Year:

  1. Willpower Through Cultural Tools: An Example From Alcoholics Anonymous.Pamela Acquaro & Richard Sosis - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We argue that a closer look at the practices and tools that humans use to support willpower, and the cultural contexts in which they are employed, can broaden the applicability of Ainslie's theory and facilitate the development of more effective self-control techniques. To support our argument, we examine Alcoholics Anonymous's method of temptation resistance known as “playing the tape through”.
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  2.  7
    Reply to Commentaries to Willpower with and Without Effort.George Ainslie - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Twenty-six commentators from several disciplines have written on the assumption that choice is determined by comparative valuation in a common denominator of reward, the “competitive marketplace.” There was no apparent disagreement that prospective rewards are discounted hyperbolically, although some found that the resulting predictions could come just as well from other models, including the interpretation of delay as risk and analysis in terms of hot versus cold valuation systems. Several novel ideas emerged.
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  3.  27
    Willpower with and Without Effort.George Ainslie - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-81.
    Most authors who discuss willpower assume that everyone knows what it is, but our assumptions differ to such an extent that we talk past each other. We agree that willpower is the psychological function that resists temptations – variously known as impulses, addictions, or bad habits; that it operates simultaneously with temptations, without prior commitment; and that use of it is limited by its cost, commonly called effort, as well as by the person's skill at executive functioning. However, accounts are (...)
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  4. Willpower Needs Tactical Skill.Juan Pablo Bermúdez - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44 (e32):17–18.
    In “Willpower with and without effort”, G. Ainslie advances our understanding of selfcontrol by theoretically unifying multiple forms of willpower. But one crucial question remains unanswered: How do agents pick the right forms of willpower in each situation? I argue that willpower requires tactical skill, which detects willpower-demanding contexts, selects context-appropriate tactics, and monitors their implementation. Research on tactical skill will significantly advance our understanding of willpower.
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  5. It's Not a Bug, It's Boredom: Effortful Willpower Balances Exploitation and Exploration.Maik Bieleke & Wanja Wolff - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The continuous revaluation of rewards lies at the core of Ainslie's account of willpower. Yet, he does not explicate the underlying experiential mechanisms. We draw upon theoretical, neuroscientific, and computational evidence to demonstrate that boredom evokes revaluation. By biasing behavior toward exploration, boredom necessitates effortful willpower to balance it against exploitation, thereby rendering suppression a highly adaptive function of willpower.
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  6. Cleansing and Separating: From Modern Agriculture and Genocide to Post-Separation Era.Michal Bilewicz & Aleksandra Bilewicz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that the metaphor of cleansing was a by-product of modernization processes. Based on cultural and historical evidence, we claim that the activation of cleansing metaphor triggered positive associations in times when separation was a positively regarded element of human culture and agriculture, but it should not exert the same effect in times when separation became culturally anachronistic.
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  7. The Impact of Grounded Procedures Can Vary as a Function of Perceived Thought Validity, Meaning, and Timing.Pablo Briñol & Richard E. Petty - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Cleansing inductions reduce the impact of negative and positive reactions, whereas connection manipulations magnify them. We suggest that grounded procedures can produce these effects by affecting the perceived validity of thoughts. In accord with the self-validation theory, we also note the importance of considering how moderators, such as the meaning of the action and the timing of inductions, affect outcomes.
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  8.  2
    Increasing Resolution in the Mechanisms of Resolve.Adam Bulley & Daniel L. Schacter - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie offers an encompassing and compelling account of willpower, although his big-picture view comes occasionally at the cost of low resolution. We comment on ambiguity in the metacognitive and prospective mechanisms of resolve implicated in recursive self-prediction. We hope to show both the necessity and promise of specifying testable cognitive mechanisms of willpower.
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  9. When Will's Wont Wants Wanting.Peter Dayan - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We use neural reinforcement learning concepts including Pavlovian versus instrumental control, liking versus wanting, model-based versus model-free control, online versus offline learning and planning, and internal versus external actions and control to reflect on putative conflicts between short-term temptations and long-term goals.
