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  1.  2
    Change in the Graphics of Journal Articles in the Life Sciences Field: Analysis of Figures and Tables in the Journal “Cell”.Kana Ariga & Manabu Tashiro - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-34.
    The purpose of this study is to examine how trends in the use of images in modern life science journals have changed since the spread of computer-based visual and imaging technology. To this end, a new classification system was constructed to analyze how the graphics of a scientific journal have changed over the years. The focus was on one international peer-reviewed journal in life sciences, Cell, which was founded in 1974, whereby 1725 figures and 160 tables from the research articles (...)
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  2. A Tale of Two Cities: Emotion and Reason in the Formation of Moral Judgement and Possible Metaethical Implications.Susana Cadilha - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-27.
    The project of naturalizing ethics has multiple contributions, from cognitive and moral psychology to primatology, neuroscience or evolutionary theory. One of the strategies for naturalizing ethics has been to argue that moral norms and values can be explained away if we focus on their causal history, if it is possible to offer both an ultimate and proximate causal explanation for them. In this article, I will focus on the contribution of cognitive and moral psychology as a way of offering a (...)
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  3. Correction To: Temporal Sociomedical Approaches to Intersex* Bodies.Limor Meoded Danon - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-1.
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  4.  3
    Organisms as Subjects: Jakob von Uexküll and Adolf Portmann on the Autonomy of Living Beings and Anthropological Difference.Filip Jaroš & Carlo Brentari - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-23.
    This paper focuses on the links between Jakob von Uexküll’s theoretical biology and Adolf Portmann’s conception of organic life. Its main purpose is to show that Uexküll and Portmann not only share a view of the living being as an autonomous and holistically organized entity, but also base this view on the seminal idea of the subjectivity of the organism. In other words, the respective holistic principles securing the autonomy of the living being—the Bauplan, for Uexküll; the Innerlichkeit, for Portmann—share (...)
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  5. Health and Environment From Adaptation to Adaptivity: A Situated Relational Account.Laura Menatti, Leonardo Bich & Cristian Saborido - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-28.
    The definitions and conceptualizations of health, and the management of healthcare have been challenged by the current global scenarios (e.g., new diseases, new geographical distribution of diseases, effects of climate change on health, etc.) and by the ongoing scholarship in humanities and science. In this paper we question the mainstream definition of health adopted by the WHO—‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (WHO in Preamble to the constitution of (...)
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  6.  1
    Laboratory Animal Strain Mobilities: Handling with Care for Animal Sentience and Biosecurity.Emma Roe & Sara Peres - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-22.
    The global distribution of laboratory mouse strains is valued for ensuring the continuity, validity and accessibility of model organisms. Mouse strains are therefore assumed mobile and able to travel. We draw on the concept of ‘animal mobilities’ to explain how attending to laboratory mice as living animal, commodity and scientific tool is shaping how they are transported through contemporary scientific infrastructures and communities. Our paper is framed around exploring how animal strains travel, rather than animals, as we show that it (...)
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  7.  1
    Health as Temporally Extended: Theoretical Foundations and Implications.Ari Schick - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-22.
    This paper seeks to develop a theory of health that aligns with the shift in contemporary medical practice and research toward a temporally extended epidemiological view of health. The paper describes how such a theory is at the core of life course based approaches to health, and finds theoretical grounding in recent work in the philosophy of biology promulgating a process theory of life.
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  8. Death in Advance? A critique of the “Zombification” of people with dementia.Mark Schweda & Karin Jongsma - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-13.
    This contribution sets out to criticize the prominent metaphor of “death while alive” in the context of dementia. We first explain the historical origin and development as well as the philosophical premises of the image. We then take a closer look at its implications for understanding dementia and societal attitudes and behaviours towards those affected. In doing so, we adopt a life course perspective that seeks to account for the ethical significance of the temporal extension and structure of human life. (...)
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  9. A Hapless Mathematical Contribution to Biology: Chromosome Inversions in Drosophila, 1937–1941.Eric Tannier - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-22.
    This is the story, told in the light of a new analysis of historical data, of a mathematical biology problem that was explored in the 1930s in Thomas Morgan’s laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. It is one of the early developments of evolutionary genetics and quantitative phylogeny, and deals with the identification and counting of chromosomal inversions in Drosophila species from comparisons of genetic maps. A re-analysis of the data produced in the 1930s using current mathematics and computational (...)
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  10.  3
    Figuring out what is happening: the discovery of two electrophysiological phenomena.William Bechtel & Richard Vagnino - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-36.
