Year:

  1.  35
    Internal Perspectivalism: The Solution to Generality Problems About Proper Function and Natural Norms.Jason Winning - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (33):1-22.
    In this paper, I argue that what counts as the proper function of a trait is a matter of the de facto perspective that the biological system, itself, possesses on what counts as proper functioning for that trait. Unlike non-perspectival accounts, internal perspectivalism does not succumb to generality problems. But unlike external perspectivalism, internal perspectivalism can provide a fully naturalistic, mind-independent grounding of proper function and natural norms. The attribution of perspectives to biological systems is intended to be neither metaphorical (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  11
    The explanatory breadth of pushmi-pullyu representations.Mark Bauer - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (3):1-23.
    The pushmi-pullyu representation is a non-conjunctive representation with both descriptive and directive contents. Introduced by Millikan, the PPR is supposed to aid in explaining how organisms adapt behavior to environmental variance in the absence of intermediate inference. Until recently, it has led an uncontroversial theoretical life. However, Artiga has suggested that the PPR postulate conflicts with Millikan-style teleosemantics and, as a consequence, the PPR postulate should probably be set aside. I suggest here that the theoretical motivations for the PPR are (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  6
    From Allostatic Agents to Counterfactual Cognisers: Active Inference, Biological Regulation, and the Origins of Cognition.Andrew W. Corcoran, Giovanni Pezzulo & Jakob Hohwy - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (3):1-45.
    What is the function of cognition? On one influential account, cognition evolved to co-ordinate behaviour with environmental change or complexity. Liberal interpretations of this view ascribe cognition to an extraordinarily broad set of biological systems—even bacteria, which modulate their activity in response to salient external cues, would seem to qualify as cognitive agents. However, equating cognition with adaptive flexibility per se glosses over important distinctions in the way biological organisms deal with environmental complexity. Drawing on contemporary advances in theoretical biology (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4.  3
    Beyond Quantitative and Qualitative Traits: Three Telling Cases in the Life Sciences.Davide Serpico - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (3):1-26.
    This paper challenges the common assumption that some phenotypic traits are quantitative while others are qualitative. The distinction between these two kinds of traits is widely influential in biological and biomedical research as well as in scientific education and communication. This is probably due to both historical and epistemological reasons. However, the quantitative/qualitative distinction involves a variety of simplifications on the genetic causes of phenotypic variability and on the development of complex traits. Here, I examine three cases from the life (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  19
    What is a Target System?Alkistis Elliott-Graves - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-22.
    Many phenomena in the natural world are complex, so scientists study them through simplified and idealised models. Philosophers of science have sought to explain how these models relate to the world. On most accounts, models do not represent the world directly, but through target systems. However, our knowledge of target systems is incomplete. First, what is the process by which target systems come about? Second, what types of entity are they? I argue that the basic conception of target systems, on (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. What is a Target System?Alkistis Elliott-Graves - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-22.
    Many phenomena in the natural world are complex, so scientists study them through simplified and idealised models. Philosophers of science have sought to explain how these models relate to the world. On most accounts, models do not represent the world directly, but through target systems. However, our knowledge of target systems is incomplete. First, what is the process by which target systems come about? Second, what types of entity are they? I argue that the basic conception of target systems, on (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  1
    Ernst Haeckel’s ‘Kant Problem’: Metaphysics, Science, and Art.Stefan Forrester - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-28.
    Ernst Haeckel has become famous, and perhaps infamous, for many reasons. Presently, he is probably most widely-known for his paintings of plants and animals in his very popular book, Art Forms in Nature, originally collected and published in 1904. However, in addition to Haeckel’s art, he is also well-known for his advocacy of Darwinism and Social Darwinism, for first coining the term ‘ecology,’ for having his work utilized by Nazi pseudo-scientists, and for famously producing drawings of animal and human embryos (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  3
    The evolutionary role of affordances: ecological psychology, niche construction, and natural selection.Manuel Heras-Escribano - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-27.