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  10.  2
    The Complex Nature of Willpower and Conceptual Mapping of its Normative Significance in Research on Stress, Addiction, and Dementia.Veljko Dubljević & Shevaun D. Neupert - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Willpower has ramifications for autonomy and mental time-travel. Autonomy presupposes mature powers of volition and the capacity to anticipate future events and consequences of one's actions. Ainslie's study is useful to clarify basic autonomy in addiction and dementia. Furthermore, we show how our study on coping with stress can be applied to suppression and resolve.
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  11. Psychology of Cleansing Through the Prism of Intersecting Object Histories.Zachary Ekves, Yanina Prystauka, Charles P. Davis, Eiling Yee & Gerry T. M. Altmann - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We link cleansing effects to contemporary cognitive theories via an account of event representation that provides an explicit, neurally plausible mechanism for encoding objects and their associations across time. It explains separation as resulting from weakening associations between the self in the present and the self in the past.
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  12.  2
    Separation/Connection Procedures: From Cleansing Behavior to Numerical Cognition.Arianna Felisatti, Martin H. Fischer, Elena Kulkova, Katharina Kühne & Alexej Michirev - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz suggest that separation is the grounded procedure underlying cleansing effects in different psychological domains. Here, we interpret L&S's account from a hierarchical view of cognition that considers the influence of physical properties and sensorimotor constraints on mental representations. This approach allows theoretical integration and generalization of L&S's account to the domain of formal quantitative reasoning.
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  13. Leveraging Individual Differences to Understand Grounded Procedures.Adam K. Fetterman, Michael D. Robinson & Brian P. Meier - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We applaud the goals and execution of the target article, but note that individual differences do not receive much attention. This is a shortcoming because individual differences can play a vital role in theory testing. In our commentary, we describe programs of research of this type and also apply similar thinking to the mechanisms proposed in the target article.
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  14. Developmental Antecedents of Cleansing Effects: Evidence Against Domain-Generality.Emily Gerdin, Shruthi Venkatesh, Joshua Rottman & Jasmine M. DeJesus - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz propose grounded procedures of separation as a domain-general mechanism underlying cleansing effects. One strong test of domain generality is to investigate the ontogenetic origins of a process. Here, we argue that the developmental evidence provides weak support for a domain-general grounded procedures account. Instead, it is likely that distinct separation procedures develop uniquely for different content domains.
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  15.  1
    Grounded Separation: Can the Sensorimotor Be Grounded in the Symbolic?Michael Gilead, Yaacov Trope & Nira Liberman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    According to Lee and Schwarz, the sensorimotor experience of cleansing involves separating one physical entity from another and grounds mental separation of one psychological entity from another. We propose that cleansing effects may result from symbolic cognition. Instead of viewing abstract meanings as emerging from concrete physical acts of cleansing, this physical act may be appended with pre-existing, symbolic meaning.
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  16. Beyond Willpower.James J. Gross & Angela L. Duckworth - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    For all its popularity as a psychological construct, willpower is irremediably polysemous. A more helpful construct is self-control, defined as the self-regulation of conflicting impulses. We show how the process model of self-control provides a principled framework for examining how undesirable impulses may be weakened and desirable impulses may be strengthened.
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  17.  5
    Grounded Procedures of Separation in Clinical Psychology: What's to Be Expected?Anke Haberkamp & Thomas Schmidt - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The hypothesis of grounded procedures of separation predicts accentuated effects in individuals with psychiatric disorders, for example, obsessive-compulsive disorders with washing compulsion. This could provide a vantage point for understanding cognitive processes related to specific disorders. However, fully exploring it requires updated experimental designs, including extensive control conditions, exclusion of alternative explanations, internal replications, and parametric variation to strengthen internal validity.
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  18. Weighting on Waiting: Willpower and Attribute Weighting Models of Decision Making.Alison Harris - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Willpower is often conceptualized as incorporating effortful and momentary suppression of immediate but ultimately inferior rewards. Yet, growing evidence instead supports a process of attribute weighting, whereby normatively optimal choices arise from separable evaluation of different attributes. Strategic allocation of attention settles conflicts between competing choice-relevant attributes, which could be expanded to include self-referential predictions.