    Research devoted to characterizing phenomena is underappreciated in philosophical accounts of scientific inquiry. This paper develops a diachronic analysis of research over 100 years that led to the recognition of two related electrophysiological phenomena, the membrane potential and the action potential. A diachronic perspective allows for reconciliation of two threads in philosophical discussions of phenomena—Hacking’s treatment of phenomena as manifest in laboratory settings and Bogen and Woodward’s construal of phenomena as regularities in the world. The diachronic analysis also reveals the (...)
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  11.  2
    Metaphors We Lie By: Our ‘War’ Against COVID-19.Margherita Benzi & Marco Novarese - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-22.
    In this paper we discuss the influence of war as a metaphor in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. After an introduction on the traditional analysis of the war metaphor, we address the social consequences of using this metaphor, a topic that has been widely debated with regard to public communication in the context of COVID-19. We pay particular attention to a theory that many intellectuals have raised: the possibility that the use of the metaphor in this context is harmful (...)
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  12. Medical Technologies, Time, and the Good Life.Claudia Bozzaro - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-16.
    Against the backdrop of emerging medical technologies that promise transgression of temporal limits, this paper aims to show the importance that an individual lifetime’s finitude and fugacity have for the question of the good life. The paper’s first section examines how the passing of an individual’s finite lifetime can be experienced negatively, and thus cause “suffering from the passing of time.” The second section is based on a sociological analysis within the conceptual framework of individualization and capitalism, which characterizes many (...)
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  13.  6
    Natural Selection According to Darwin: Cause or Effect?Ben Bradley - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-26.
    In the 1940s, the ‘modern synthesis’ of Darwinism and genetics cast genetic mutation and recombination as the source of variability from which environmental events naturally select the fittest, such ‘natural selection’ constituting the cause of evolution. Recent biology increasingly challenges this view by casting genes as followers and awarding the leading role in the genesis of adaptations to the agency and plasticity of developing phenotypes—making natural selection a consequence of other causal processes. Both views of natural selection claim to capture (...)
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  14. The ‘Good’ of Extending Fertility: Ontology and Moral Reasoning in a Biotemporal Regime of Reproduction.Nolwenn Bühler - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-27.
    Since the emergence of in-vitro fertilization, a specific set of technologies has been developed to address the problem of the ‘biological clock’. The medical extension of fertility time is accompanied by promissory narratives to help women synchronize conflicting biological and social temporalities. This possibility also has a transgressive potential by blurring one of the biological landmarks – the menopause – by which reproductive lives are organized and governed. These new ways of managing, measuring and controlling reproductive time have renewed debates (...)
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  15.  1
    The ‘Is’ and the ‘Ought’ of the Animal Organism: Hegel’s Account of Biological Normativity.Luca Corti - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-22.
    This paper investigates Hegel’s account of the animal organism as it is presented in the Philosophy of Nature, with a special focus on its normative implications. I argue that the notion of “organisation” is fundamental to Hegel’s theory of animal normativity. The paper starts by showing how a Hegelian approach takes up the scientific image of organism and assigns a basic explanatory role to the notion of “organisation” in its understanding living beings. Moving from this premise, the paper turns to (...)
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  16.  1
    The Evolution of Moral Belief: Support for the Debunker’s Causal Premise.Michael T. Dale - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-18.
    The causal premise of the evolutionary debunking argument contends that human moral beliefs are explained by the process of natural selection. While it is universally acknowledged that such a premise is fundamental to the debunker’s case, the vast majority of philosophers focus instead on the epistemic premise that natural selection does not track moral truth and the resulting skeptical conclusion. Recently, however, some have begun to concentrate on the causal premise. So far, the upshot of this small but growing literature (...)
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  17.  4
    Values in Evolutionary Biology: A Comparison Between the Contemporary Debate on Organic Progress and Canguilhem’s Biological Philosophy.Silvia De Cesare - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-20.
    The aim of this paper is to make a comparison and build up a dialogue between two different philosophical approaches to values in evolutionary biology. First, I present the approach proposed by Alexander Rosenberg and Daniel McShea in their contribution to the contemporary debate on organic progress. i.e. the idea that there has been some kind of improvement concerning organisms over the history of life. Discussing organic progress raises the question of what “better” exactly means. This requires an explicit clarification (...)
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  18.  11
    Question-Driven Stepwise Experimental Discoveries in Biochemistry: Two Case Studies.Michael Fry - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-52.