    This paper aims to examine the evolutionary role of affordances, that is, the possibilities for action available in our environments. There are two allegedly competing views for explaining the evolutionary role of affordances: the first is based on natural selection; the second is based on niche construction. According to the first, affordances are resources that exert selection pressure. The second view claims that affordances are ecological inheritances in the organism’s niche that are the product of a previous alteration of the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  10
    Microbiome Causality: Further Reflections.Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-16.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  40
    The Use and Limitations of Null-Model-Based Hypothesis Testing.Mingjun Zhang - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-22.
    In this article I give a critical evaluation of the use and limitations of null-model-based hypothesis testing as a research strategy in the biological sciences. According to this strategy, the null model based on a randomization procedure provides an appropriate null hypothesis stating that the existence of a pattern is the result of random processes or can be expected by chance alone, and proponents of other hypotheses should first try to reject this null hypothesis in order to demonstrate their own (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  15
    Microbiomes: proportional causes in context.Nuhu Osman Attah, Marina DiMarco & Anya Plutynski - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-5.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12.  9
    Does the extended evolutionary synthesis entail extended explanatory power?Jan Baedke, Alejandro Fábregas-Tejeda & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-22.
    Biologists and philosophers of science have recently called for an extension of evolutionary theory. This so-called ‘extended evolutionary synthesis’ seeks to integrate developmental processes, extra-genetic forms of inheritance, and niche construction into evolutionary theory in a central way. While there is often agreement in evolutionary biology over the existence of these phenomena, their explanatory relevance is questioned. Advocates of EES posit that their perspective offers better explanations than those provided by ‘standard evolutionary theory’. Still, why this would be the case (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13.  4
    Investigating populations in generalized Darwinism.Karim Baraghith - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-27.
    Darwinian evolution is a population-level phenomenon. This paper deals with a structural population concept within the framework of generalized Darwinism, resp. within a generalized theory of evolution. According to some skeptical authors, GD is in need of a valid population concept in order to become a practicable research program. Populations are crucial and basic elements of any evolutionary explanation—biological or cultural—and have to be defined as clearly as possible. I suggest the “causal interactionist population concept”, by R. Millstein for this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  10
    The end of science? On human cognitive limitations and how to overcome them.Maarten Boudry, Michael Vlerick & Taner Edis - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-16.
    What, if any, are the limits of human understanding? Epistemic pessimists, sobered by our humble evolutionary origins, have argued that some parts of the universe will forever remain beyond our ken. But what exactly does it mean to say that humans are ‘cognitively closed’ to some parts of the world, or that some problems will forever remain ‘mysteries’? In this paper we develop a richer conceptual toolbox for thinking about different forms and varieties of cognitive limitation, which are often conflated (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  3
    Mayr and Tinbergen: Disentangling and Integrating.Brandon A. Conley - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):4.
    Research on animal behavior is typically organized according to a combination of two influential frameworks: Ernst Mayr’s distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, and Niko Tinbergen’s “four questions”. My aim is to debunk two common interpretive misconceptions about Mayr’s proximate–ultimate distinction and its relationship to Tinbergen’s four questions, and to offer a new interpretation that avoids both. The first misconception is that the proximate–ultimate distinction maps cleanly onto Tinbergen’s four questions, marking a boundary between Tinbergen’s evolutionary and survival value questions (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  3
    Mayr and Tinbergen: Disentangling and Integrating.Brandon A. Conley - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):4.
    Research on animal behavior is typically organized according to a combination of two influential frameworks: Ernst Mayr’s distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, and Niko Tinbergen’s “four questions”. My aim is to debunk two common interpretive misconceptions about Mayr’s proximate–ultimate distinction and its relationship to Tinbergen’s four questions, and to offer a new interpretation that avoids both. The first misconception is that the proximate–ultimate distinction maps cleanly onto Tinbergen’s four questions, marking a boundary between Tinbergen’s evolutionary and survival value questions (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  3
    Towards an Account of the Placebo Effect: A Critical Evaluation Alongside Current Evidence.Phoebe Friesen - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-23.