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  19.  1
    Aspiration Fuels Willpower: Evidence From the Addiction Literature.Gene M. Heyman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie identifies two possible motivational sources for resolve: “thinking categorically” and “intertemporal bargaining.” Ainslie opts for intertemporal bargaining, adding that thinking categorically has no motivational power. The most researched instance of willpower is remission from addiction. This literature shows that aspirations for a more desirable identity and comfortable lifestyle motivate remission. In other words, “thinking categorically” drives willpower.
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  20. Willpower Without Risk?Andre Hofmeyr - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie does not formally incorporate risk and uncertainty in his framework for modelling impulses and willpower. To provide a complete account of the motivational bases of choice behaviour, Ainslie should extend his framework to incorporate risk attitudes and subjective beliefs.
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  21. The Role of Mortality Concerns in Separation and Connection Effects: Comment on Lee and Schwarz.Dylan E. Horner & Jeff Greenberg - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Using terror management theory and research findings, we expand the framework provided by Lee and Schwarz to highlight the potential link between separation and connection effects to existential, death-related concerns. Specifically, we address how death awareness may motivate separation and connection behaviors and how engaging in these behaviors may serve a protective terror management function.
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  22.  5
    More Dynamical and More Symbiotic: Cortico-Striatal Models of Resolve, Suppression, and Routine Habit.Linus Ta-Lun Huang - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    I extend Ainslie's core claims with three cortico-striatal models that respectively subserve the key constructs of resolve, suppression, and routine habit. I show that these models suggest a more dynamical and symbiotic relation among the constructs: there are more ways they interact to reinforce willpower, and the temporal dimension of the interactions can often determine the effectiveness of the reinforcement.
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  23. Willpower is Overrated.Michael Inzlicht & Malte Friese - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Any analysis of self-regulation that focuses solely on willpower in conflict-laden situations is insufficient. Research makes clear that the best way to reach one's goal is not to resist temptations but to avoid temptations before they arrive; it further suggests that willpower is fragile and not to be relied on; and that the best self-regulators engage in willpower remarkably seldom.
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  24. Going Beyond Elementary Mechanisms: The Strategic Interplay Between Grounded Procedures.Peter Kardos - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The model presented by Lee and Schwarz provides a novel explanation for the elementary mechanisms of psychological cleansing. I argue that the model could be extended to account for complex instances of psychological cleansing where the grounded procedures are not isolated and the opposing motives of separation and connection are entangled in a strategic interplay.
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  25.  5
    Is “Willpower” a Scientific Concept? Suppressing Temptation Contra Resolution in the Face of Adversity.Elias L. Khalil - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The distinction that Ainslie draws among the triple-phenomena “suppression,” “resolve,” and “habit” is a great advance in decision making theory. But the conceptual machinery “willpower,” and its underpinning distinction between small/soon rewards as opposed to large/later rewards, provides a faulty framework to understand the triple-phenomena.
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  26. Specifying Separation: Avoidance, Abstraction, Openness to New Experiences.Anita Körner & Fritz Strack - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz suggest grounded procedures of separation as a mechanism for embodied cleansing. We compare this process to other mechanisms in grounded cognition and suggest a broader conceptualization that allows integration into general cognitive models of social behavior. Specifically, separation will be understood as a mindset of completed avoidance resulting in high abstraction and openness to new experiences.
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  27.  1
    Willpower is a Form of, but Not Synonymous with, Self-Control.Ariella Kristal & Julian Zlatev - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We build on Ainslie's discussion of willpower by highlighting another common misconception in the literature: the conflation of self-control and willpower. In our commentary, we identify this issue and discuss the importance of recognizing willpower not as synonymous with self-control, but rather as a subset of self-control. We describe a set of upstream strategies as more effective alternatives to willpower.
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  28. Culture, Ecology, and Grounded Procedures.Jung Yul Kwon, Arthur M. Glenberg & Michael E. W. Varnum - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that grounded procedures may help explain psychological variations across cultures. Here we offer a set of novel predictions based on the interplay between the social and physical ecology, chronic sensorimotor experience, and cultural norms.
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  29. Suppression, Resolve, and Habit in Everyday Financial Behaviour.Stephen E. G. Lea - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Everyday financial behaviour involves inter-temporal choices, between saving, spending, and debt. Consumers do not always take these decisions to their best advantage. Ainslie's analysis of the means to willpower as suppression, resolve, and habit is potentially applicable to understanding and improving the decisions that consumers make. Some relevant research on these topics exists, and it is briefly reviewed here.
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  30. Bio-Culturally Grounded: Why Separation and Connection May Not Be the Same Around the World.Albert Lee & Gianluca Esposito - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Central to the account of grounded procedures is the premise that mental experiences are grounded in physical actions. We complement this account by incorporating frameworks in cultural psychology and developmental neuroscience, with new predictions. Through the examples of vicarious experiences and demerit transfer, we discuss why, and how, separation and connection may operate somewhat differently across cultures.
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  31. Grounded Procedures in Mind and Society.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Our commentators explore the operation of grounded procedures across all levels of analysis in the behavioral sciences, from mental to social, developmental, and evolutionary/functional. Building on them, we offer two integrative principles for systematic effects of grounded procedures to occur. We discuss theoretical topics at each level of analysis, address methodological recommendations, and highlight further extensions of grounded procedures.
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  32.  6
    Grounded Procedures: A Proximate Mechanism for the Psychology of Cleansing and Other Physical Actions.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-78.
    Experimental work has revealed causal links between physical cleansing and various psychological variables. Empirically, how robust are they? Theoretically, how do they operate? Major prevailing accounts focus on morality or disgust, capturing a subset of cleansing effects, but cannot easily handle cleansing effects in non-moral, non-disgusting contexts. Building on grounded views on cognitive processes and known properties of mental procedures, we propose grounded procedures of separation as a proximate mechanism underlying cleansing effects. This account differs from prevailing accounts in terms (...)
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  33. From Washing Hands to Washing Consciences and Polishing Reputations.Matthieu Légeret & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    While Lee and Schwarz propose grounded procedures of separation as an explanation for physical cleansing in various domains, we suggest that separation can also account for behavioral cleansing aimed at washing consciences and polishing reputations. We discuss this extension in terms of degrees of behavioral cleansing, motivations, and intentions behind cleansing, and social settings.
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  34. Pleas for Patience From the Cumulative Future Self.Sam J. Maglio & Hal E. Hershfield - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Current selves wield all the power in intertemporal tradeoffs. Although one set of future selves will make similar tradeoffs in the future, another self – who we term the cumulative future self – falls on the receiving end of those dictated decisions. How current selves commune with the cumulative future self determines whether the former heed pleas, from the latter, for patience.
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  35.  3
    Resolve is Always Effortful.Olivier Massin & Bastien Gauchot - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie argues there are two main kinds of willpower: suppression, which is necessarily effortful, and resolve, which is not. We agree with the distinction but argue that all resolve is effortful. Alleged cases of effortless resolve are indeed cases of what Ainslie calls habits, namely stable results of prior uses of resolve.
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  36. Self-Control From a Multiple Goal Perspective of Mixed Reward Options.Zita Mayer & Alexandra M. Freund - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We introduce a distinct type of choice that has yet to be addressed by self-control research: Choosing between activities that offer both delayed and immediate rewards. We describe when and why such mixed-reward choices pose challenges to self-control, and suggest that self-control in mixed-reward choices may be supported by delay discounting.
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  37.  5
    Stress and Imagining Future Selves: Resolve in the Hot/Cool Framework.Janet Metcalfe & William James Jacobs - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Although Ainslie dismisses the hot/cool framework as pertaining only to suppression, it actually also has interesting implications for resolve. Resolve focally involves access to our future selves. This access is a cool system function linked to episodic memory. Thus, factors negatively affecting the cool system, such as stress, are predicted to impact two seemingly unrelated capabilities: willpower and episodic memory.
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  38. Present-State Dependency in Valuation of the Future.John R. Monterosso - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie's target article provides a map of distinct mechanisms relevant to self-control, potentially providing needed precision to the field. He also breaks new ground in characterizing the symbiotic relationship between suppression and resolve. In this commentary, I argue that one behaviorism-based feature of his framework, present-state independence, is unjustified and unnecessary for the broader claims of the theory.
