Applied ontology

ISSNs: 1570-5838, 1875-8533

19 found

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  1.  1
    Foundational patterns benchmark.Jana Ahmad & Petr Křemen - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (4):465-494.
    Recently, there has been growing interest in the use of ontology as a fundamental tool for representing domain-specific conceptual models to improve the semantics, accuracy, and relevance of domain users’ query results. Although the amount of data has grown steadily over the past decade, much data shares similar characteristics that can be captured by a foundational ontology. In this paper, we show how queries based on a foundational ontology can be evaluated and their performance measured. We also present a Foundational (...)
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  2.  3
    Food identity and the passage of time.Andrea Borghini & Nicola Piras - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (4):443-463.
    In this paper we provide a framework for studying the ways in which food endures the passage of time. Central to our inquiry is the following Duration Question: when is it that the predicate-schema “Is an X-Food,” where “X-Food” stands for a certain type of food (e.g., Champagne, yoghurt) ceases to apply to an entity? We show that the answer depends on two independent theoretical aspects: the underlying conception of food and the kinds of change that a specific food can (...)
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  3. Ontology development is consensus creation, not (merely) representation.Fabian Neuhaus & Janna Hastings - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (4):495-513.
    Ontology development methodologies emphasise knowledge gathering from domain experts and documentary resources, and knowledge representation using an ontology language such as OWL or FOL. However, working ontologists are often surprised by how challenging and slow it can be to develop ontologies. Here, with a particular emphasis on the sorts of ontologies that are content-heavy and intended to be shared across a community of users (reference ontologies), we propose that a significant and heretofore under-emphasised contributor of challenges during ontology development is (...)
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  4.  9
    CHAMEO: An ontology for the harmonisation of materials characterisation methodologies.Pierluigi Del Nostro, Gerhard Goldbeck & Daniele Toti - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (3):401-421.
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  5.  1
    A goal-oriented framework for ontology reuse.Cássio C. Reginato, Jordana S. Salamon, Gabriel G. Nogueira, Monalessa P. Barcellos, Vítor E. Silva Souza, Maxwell E. Monteiro & Renata Guizzardi - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (3):365-399.
    Ontologies have been successfully used to assign semantics in the Semantic Web context, to support integration of data from different systems or different sources, and to enable reasoning. However, building ontologies is not a trivial task. Ontology reuse can help in this matter. The search and selection of ontologies to be reused should consider the alignment between their scope and the scope of the ontology being developed. In this paper, we discuss how goal modeling can be helpful in this context (...)
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  6.  5
    The semantics of extensive quantities within geographic information.Eric Top, Simon Scheider, Haiqi Xu, Enkhbold Nyamsuren & Niels Steenbergen - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (3):337-364.
    The next generation of Geographic Information Systems is anticipated to automate some of the reasoning required for spatial analysis. An important step in the development of such systems is to gain a better understanding and corresponding modeling practice of when to apply arithmetic operations to quantities. The concept of extensivity plays an essential role in determining when quantities can be aggregated by summing them, and when this is not possible. This is of particular importance to geographic information systems, which serve (...)
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  7.  4
    The TAO CI ontology of vases of the Ming and Qing dynasties.Tong Wei, Christophe Roche, Maria Papadopoulou & Yangli Jia - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (3):423-441.
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  8.  4
    Ontology Summit 2021 Communiqué: Ontology generation and harmonization.Ken Baclawski, Michael Bennett, Gary Berg-Cross, Leia Dickerson, Todd Schneider, Selja Seppälä, Ravi Sharma, Ram D. Sriram & Andrea Westerinen - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (2):233-248.
    Advances in machine learning and the development of very large knowledge graphs have accompanied a proliferation of ontologies of many types and for many purposes. These ontologies are commonly developed independently, and as a result, it can be difficult to communicate about and between them. To address this difficulty of communication, ontologies and the communities they serve must agree on how their respective terminologies and formalizations relate to each other. The process of coming into accord and agreement is called “harmonization.” (...)
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  9. Events, their names, and their synchronic structure.Nicola Guarino, Riccardo Baratella & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (2):249-283.
    We present in this paper a novel ontological theory of events whose central tenet is the Aristotelian distinction between the object that changes and the actual subject of change, which is what we call an individual quality. While in the Kimian tradition events are individuated by a triple ⟨ o, P, t ⟩, where o is an object, P a property, and t an interval of time, for us the simplest events are qualitative changes, individuated by a triple ⟨ o, (...)
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  10.  18
    Affordances and their ontological core.Fumiaki Toyoshima, Adrien Barton & Jean-François Ethier - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (2):285-320.
    The notion of affordance remains elusive, notwithstanding its importance for the representation of agency, cognition, and behaviors. This paper lays down a foundation for an ontology of affordances by elaborating the idea of “core affordance” which would serve as a common ground for explaining existing diverse conceptions of affordances and their interrelationships. For this purpose, it analyzes M. T. Turvey’s dispositional theory of affordances in light of a formal ontology of dispositions. Consequently, two kinds of so-called “core affordances” are proposed: (...)