    Philosophers of science diverge on the question what drives the growth of scientific knowledge. Most of the twentieth century was dominated by the notion that theories propel that growth whereas experiments play secondary roles of operating within the theoretical framework or testing theoretical predictions. New experimentalism, a school of thought pioneered by Ian Hacking in the early 1980s, challenged this view by arguing that theory-free exploratory experimentation may in many cases effectively probe nature and potentially spawn higher evidence-based theories. Because (...)
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  19. Francesca Michelini & Kristian Köchy (eds.), Jakob von Uexküll and philosophy: life, environments, anthropology, Abingdon: Routledge, 2020. [REVIEW]Andrea Gambarotto - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-5.
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  20.  1
    Ross L. Jones, Anatomists of Empire: race, evolution and the Discovery of Human Biology in the British World, North Melbourne: australian Scholarly Publishing, 2020.Matthew R. Goodrum - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-3.
  21.  2
    Re-situations of scientific knowledge: a case study of a skirmish over clusters vs clines in human population genomics.James Griesemer & Carlos Andrés Barragán - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-32.
    We track and analyze the re-situation of scientific knowledge in the field of human population genomics ancestry studies. We understand re-situation as a process of accommodating the direct or indirect transfer of objects of knowledge from one site/situation to other sites/situations. Our take on the concept borrows from Mary S. Morgan’s work on facts traveling while expanding it to include other objects of knowledge such as models, data, software, findings, and visualizations. We structure a specific case study by tracking the (...)
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  22. David Sepkoski, Catastrophic Thinking: Extinction and the Value of Diversity From Darwin to the Anthropocene, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2020. [REVIEW]Artemis Korniliou - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-3.
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  23. The Foucauldian Approach to Conservation: Pitfalls and Genuine Promises.Yves Meinard - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-18.
    Conservation biology is a branch of ecology devoted to conserving biodiversity. Because this discipline is based on the assumption that knowledge should guide actions, it endows experts with a power that should be questioned. The work of the French philosopher Michel Foucault can be seen as a relevant conceptual resource to think these aspects of conservation biology through. I critically analyse the relevance of the Foucauldian approach to conservation. I argue that Foucauldian arguments are deeply ambiguous, and therefore useless for (...)
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  24. Temporal sociomedical approaches to intersex* bodies.Limor Meoded Danon - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-28.
    The history of the field of intersex bodies/bodies with variations of sex development reflects the ongoing tension between sociomedical attempts to control uncertainty and reduce the duration of corporeal uncertainty by means of early diagnosis and treatment, and the embodied subjects who resist or challenge these attempts, which ultimately increase uncertainty. Based on various qualitative studies in the field of intersex, this article describes three temporal sociomedical approaches that have evolved over the last decade and aims to address the uncertainty (...)
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  25. Matthew’s (1915) climate and evolution, the “New York School of Biogeography”, and the rise and fall of “Holarcticism”.Juan J. Morrone - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-27.
    Climate and evolution represents an important contribution to evolutionary biogeography, that influenced several authors, notably Karl P. Schmidt, George S. Myers, George G. Simpson, Philip J. Darlington, Ernst Mayr, Thomas Barbour, John C. Poynton, Allen Keast, Léon Croizat, Robin Craw, Michael Heads, and Osvaldo A. Reig. Authors belonging to the “New York School of Zoogeography” –a research community including Matthew, Schmidt, Myers and Simpson– accepted Matthew’s “Holarcticism” and the permanence of ocean basins and continents, whereas others, especially panbiogeographers and cladistic (...)
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  26.  1
    The emergence of temporality in attitudes towards cryo-fertility: a case study comparing German and Israeli social egg freezing users.Nitzan Rimon-Zarfaty & Silke Schicktanz - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-26.
    Assistive reproductive technologies are increasingly used to control the biology of fertility and its temporality. Combining historical, theoretical, and socio-empirical insights, this paper aims at expanding our understanding of the way temporality emerges and is negotiated in the contemporary practice of cryopreservation of reproductive materials. We first present an historical overview of the practice of cryo-fertility to indicate the co-production of technology and social constructions of temporality. We then apply a theoretical framework for analysing cryobiology and cryopreservation technologies as creating (...)
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  27.  1
    Mechanisms of macromolecular reactions.Ross L. Stein - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-28.