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  39. Self-Control (or Willpower) Seeks to Bias the Resolution of Motivational Conflicts Toward an Individual's Long-Term Interests.Samuel A. Nordli & Edward R. Hirt - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We define self-control as an individual's efforts to bias the outcome of present or anticipated motivational conflicts in order to increase the likelihood that subsequent behavior serves perceived long-term interests. We suggest suppression and resolve are not “mechanisms” that underlie self-control, but rather are classes of strategies that influence motivations in order to increase the likelihood of successful self-control outcomes.
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  40.  1
    Cultural Mindsets Shape What Grounded Procedures Mean: Cleansing Can Separate or Connect and Separating Can Feel Good or Not so Good.Daphna Oyserman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Are grounded procedures such as cleansing value-neutral main effects? Culture-as-situated-cognition theory suggests otherwise. Societies differ in how frequently they trigger membership and individualizing cultural mindsets and their linked mental-procedures – connecting and separating, respectively. Commonly triggered mindsets feel fluent. Fluency feels good. Cleansing can separate from but also connect to others in the form of membership-based rituals.
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  41.  1
    It's a Matter of (Executive) Load: Separation as a Load-Dependent Resetting Procedure.Giorgia Ponsi, Vanessa Era, Chiara Fini & Ilenia Falcinelli - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz made considerable theoretical advances in the psychology of cleansing by proposing that cleaning actions might serve as separation procedures between two psychological entities. Here, we propose that the effectiveness of the separation process may be modulated by the available amount of executive resources, and that separation may operate as a load-dependent resetting procedure.
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  42. The Lack of Robust Evidence for Cleansing Effects.Ivan Ropovik, Alessandro Sparacio & Hans IJzerman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The pattern of data underlying the successful replications of cleansing effects is improbable and most consistent with selective reporting. Moreover, the meta-analytic approach presented by Lee and Schwarz is likely to find an effect even if none existed. Absent more robust evidence, there is no need to develop a theoretical account of grounded procedures.
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  43.  1
    Is Resolve Mainly About Resisting Hyperbolic Discounting?Don Ross - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie insightfully refines the concept of willpower by emphasizing low-effort applications of resolve. However, he gives undue weight to intertemporal discounting as the problem that willpower is needed to overcome. Nonhumans typically don't encounter choices that differ only in the time of consumption. Humans learn to transform uncertainty into problems they can solve using culturally evolved mechanisms for quantifying risk.
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  44. The Role of Meta-Analysis and Preregistration in Assessing the Evidence for Cleansing Effects.Robert M. Ross, Robbie C. M. van Aert, Olmo R. van den Akker & Michiel van Elk - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz interpret meta-analytic research and replication studies as providing evidence for the robustness of cleansing effects. We argue that the currently available evidence is unconvincing because publication bias and the opportunistic use of researcher degrees of freedom appear to have inflated meta-analytic effect size estimates, and preregistered replications failed to find any evidence of cleansing effects.
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  45.  1
    Grounding Together: Shared Reality and Cleansing Practices.Maya Rossignac-Milon & E. Tory Higgins - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that cleansing behaviors and other acts of separation or connection have more powerful effects when they are grounded in shared practices – in a shared reality. We conceptualize sensorimotor and shared reality effects as synergistic. Most potent should be physical behaviors performed collectively as a shared practice, grounded both in sensorimotor experience and in shared reality.
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  46.  2
    Body Ownership as a Proxy for Individual and Social Separation and Connection.Marina Scattolin, Maria Serena Panasiti & Salvatore Maria Aglioti - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwartz procedures of separation offer a much needed interpretation of the literature on moral cleansing. However, body ownership as a grounded mechanism of separation and connection has been neglected. We argue that embodiment may be employed to connect the self to desirable aspects of cognitive and emotional interactions and disembodiment to disconnect from undesirable elements.
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  47. Cleansing and Separation Procedures Reflect Resource Concerns.Simone Schnall & Robert K. Henderson - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that procedures of separation have two functions, namely first, to establish the integrity of individual parts, and second, to make previously joint entities discreet and therefore countable. This allows taking stock of available resources, including evaluating the use of individual objects, a process that is especially adaptive under conditions of threat of contagious disease and resource scarcity.