    This paper offers a critical analysis of several accounts of the placebo effect that have been put forward. While the placebo effect is most often thought of as a control in research and as a deceptive tool in practice, a growing body of research suggests that it ought to be thought of as a powerful phenomenon in its own right. Several accounts that aim to draw boundaries around the placebo effect are evaluated in relation to current evidence and it is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  5
    A Dual Decomposition Strategy of Both Microbial and Phenotypic Components for a Better Understanding of Causal Claims.Gregor P. Greslehner & Maël Lemoine - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1.
    In our commentary on Lynch et al.’s target paper, we focus on decomposition as a research strategy. We argue that not only the presumptive microbial causes but also their supposed phenotypic effects need to be decomposed relative to each other. Such a dual decomposition strategy ought to improve the way in which causal claims in microbiome research can be made and understood.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19.  1
    A Dual Decomposition Strategy of Both Microbial and Phenotypic Components for a Better Understanding of Causal Claims.Gregor P. Greslehner & Maël Lemoine - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1.
    In our commentary on Lynch et al.’s target paper, we focus on decomposition as a research strategy. We argue that not only the presumptive microbial causes but also their supposed phenotypic effects need to be decomposed relative to each other. Such a dual decomposition strategy ought to improve the way in which causal claims in microbiome research can be made and understood.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20.  1
    A Dual Decomposition Strategy of Both Microbial and Phenotypic Components for a Better Understanding of Causal Claims.Gregor P. Greslehner & Maël Lemoine - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1.
    In our commentary on Lynch et al.’s target paper, we focus on decomposition as a research strategy. We argue that not only the presumptive microbial causes but also their supposed phenotypic effects need to be decomposed relative to each other. Such a dual decomposition strategy ought to improve the way in which causal claims in microbiome research can be made and understood.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21.  1
    Ecology Helps Bound Causal Explanations in Microbiology.Jonathan L. Klassen - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):3.
    Experimental manipulations are a key means to establish causal relationships in microbiology. However, challenges remain to establish the applicability of such experiments beyond the precise conditions in which they were conducted. Ecological information can help address these challenges by describing the extent to which an experimentally-determined mechanism can explain the natural phenomenon that it is purported to cause.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22. Ecology Helps Bound Causal Explanations in Microbiology.Jonathan L. Klassen - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):3.
    Experimental manipulations are a key means to establish causal relationships in microbiology. However, challenges remain to establish the applicability of such experiments beyond the precise conditions in which they were conducted. Ecological information can help address these challenges by describing the extent to which an experimentally-determined mechanism can explain the natural phenomenon that it is purported to cause.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  6
    Elusive Vehicles of Genetic Representation.Riin Kõiv - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-24.
    The teleosemantic theory of representational content is held by some philosophers to imply that genes carry semantic information about whole-organism phenotypes. In this paper, I argue that this position is not supported by empirical findings. I focus on one of the most elaborate defenses of this position: Shea’s view that genes represent whole-organism phenotypes. I distinguish between two ways of individuating genes in contemporary biological science as possible vehicles of representational content—as molecular genes and as difference-maker genes. I show that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  6
    Precis of defending biodiversity.Stefan Linquist, Gary Varner & Jonathan E. Newman - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-4.
    Why should governments or individuals invest time and resources in conserving biodiversity? A popular answer is that biodiversity has both instrumental value for humans and intrinsic value in its own right. Defending Biodiversity critically evaluates familiar arguments for these claims and finds that, at best, they provide good reasons for conserving particular species or regions. However, they fail to provide a strong justification for conserving biodiversity per se. Hence, either environmentalists must develop more compelling arguments for conserving biodiversity or else (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  2
    Revisiting Three Decades of Biology and Philosophy: A Computational Topic-Modeling Perspective.Christophe Malaterre, Davide Pulizzotto & Francis Lareau - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):5.