    During the past two decades, philosophers of biology have increasingly turned their attention to mechanisms of biological phenomena. Through analyses of mechanistic proposals advanced by biologists, the goal of these philosophers is to understand what a mechanism is and how mechanisms explain. These analyses have generally focused on mechanistic proposals for phenomenon that occur at the cellular or sub-cellular level, such as synapse firing, protein synthesis, or metabolic pathway operation. Little is said about the mechanisms of the macromolecular reactions that (...)
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  28. Making kangaroos grievable; making grievability non-human.Yvette Kim Clarissa Wijnandts - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-16.
    When Australian economist Ross Garnaut proposed to increase the commercial kangaroo industry in 2008, it started a national debate on the supposed edibility of kangaroos. Campaigns against the commercial kangaroo industry and hesitance amongst many consumers to eat kangaroo reflect concerns about viewing kangaroos as food. This article explores the reactions and challenges that originate from the kangaroo’s changing role in society by using Judith Butler’s concept of grievable lives. Using this framework shows that what animals we eat goes beyond (...)
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  29. Kerry Lynn Macintosh, Enhanced Beings: Human Germline Modification and the Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. [REVIEW]Antonio Diéguez - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-4.
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  30.  2
    Jimena Canales, Bedeviled: A Shadow History of Demons in Science, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020. [REVIEW]Rawad El Skaf - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-4.
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  31.  1
    The Kantian Account of Mechanical Explanation of Natural Ends in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Biology.Henk Jochemsen & Wim Beekman - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-24.
    The rise of the mechanistic worldview in the seventeenth century had a major impact on views of biological generation. Many seventeenth century naturalists rejected the old animist thesis. However, the alternative view of gradual mechanistic formation in embryology didn’t convince either. How to articulate the peculiarity of life? Researchers in the seventeenth century proposed both “animist” and mechanistic theories of life. In the eighteenth century again a controversy in biology arose regarding the explanation of generation. Some adhered to the view (...)
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  32.  2
    Michel Morange: The Black Box of Biology: A History of the Molecular Revolution, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2020.Kostas Kampourakis - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-4.
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  33.  4
    Philipp Fischer, Gabriele Gramelsberger, Christoph Hoffmann, Hans Hofmann, Hans-Jorg Rheinberger, Hannes Rickli, Natures of Data: A Discussion Between Biology, History and Philosophy of Science and Art, Zurich: Diaphanes, 2020.Emanuele Ratti - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-4.
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  34.  3
    Kraepelin’s psychiatry in the pragmatic age.David Rattray - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-35.
    The movement of a pendulum is often used as a metaphor to represent the history of twentieth century American psychiatry. On this view, American psychiatry evolved by swinging back and forth between two schools of thought in constant competition: somatic accounts of mental illness and psychodynamic ones. I argue that this narrative partly misrepresents the actual development of American psychiatry. I suggest that there were some important exchanges of ideas and practices in the transition from German biological approaches to American (...)
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  35.  3
    Evolution and ethics viewed from within two metaphors: machine and organism.Michael Ruse - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-17.
    How is moral thinking, ethics, related to evolutionary theorizing? There are two approaches, epitomized by Charles Darwin who works under the metaphor of the world as a machine, and by Herbert Spencer who works under the metaphor of the world as an organism. Although the author prefers the first approach, the aim of this paper is to give a disinterested account of both approaches.
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  36. Practicing virology: making and knowing a mid-twentieth century experiment with Tobacco mosaic virus.Karen-Beth G. Scholthof, Lorenzo J. Washington, April DeMell, Maria R. Mendoza & Will B. Cody - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-28.
    Tobacco mosaic virus has served as a model organism for pathbreaking work in plant pathology, virology, biochemistry and applied genetics for more than a century. We were intrigued by a photograph published in Phytopathology in 1934 showing that Tabasco pepper plants responded to TMV infection with localized necrotic lesions, followed by abscission of the inoculated leaves. This dramatic outcome of a biological response to infection observed by Francis O. Holmes, a virologist at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, was used (...)
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  37. Biological Constraints as Norms in Evolution.Mathilde Tahar - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-21.
    Biology seems to present local and transitory regularities rather than immutable laws. To account for these historically constituted regularities and to distinguish them from mathematical invariants, Montévil and Mossio have proposed to speak of constraints. In this article we analyse the causal power of these constraints in the evolution of biodiversity, i.e., their positivity, but also the modality of their action on the directions taken by evolution. We argue that to fully account for the causal power of these constraints on (...)
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  38.  3
    Sherrie L. Lyons, From Cells to Organisms: Re-envisioning Cell Theory, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2020.Hanna Lucia Worliczek - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-5.
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