anderson - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Yarkoni correctly recognizes that one reason for psychology's generalizability crisis is the failure to account for variance within experiments. We argue that this problem, and the generalizability crisis broadly, is a necessary consequence of the stimulus-response paradigm widely used in psychology research. We point to another methodology, perturbation experiments, as a remedy that is not vulnerable to the same problems.
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  93.  3
    Replies to Commentaries on the Generalizability Crisis.Tal Yarkoni - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The 38 commentaries on the target article span a broad range of disciplines and perspectives. I have organized my response to the commentaries around three broad questions: First, how serious are the problems discussed in the target article? Second, are there are other, potentially more productive, ways to think about the issues that the target article framed in terms of generalizability? And third, what, if anything, should we collectively do about these problems?
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  94.  14
    The Generalizability Crisis.Tal Yarkoni - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:1-37.
    Most theories and hypotheses in psychology are verbal in nature, yet their evaluation overwhelmingly relies on inferential statistical procedures. The validity of the move from qualitative to quantitative analysis depends on the verbal and statistical expressions of a hypothesis being closely aligned – that is, that the two must refer to roughly the same set of hypothetical observations. Here, I argue that many applications of statistical inference in psychology fail to meet this basic condition. Focusing on the most widely used (...)
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  95.  1
    The Disintegrated Theory of Consciousness: Sleep, Waking, and Meta-Awareness.Antonio Zadra & Daniel J. Levitin - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    The study of sleep and wakefulness can inform debates about the nature of consciousness. We argue that sleep and wakefulness fall along a multidimensional continuum and that inconsistencies and paradoxes with the accounts put forth by Merker et al. and Tononi can be understood in terms of a pervasive false dichotomy between these two states.
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