    Though only established as a discipline since the 1970s, philosophy of biology has already triggered investigations about its own history The Oxford handbook of philosophy of biology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp 11–33, 2008). When it comes to assessing the road since travelled—the research questions that have been pursued—manuals and ontologies also offer specific viewpoints, highlighting dedicated domains of inquiry and select work. In this article, we propose to approach the history of the philosophy of biology with a complementary (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  7
    Revisiting Three Decades of Biology and Philosophy : A Computational Topic-Modeling Perspective.Christophe Malaterre, Davide Pulizzotto & Francis Lareau - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):5.
    Though only established as a discipline since the 1970s, philosophy of biology has already triggered investigations about its own history The Oxford handbook of philosophy of biology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp 11–33, 2008). When it comes to assessing the road since travelled—the research questions that have been pursued—manuals and ontologies also offer specific viewpoints, highlighting dedicated domains of inquiry and select work. In this article, we propose to approach the history of the philosophy of biology with a complementary (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  1
    Defending a Leopoldian Basis for Biodiversity: A Response to Newman, Varner, and Linquist.Roberta L. Millstein - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):12.
    In their book, Defending Biodiversity, Newman, Varner, and Linquist cast doubt on whether Leopoldian defenses of biodiversity, in their current form, have been successful. I argue that there is a more accurate interpretation of Leopold that is not subject to the criticisms made by NVL, and that Leopold’s body of work as a whole, including but not limited to the essay “The Land Ethic” in A Sand County Almanac, provides quite a bit of useful guidance and perspective. I begin with (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28.  1
    Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and the Environmentalist Agenda: A Reply to Odenbaugh.Jonathan A. Newman - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):17.
    Among the instrumental value defenses for biodiversity conservation is the argument that biodiversity is necessary to support ecosystem functioning. Lower levels of biodiversity yield lower levels of ecosystem functioning and hence the inference that we should conserve biodiversity. In our book Defending Biodiversity: Environmental Science and Ethics, we point out three problems with this inference. The empirical support for such an inference derives from experiments conducted on a very small set of ecosystem types and ecosystem functions. These experiments suffer from (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  9
    Horizontal Persistence and the Complexity Hypothesis.Aaron Novick & W. Ford Doolittle - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-22.
    This paper investigates the complexity hypothesis in microbial evolutionary genetics from a philosophical vantage. This hypothesis, in its current version, states that genes with high connectivity are likely to be resistant to being horizontally transferred. We defend four claims. There is an important distinction between two different ways in which a gene family can persist: vertically and horizontally. There is a trade-off between these two modes of persistence, such that a gene better at achieving one will be worse at achieving (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  4
    Horizontal Persistence and the Complexity Hypothesis.Aaron Novick & W. Ford Doolittle - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):2.
    This paper investigates the complexity hypothesis in microbial evolutionary genetics from a philosophical vantage. This hypothesis, in its current version, states that genes with high connectivity are likely to be resistant to being horizontally transferred. We defend four claims. There is an important distinction between two different ways in which a gene family can persist: vertically and horizontally. There is a trade-off between these two modes of persistence, such that a gene better at achieving one will be worse at achieving (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  1
    Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and the Environmentalist Agenda.Jay Odenbaugh - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-11.
    Jonathan Newman, Gary Varner, and Stefan Linquist’s Defending Biodiversity: Environmental Science and Ethics is a critical examination of a panoply of arguments for conserving biodiversity. Their discussion is extremely impressive though I think one can push back on some of their criticisms. In this essay, I consider their criticisms of the argument for conserving biodiversity based on ecosystem services; specifically, ecosystem functioning. In the end, I try to clarify and defend this argument against their criticisms.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  3
    Problems with Using Stability, Specificity, and Proportionality as Criteria for Evaluating Strength of Scientific Causal Explanations: Commentary on Lynch Et Al.Gry Oftedal - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):26.
