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  1.  1
    Astrology in the Crossfire: The Stormy Debate After the Comet of 1577.Gábor Almási - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (2):137-163.
    ABSTRACT The new star of 1572 and the comet of 1577 had a major impact on the ways in which astronomical research developed in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Behind this gradual but significant change there was an extended epistemological reform which placed increasing emphasis on reason and experience and strove to exclude arguments from Scripture and authority from scientific debate. This paper argues that the humanist debate on astrology after 1577, which was initiated by highly prestigious members (...)
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  2.  1
    Monteiro da Rocha and the International Debate in the 1760s on Astronomical Methods to Find the Longitude at Sea: His Proposals and Criticisms to Lacaille’s Lunar-Distance Method.Fernando B. Figueiredo & Guy Boistel - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (2):215-258.
    ABSTRACT In the 1760s, the international debate on the solution to determining longitude at sea is at its acme. Two solutions emerge, the mechanical and the astronomical ones. The Portuguese mathematician and astronomer José Monteiro da Rocha is well aware of that debate. For him, Harrison’s No. 4 marine timekeeper cannot be seen as a solution. The desirable solution could only be astronomical. In a manuscript from c. 1765, which unfortunately he fails to publish, Monteiro da Rocha is very critical (...)
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  3.  1
    The M de Jussieu’s ‘Mirror of the Incas’: An Ecuadorian Archaeological Artefact in the Mineralogical Collection of René-Just Haüy.François Gendron - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (2):259-273.
    ABSTRACT This article reports on a historical investigation carried out on the conical object MIN000-3519 preserved in the mineralogy collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris. The mineralogist René-Just Haüy included this object, cut in a single pyrite crystal, in his working collection with the references ‘Sulphured iron, mirror of the Incas, of Peru, M. de Jussieu’. All of the research lines followed lead the author to Joseph de Jussieu and his shipments of botanical specimens and various other (...)
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  4.  1
    The Harvest of Optics: Descartes, Mydorge, and Their Paths to a Theory of Refraction.Robert Goulding - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (2):164-214.
    ABSTRACT In 1626, René Descartes and Claude Mydorge worked closely together on the problem of refraction, apparently discovering what is now known as the sine law of refraction. They constructed a plano-hyperbolic lens in order to test out the truth of this mathematical relationship. In 1637, Descartes finally published the sine method of determining refractions in his Dioptrique, which also demonstrated, on the basis of this relationship, that the hyperbola and ellipse were anaclastic lines without mentioning Mydorge. Mydorge himself wrote (...)
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  5. The Ruling Engines and Diffraction Gratings of Henry Augustus Rowland.C. N. Brown - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (1):81-130.
    ABSTRACT During a visit to Europe in the autumn of 1882, Henry Augustus Rowland, Professor of Physics at Johns Hopkins University, displayed diffraction gratings produced on a ruling engine he had designed and built, which were bigger and much higher quality than any previously made. Some were of a novel type, ruled on concave surfaces, which he used in a simple but equally novel spectroscope that he had devised, to reveal spectral lines in great detail, and by means of photography (...)
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  6. Mapping the Evolution of Early Modern Natural Philosophy: Corpus Collection and Authority Acknowledgement.Hugo Hogenbirk, Silvia Donker, Raluca Tanasescu & Andrea Sangiacomo - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (1):1-39.
    ABSTRACT Although natural philosophy underwent dramatic transformations during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, studying its evolution as a whole remains problematic. In this paper, we present a method that integrates traditional reading and computational tools in order to distil from different resources a representative corpus for mapping the evolution of natural philosophy. In particular, we focus on gathering authors and works that were engaged with the teaching of natural philosophy in the early modern academic milieu. We offer a preliminary assessment (...)
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  7. Purkyně’s Opistophone: The Hearing ‘Deaf’, Auditory Attention and Organic Subjectivity in Prague Psychophysical Experiments, Ca 1850s.Anna Kvicalova - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (1):60-80.
    ABSTRACT The paper examines the little-known experiments in audition performed by the prominent experimental physiologist Jan Purkyně in Prague in the 1850s. Purkyně’s original research on spatial hearing and auditory attention is studied against the backdrop of the nineteenth century research on binaural audition and the nascent field of psychophysics. The article revolves around an acoustic research instrument of Purkyně’s own making, the opistophone, in which hearing became both an object of investigation and an instrument of scientific inquiry. It argues (...)
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  8. Immunization: How Vaccines Became Controversial: 2nd Ed., by Stuart Blume, London, Reaktion Books, Ltd., 2021, 280 Pp., £9.99 (Paperback), ISBN 978-1-78914-504-5. [REVIEW]Kirsten Moore-Sheeley - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (1):131-133.
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  9.  2
    Science on a Mission: How Military Funding Shaped What We Do and Don’T Know About the Ocean: By Naomi Oreskes, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press, 2021, 738 Pp., $40.00 (Hardback), ISBN 978-0-226-73238-I. [REVIEW]M. Susan Lindee - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (1):133-135.
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  10.  2
    From the State of Nature to the State of Ruins: ‘American Race’ and ‘Savage Knowledge’ According to Carl von Martius.Raphael Uchôa - 2022 - Annals of Science 79 (1):40-59.
    ABSTRACT This study focuses on the notions of ‘ruins’, ‘savage knowledge’, and ‘American race’ in the works of the German naturalist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. A somewhat neglected figure in the history of anthropology and of natural history, Martius was regarded by scholars from Europe and the Americas as a leading figure in botany and ethnology in the nineteenth century. In this article, I discuss how Martius articulated: the notion of American race, that is, a broad characterization of the (...)
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