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  11.  4
    Evaluating and extending the Informed Consent Ontology for representing permissions from the clinical domain.Elizabeth E. Umberfield, Cooper Stansbury, Kathleen Ford, Yun Jiang, Sharon L. R. Kardia, Andrea K. Thomer & Marcelline R. Harris - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (2):321-336.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, revise, and extend the Informed Consent Ontology for expressing clinical permissions, including reuse of residual clinical biospecimens and health data. This study followed a formative evaluation design and used a bottom-up modeling approach. Data were collected from the literature on US federal regulations and a study of clinical consent forms. Eleven federal regulations and fifteen permission-sentences from clinical consent forms were iteratively modeled to identify entities and their relationships, followed by community reflection (...)
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  12.  4
    GUM: The generalized upper model.John A. Bateman - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):107-141.
    GUM is a linguistically-motivated ontology originally developed to support natural language processing systems by offering a level of representation intermediate between linguistic forms and domain knowledge. Whereas modeling decisions for individual domains may need to be responsive to domain-specific criteria, a linguistically-motivated ontology offers a characterization that generalizes across domains because its design criteria are derived independently both of domain and of application. With respect to this mediating role, the use of GUM resembles the adoption of upper ontologies as tools (...)
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  13. DOLCE: A descriptive ontology for linguistic and cognitive engineering1.Stefano Borgo, Roberta Ferrario, Aldo Gangemi, Nicola Guarino, Claudio Masolo, Daniele Porello, Emilio M. Sanfilippo & Laure Vieu - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):45-69.
    dolce, the first top-level ontology to be axiomatized, has remained stable for twenty years and today is broadly used in a variety of domains. dolce is inspired by cognitive and linguistic considerations and aims to model a commonsense view of reality, like the one human beings exploit in everyday life in areas as diverse as socio-technical systems, manufacturing, financial transactions and cultural heritage. dolce clearly lists the ontological choices it is based upon, relies on philosophical principles, is richly formalized, and (...)
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  14.  9
    Foundational ontologies in action.Stefano Borgo, Antony Galton & Oliver Kutz - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):1-16.
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  15.  4
    TUpper: A top level ontology within standards1.Michael Grüninger, Yi Ru & Jona Thai - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):143-165.
    Upper ontologies have traditionally arisen from the approach in which concepts that are common across a set of domains can be axiomatized at a general level. The rationale is that reuse across domains is to be supported through specialization of the general concepts from an upper ontology. Similarly, semantic integration between ontologies is to be achieved through the general concepts they specialize. The TUpper Ontology follows an alternative approach to the conventional upper ontology paradigm. Rather than think of an upper (...)
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  16.  12
    GFO: The General Formal Ontology.Frank Loebe, Patryk Burek & Heinrich Herre - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):71-106.
    The General Formal Ontology is a top-level ontology that is being developed at the University of Leipzig since 1999. Besides introducing some of the basic principles of the ontology, we expound axiomatic fragments of its formalization and present ontological models of several use cases. GFO is a top-level ontology that integrates objects and processes into a unified framework, in a way that differs significantly from other ontologies. Another unique selling feature of GFO is its meta-ontological architecture, which includes set theory (...)
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  17.  6
    YAMATO: Yet-another more advanced top-level ontology.Riichiro Mizoguchi & Stefano Borgo - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):211-232.
    yamato sharply distinguishes itself from other existing upper ontologies in the following respects. Most importantly, yamato is designed with both engineering and philosophical minds. yamato is based on a sophisticated theory of roles, given that the world is full of roles. yamato has a tenable theory of functions which helps to deal with artifacts effectively. Information is a ‘content-bearing’ entity and it differs significantly from the entities that philosophers have traditionally discussed. Taking into account the modern society in which a (...)
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  18. BFO: Basic Formal Ontology.J. Neil Otte, John Beverley & Alan Ruttenberg - 2022 - Applied ontology 17 (1):17-43.
    Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top-level ontology consisting of thirty-six classes, designed to support information integration, retrieval, and analysis across all domains of scientific investigation, presently employed in over 350 ontology projects around the world. BFO is a genuine top-level ontology, containing no terms particular to material domains, such as physics, medicine, or psychology. In this paper, we demonstrate how a series of cases illustrating common types of change may be represented by universals, defined classes, and relations employing the (...)
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  19. UFO: Unified Foundational Ontology.Giancarlo Guizzardi, Alessander Bottes Benevides, Claudemir M. Fonseca, João Paulo A. Almeida, Tiago Prince Sales & Daniele Porello - 2022 - Applied ontology 1 (17):167-210.
    The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) was developed over the last two decades by consistently putting together theories from areas such as formal ontology in philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophical logics. It comprises a number of micro-theories addressing fundamental conceptual modeling notions, including entity types and relationship types. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of UFO, presenting a formalization of the ontology, along with the analysis of a number of cases to illustrate the application of (...)
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