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  48. Proper Understanding of Grounded Procedures of Separation Needs a Dual Inheritance Approach.Thomas W. Schubert & David J. Grüning - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Grounded procedures of separation are conceptualized as a learned concept. The simultaneous cultural universality of the general idea and immense diversity of its implementations might be better understood through the lens of dual inheritance theories. By drawing on examples from developmental psychology and emotion theorizing, we argue that an innate blueprint might underlie learned implementations of cleansing that vary widely.
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  49.  10
    Socializing Willpower: Resolve From the Outside In.Stephen Setman & Daniel Kelly - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie's account of willpower is conspicuously individualistic. Because other people, social influence, and culture appear only peripherally, it risks overlooking what may be resolve's deeply social roots. We identify a general “outside-in” explanatory strategy suggested by a range of recent research into human cognitive evolution, and suggest how it might illuminate the origins and more social aspects of resolve.
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  50. A Not-so Proximate Account of Cleansing Behavior.Jonathan Sigger & Thomas E. Dickins - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    In this commentary we outline perceptual control theory and suggest this as a fruitful way for Lee and Schwarz to fully embody their account of cleansing behavior. Moreover, we take issue with the command control approach that L&S have taken seeing this as an unnecessary cognitive commitment within an embodied model of cleansing behavior.
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  51. Putting the Pieces Together: Self-Control as a Complex Interaction of Psychological Processes.Fritz Strack, Roland Deutsch & Bleen Abraham - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie's account of willpower addresses many important mechanisms. We argue that a model of willpower should be grounded in general psychological principles and with a primary focus on their interplay. We discuss the reflective-impulsive model that covers willpower and impulsiveness as special constellations of processes that govern various forms of cognition and behavior.
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  52. Considerations of the Proximate Mechanisms and Ultimate Functions of Disgust Will Improve Our Understanding of Cleansing Effects.Joshua M. Tybur & Debra Lieberman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    To understand the consequences of cleansing, Lee and Schwarz favor a grounded procedures perspective over recently developed disgust theory. We believe that this position stems from three errors: interpreting cleansing effects as broader than they are; not detailing the proximate mechanisms underlying disgust; and not detailing adaptive function versus system byproducts when developing the grounded procedures perspective.
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  53. Self-Organization of Power at Will.Elpida Tzafestas - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We challenge and extend Ainslie's top-down view of willpower as a dual function, resolve and suppression. Instead, we propose an alternative self-organizational view of the motivational system as a network of urges, incentives, drives, and so on that interact dynamically. With such a view, resolve, suppression, and other functions emerge under certain environmental and social conditions for certain personality profiles.
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  54. Incomplete Grounding: The Theory of Symbolic Separation is Contradicted by Pervasive Stability in Attitudes and Behavior.Oleg Urminsky - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The proposed theory is broad enough to accommodate the reduction or elimination of prior influences by a variety of acts symbolizing separation. However, it does not account for stability in psychological variables, and is contradicted by widely documented stability in people's actual attitudes and behavior over time, in multiple domains, despite people's pervasive everyday acts of symbolic separation.
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  55.  4
    Evolving Resolve.Walter Veit & David Spurrett - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The broad spectrum revolution brought greater dependence on skill and knowledge, and more demanding, often social, choices. We adopt Sterelny's account of how cooperative foraging paid the costs associated with longer dependency, and transformed the problem of skill learning. Scaffolded learning can facilitate cognitive control including suppression, whereas scaffolded exchange and trade, including inter-temporal exchange, can help develop resolve.
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  56. Grounded Procedures of Connection Are Not Created Equal.Daniel Wentzel, Benjamin von Walter & Philipp Scharfenberger - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz propose that grounded procedures can also be related to connection rather than separation. Drawing on consumer behavior research, we point to different grounded procedures of connection – in terms of the motor actions involved, their salient properties, and their motivational conditions – and discuss how procedures of separation may be affected by the procedures of connection that precede them.
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  57. The Role of Goal-Generalization Processes in the Effects of Grounded Procedures.Robert S. Wyer - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    This commentary provides an interpretation of the effects of grounded procedures in terms of the goal-generalization processes involved in coping with negative feelings and identifies some implications that might not yet have been considered.
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