    Lynch et al. employ stability, specificity, and proportionality as criteria for evaluating microbiome causal explanations. Although these causal characteristics signify relevant differences between causal roles, I suggest that they should not be used as general criteria for strong or good causal explanations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33.  9
    Teleosemantics and tetrachromacy.Brian Porter - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-22.
    Teleosemantics explains mental representation in terms of etiological history: a mental state’s representational contents are the result of natural selection, or some other selection process. Critics have argued that the “swampman” thought experiment poses a counterexample to teleosemantics. In several recent papers, Papineau has argued that a merely possible swampman cannot serve as a counterexample to teleosemantics, but has acknowledged that actual swampmen would pose a problem for teleosemantics. In this paper, I argue that there are real-world cases of swampman-like (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34.  5
    Dynamic Homology and Circularity in Cladistic Analysis.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):21.
    In this article, I examine the issue of the alleged circularity in the determination of homologies within cladistic analysis. More specifically, I focus on the claims made by the proponents of the dynamic homology approach, regarding the distinction between primary and secondary homology. This distinction is sometimes invoked to dissolve the circularity issue, by upholding that characters in a cladistic data matrix have to be only primarily homologous, and thus can be determined independently of phylogenetic hypotheses, by using the classical (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  1
    Microbial activities are dependent on background conditions.Tamar Schneider - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-5.
    Taking the case of H. pylori and ulcer, Lynch et al., demonstrate how framing Koch’s postulate by an interventionist account clarifies the latter’s explanatory strength in proportionality with the weaknesses in specificity and stability due to the influence of background conditions. They suggest this approach as an efficient way to bypass the enigma of background conditions and microbial activity in the microbiome’s causal relations. However, it is the background conditions and the microbial interactions in the stomach that determine whether the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  36.  6
    Representation-supporting model elements.Sim-Hui Tee - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-24.
    It is assumed that scientific models contain no superfluous model elements in scientific representation. A representational model is constructed with all the model elements serving the representational purpose. The received view has it that there are no redundant model elements which are non-representational. Contrary to this received view, I argue that there exist some non-representational model elements which are essential in scientific representation. I call them representation-supporting model elements in virtue of the fact that they play the role to support (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  1
    Response to Millstein.Gary Varner - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-8.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  25
    Correction to: Evolution of multicellularity: cheating done right.Walter Veit - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-2.
    The author would like to notify the readers about the following.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  11
    Correction to: Evolution of multicellularity: cheating done right.Walter Veit - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-2.
    The author would like to notify the readers about the following.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  2
    Pathogen Versus Microbiome Causation in the Holobiont.Aja Watkins & Federica Bocchi - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-6.
    In their paper “How Causal are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter pylori Explanation of Ulcers,” Lynch, Parke, and O’Malley successfully argue that certain causal attributions made to the microbiome have not satisfied Koch’s postulates nor the interventionist framework. However, their argument involves an implicit assumption that cases such as H. pylori are sufficiently similar to cases involving the microbiome, such that causal attributions to both should be evaluated according to the same causal framework. Our commentary targets this assumption. First, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  41. Commentary on Jonathan A. Newman, Gary Varner, and Stefan Linquist: Defending Biodiversity: Environmental Science and Ethics, Chapter 11: Should Biodiversity Be Conserved for its Aesthetic Value?Jennifer Welchman - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):13.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  24
    The Place of Animals in Kantian Ethics. Review of Christine M. Korsgaard, Fellow Creatures: Our Obligations to the Other Animals. [REVIEW]Jonathan Birch - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35:8.
    Kantian ethics has struggled terribly with the challenge of incorporating non-human animals as beings to which we can owe obligations. Christine Korsgaard’s Fellow Creatures is a bold, substantial attempt to meet that challenge. In this essay review, I set the scene for the book’s core argument, offer a reconstruction of that argument, and reflect on its strengths and limitations, arguing that it is ultimately unconvincing.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues