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  1. Xenophon's Socrates on Wisdom and Action.Joseph Bjelde - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (2).
    Xenophon's Socrates, like Plato's, holds that wisdom comes with practical abilities. But influential interpretations of Xenophon's Socrates attribute to him a splintered view of wisdom, on which there is no wisdom simpliciter which is specially connected to all good actions. In this paper, I argue that a crucial text is significantly more problematic for the splintered view than hitherto appreciated, while the texts which are supposed to support the splintered view do not. But Xenophon's Socrates comes apart from Plato's in (...)
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  2.  7
    Semantic Satiation for Poetic Effect.Daniel Anderson - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):34-51.
    This article argues that the defamiliarization caused by extensive repetition, termed ‘semantic satiation’ in psychology, was used by ancient poets for specific effects. Five categories of repetition are identified. First, words undergo auditory deformation through syllable and sound repetition, as commonly in ancient etymologies. Second, a tradition of emphatic proper-name repetition is identified, in which the final instance of the name is given special emphasis; this tradition spans Greek and Latin poetry, and ultimately goes back to the Nireus entry in (...)
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  3.  1
    The Dating of Philippos of Amphipolis.Brent Arehart - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):459-461.
    On the basis of two neglected testimonia, this short note argues that the terminus ante quem for Philippos of Amphipolis should be moved forward to the third century or to the early fourth century c.e. if not earlier.
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  4. A Stylish Exit: Marcus Terentius’ Swansong (Tacitus, Annals 6.8), Curtius Rufus and Virgil.Rhiannon Ash - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):330-346.
    Within the narrative for a.d. 32, Tacitus recreates a spirited speech delivered before the Senate by the eques Marcus Terentius, defending himself retrospectively for having been a ‘friend’ of Sejanus. This speech, the only extended speech in oratio recta to feature in Annals Book 6, is historiographically rich and suggestive.This article first analyses the speech as a compelling piece of oratory in its own right. It then explores the provocative mirroring of another important speech in Curtius Rufus. This is where (...)
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  5. On Gilgamesh and Homer: Ishtar, Aphrodite and the Meaning of a Parallel.Bernardo Ballesteros - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):1-21.
    This article reconsiders the similarities between Aphrodite's ascent to Olympus and Ishtar's ascent to heaven in Iliad Book 5 and the Standard Babylonian Gilgamesh Tablet VI respectively. The widely accepted hypothesis of an Iliadic reception of the Mesopotamian poem is questioned, and the consonance explained as part of a vast stream of tradition encompassing ancient Near Eastern and early Greek narrative poetry. Compositional and conceptual patterns common to the two scenes are first analyzed in a broader early Greek context, and (...)
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  6.  1
    Colour Terms and the Creation of Statius’ Ekphrastic Style.Lorenza Bennardo - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):292-307.
    This paper focusses on colour terminology as a tool for achieving ἐνάργεια in the Latin poetry of the first century c.e. After briefly outlining the developments in the concept of ἐνάργεια from Aristotle to Quintilian, the paper considers the use of Latin terms for black in three descriptive passages from Statius’ epic poem, the Thebaid. It is observed that the poet privileges the juxtaposition of the two adjectives ater and niger in a pattern of uariatio, where ater often carries a (...)
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  7.  1
    Seneca, Qvaestiones Natvrales 4b.4.2: Aeris or Temporis? Remarks on the Meaning of Tempvs.Álvaro Cancela Cilleruelo - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):276-284.
    In Quaestiones naturales 4b.4.2 Seneca states that in early spring the weather drastically changes: in the warmer sky larger water droplets are formed and cause rain. The description of this ‘greater change’ is linked in the manuscript tradition to two different controversial readings, temporis and aeris, which are irregularly distributed. Most recent editors have printed the first reading, but H.M. Hine is probably right to accept aeris. A careful linguistic, stemmatic and stylistic examination shows that temporis is likely to be (...)
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  8. Female Pain in Prudentius’ Peristephanon.Jacqueline Clarke - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):386-401.
    Within Prudentius’ Peristephanon there are three main episodes which focus upon the torture and/or death of women: the torture and death of Eulalia in Perist. 3, that of Encratis in Perist. 4 and the death of Agnes in Perist. 14. This article compares the variety and types of pain that these women are depicted as undergoing during their martyrdoms, analysing the extent to which gender and sexuality play a role in their responses to pain or to the threat of it. (...)
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  9. Pseudo-Apuleius’ de Fato.Leonardo Costantini - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):461-462.
    The note presents the discovery of a spurious Apuleian work entitled De fato from MS n° 1040 at the Bibliothèque patrimoniale Villon in Rouen. This work is, in fact, a series of excerpts from Firmicus Maternus, Mathesis Book 1.
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  10.  4
    Since Orpheus Was in Short Pants: Reassessing Oeagrus at Aristophanes, Wasps 579–80.Robert Cowan - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):89-94.
    In Aristophanes’ Wasps, Philocleon says that he and his fellow jurors do not acquit Oeagrus until he has recited a speech from the Niobe. Scholars have almost universally assumed that this was the name of a contemporary tragic actor, despite its extreme rarity. This article argues that the reference is rather to the father of Orpheus. As a figure from the generation before the archetypal bard, ‘an Oeagrus’ represents the old-fashioned poetry to which Philocleon and his fellow jurors are devoted.
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  11. Cassiodorus, Institvtiones 1.28.3 and Lactantius, Divinae Institvtiones 3.28.22.Marco Cristini - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):465-466.
    This note identifies the source of a brief quotation in Cassiodorus, Institutiones 1.28.3 as a passage of Lactantius, Diuinae Institutiones 3.28.22. It argues that Cassiodorus possibly intended to draw an implicit comparison between himself and Lactantius.
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  12. The Dipylon Oinochoē and Ancient Greek Dance Aesthetics.Eric Cullhed - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):22-33.
    This article asks what the graffito incised on the Dipylon oinochoē reveals about the nature of the dance competition that it commemorates. Through a systematic analysis of the evaluative and descriptive meaning of the adjective ἀταλός and its cognates in early Greek epic, it is argued that a narrower definition compared to previous suggestions can be established. The word refers to the carefreeness that is specific to a child or young animal, and its uses typically imply a positive evaluation which (...)
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  13. The History of Bilingual Dictionaries Reconsidered: An Ancient Fragment Related to Ps.-Philoxenus (P.Vars. 6) and its Significance. [REVIEW]Eleanor Dickey - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):359-378.
    This article identifies a papyrus in Warsaw, P.Vars. 6, as a fragment of the large Latin–Greek glossary known as Ps.-Philoxenus. That glossary, published in volume II of G. Goetz's Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum on the basis of a ninth-century manuscript, is by far the most important of the bilingual glossaries surviving from antiquity, being derived from lost works of Roman scholarship and preserving valuable information about rare and archaic Latin words. It has long been considered a product of the sixth century (...)
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  14. Notes on Seven Passages of Plutarch's Lives.James Diggle - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):454-458.
    This article discusses the text and interpretation of passages in Plutarch's Lives of Romulus, Agis and Cleomenes, Pericles, Brutus, Marcellus, Alexander and Marius.
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  15. A Note on Aristophanes, Knights 295.Jasper F. Donelan - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):440-442.
    This note discusses the meaning of the word κοπροφορεῖν at Aristophanes, Knights 295 and proposes a translation.
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  16. Numa and Jupiter: Whose Smile is It, Anyway?Lindsay G. Driediger-Murphy - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):259-275.
    This article examines the Roman tradition that Numa once negotiated with Jupiter about human sacrifice. Complete versions of the myth survive in Ovid, Plutarch and Arnobius. Previous studies of this tradition have proposed four main interpretations of it, which have done important service in modern reconstructions of the character of Roman religion. These scholarly treatments raise several questions. First, are they actually supported by, or the most convincing way of reading, the surviving ancient sources? If so, have they been correctly (...)
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  17. Greek Conceptualizations of Persian Traditions: Gift-Giving and Friendship in the Persian Empire.Samuel Ellis - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):77-88.
    This article examines gift-giving within the Persian empire and its perception in Greek literary sources. Gift-giving in the Greek world was often framed in the language of friendship, and Greek authors subsequently articulated Persian traditions using the language and cultural norms of their intended audience. There were fundamental differences in the concepts of gift-exchange and reciprocity between the Greeks and the Persians. This article will examine Persian traditions of gift-giving followed by Greek traditions of gift-giving, and will argue that the (...)
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  18. Three Greek Proper Names in Ovid, Metamorphoses Book 10.Pere Fàbregas Salis - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):446-451.
    This paper discusses the transcription of three Greek proper names in Ovid, Metamorphoses Book 10. It argues that we should read Haemon, Amycliade and Panchaica rather than Haemum, Amyclide and Panchaia.
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  19.  75
    Plato and the Dangerous Pleasures of Poikilia.Jonathan Fine - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):152-169.
    A significant strand of the ethical psychology, aesthetics and politics of Plato's Republic revolves around the concept of poikilia, ‘fascinating variety’. Plato uses the concept to caution against harmful appetitive pleasures purveyed by democracy and such artistic or cultural practices as mimetic poetry. His aim, this article shows, is to contest a prominent conceptual connection between poikilia and beauty (kallos, to kalon). Exploiting tensions in the archaic and classical Greek concept, Plato associates poikilia with dangerous pleasures to redirect admiration toward (...)
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  20. Textual Notes on Ps.-Dioscorides, on Simples.John G. Fitch - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):285-291.
    This article discusses the text of the work On Simples attributed to Dioscorides. It argues that in fifteen places the transmitted text is faulty, and it proposes emendations. It also studies certain types of insertions made in the text by its most recent editor, Max Wellmann, and concludes that they are unnecessary. Finally, it discusses two points where On Simples sheds light on Dioscorides’ De materia medica.
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  21. Varro and Pompey: Some More (Multiple) Hebdomads?Joseph Geiger - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):253-258.
    This article argues that a group of fourteen female statues seen in the Theatre of Pompey in Rome by Tatian belonged to Greek female poets. This group, along with the statues representing the fourteen nationes vanquished by Pompey, and certain groups of statues in the Forum of Augustus should all be ascribed to the influence of the Hebdomades of Pompey's familiaris Varro.
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  22. The Beautiful Girl: An Erotic Reading of Socrates’ First Argument in Plato's Hippias Major.Solveig Lucia Gold - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):135-151.
    ABSTRACTThis article looks to Attic comedy to explain Socrates’ first argument in Plato's Hippias Major: his refutation of Hippias’ claim that the Beautiful is a beautiful girl. As part of his argument, Socrates introduces three examples of beautiful things—a mare, a lyre and a pot —all of which are used in comedy as metaphorical obscenities for sexualized women. The author contends that an erotic reading of the text accomplishes what no other interpretation can: a unified account of the passage that (...)
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  23. Lyric Location and Performance Circumstances in Sappho and Alcaeus: A Cognitive Approach.David Gribble - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):52-70.
    A striking feature of the songs of Sappho and Alcaeus is their constant use of ‘deictic’ signals to establish a setting in a specific location in time and space. This article examines the created worlds of Sappho and Alcaeus, drawing on cognitive methodologies, in particular Text World Theory. It argues for the importance of a methodological distinction between the circumstances of performance of the songs, and the cognitive world they create. The locations established by the songs are designed to assimilate (...)
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  24. What the Rulers Want: Xenophon on Cyrus’ Psychology.Rodrigo Illarraga - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):170-182.
    This article presents an interpretation of Cyrus’ psychology in Xenophon's Cyropaedia. Its point is that Cyrus’ psychological structure is composed by a set of three desires given by nature and a set of virtues acquired by education. The paper will argue that Cyrus, as an enkratic ruler, does not long for any kind of honours, but is guided by true philotimía, that is, the desire for true honours—honours freely given by gratitude or admiration. philanthrōpía is the key to achieve these (...)
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  25. Aristotle, Metaphysics a 10, 993a13–15: A New Reading and its Implication for the Unity of Book Alpha.Mirjam E. Kotwick - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):183-188.
    This article argues for an emendation in Aristotle's Metaphysics A 10, 993a13–15. The emendation is based on a hitherto overlooked reading preserved in Alexander of Aphrodisias’ commentary on A 7. First, the article problematizes the reading of the Metaphysics manuscripts in terms of syntax, diction and content. Second, it shows that Alexander's reading is free of all three problems. Third, it argues for the originality of Alexander's reading according to the principle utrum in alterum abiturum erat? and based on the (...)
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  26. Attis on Ogygia: Catullus’ Carmen 63 and the Odyssey.Jan M. Kozlowski - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):230-239.
    Scholars have long noticed a similarity of motifs between Catullus’ Carmen 63 and the fifth book of the Odyssey, where the story of Odysseus’ captivity on Ogygia is narrated. A detailed analysis of the poems shows that Catullus wanted the reader to see in this Homeric episode a kind of matrix for the interpretation of Attis’ sojourn at Cybele. The discovery of this dependence casts a light on some of the hitherto proposed interpretations of Carmen 63.
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  27. A Fictive Membership Rush and Curatorial Fraud in the Lex of the Collegivm of Ivory and Citrus-Wood Merchants.Richard Last - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):347-358.
    The law of the collegium of ivory and citrus-wood merchants is best known for its suspected prohibition against outsiders or non-practitioners. The present study argues that the regulation in question actually prohibits curatores from enrolling outsiders—the text curiously labels such an offense ‘fraud’. Rather than banning outsiders altogether, the law provides that only quinquennales shall have the authority to admit non-practitioners. It is still a rather unusual law, and since it conveys the impression that this collegium is wildly popular even (...)
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  28. A Heraclitean Allusion to the Odyssey.Tom Mackenzie - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):71-76.
    This article applies and defends an intertextual approach to Heraclitus B51 DK, the ‘bow-lyre fragment’. It argues that the fragment alludes to the climactic scene of the Odyssey in which the hero strings the bow and is likened to an expert lyre-player. It then explores some implications of this point for our understanding of the significance of the fragment, of the sixth-century reception of the Odyssey and of Parmenides’ reception of Heraclitus.
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  29.  7
    Neglected Evidence for Aristotle, Historia Animalivm 7(8) in the Works of Ancient Homeric Scholars.Robert Mayhew - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):442-446.
    This brief article aims to supplement Stefan Schnieders's presentation of the evidence for Historia animalium 7—that is, Book 7 according to the manuscript tradition, Book 8 according to Theodore Gaza's rearrangement—having been considered the seventh book of this work in antiquity. This is accomplished through the discussion of two texts not considered by Schnieders, both of them passages commenting on Iliad Book 21: P.Oxy. 221 and Porphyry, Homeric Questions Book 1.
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  30. Becoming Κλεινοσ in Crete and Magna Graecia: Dionysiac Mysteries and Maturation Rituals Revisited.Mark F. McClay - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):108-118.
    This article reconsiders the historical and typological relation between Greek maturation rituals and Greek mystery religion. Particular attention is given to the word κλεινός and its ritual uses in two roughly contemporary Late Classical sources: an Orphic-Bacchic funerary gold leaf from Hipponion in Magna Graecia and Ephorus’ account of a Cretan pederastic age-transition rite. In both contexts, κλεινός marks an elevated status conferred by initiation. Without positing direct development between puberty rites and mysteries, the article argues on the basis of (...)
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  31. Pliny, Tacitus and the Monuments of Pallas.James McNamara - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):308-329.
    This article is a discussion of Plin. Ep. 7.29 and Ep. 8.6, in which he presents his reaction to seeing the grave monument of Marcus Antonius Pallas, the freedman and minister of the Emperor Claudius, beside the Via Tiburtina. The monument records a senatorial vote of thanks to Pallas, and Pliny expresses intense indignation at the Senate's subservience and at the power and influence wielded by a freedman. This article compares Pliny's letters with Tacitus’ account of the senatorial vote of (...)
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  32. The Family Traditions of the Gens Marcia Between the Fourth and Third Centuries B.C.Davide Morelli - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):189-199.
    In the mid fourth century b.c. some Roman gentes drew on a Pythagorean tradition. In this tradition, Numa's role of Pythagoras’ disciple connected Rome with Greek elites and culture. The Marcii, between 304 and 300 b.c., used Numa's figure, recently reshaped by the Aemilii and the Pinarii for their propaganda, to promote the need for a plebeian pontificate. After the approval of the Ogulnium plebiscite, the needs for this kind of propaganda fell away. When Marcius Censorinus became censor, Numa's pontificate (...)
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  33. Tragic Noise and Rhetorical Frigidity in Lycophron's Alexandra.Thomas J. Nelson & Katherine Molesworth - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):200-215.
    This paper seeks to shed fresh light on the aesthetic and stylistic affiliations of Lycophron's Alexandra, approaching the poem from two distinct but complementary angles. First, it explores what can be gained by reading Lycophron's poem against the backdrop of Callimachus’ poetry. It contends that the Alexandra presents a radical and polemical departure from the Alexandrian's poetic programme, pointedly appropriating key Callimachean images while also countering Callimachus’ apparent dismissal of the ‘noisy’ tragic genre. Previous scholarship has noted links between the (...)
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  34. New Poetic Fragments From a Neglected Witness of Ps.-Trypho's de Tropis: Callimachus, Ps.-Hesiod, Ps.-Simonides.Filippomaria Pontani & Maria Giovanna Sandri - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):240-252.
    A treatise on rhetorical tropes is attributed in manuscripts to the first-century grammarian Trypho: this article considers for the first time a fifteenth-century manuscript of this work, which turns out to be the only complete witness of its hitherto unknown original version; this version is also partly found in another fifteenth-century manuscript now kept in Olomouc. Four interesting poetic fragments are quoted in this newly discovered, fuller version of Ps.-Trypho's De Tropis: some lines from Callimachus’ fifth and fourth Iambi, an (...)
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  35. What Does the Term Togata ‘Really’ Mean?G. E. Rallo - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):216-229.
    This article aims to shed fresh light on the meaning of the term togata. It conducts an analysis of the term as it appeared in ancient sources,1 investigating in particular both how and why ancient authors across several periods focussed their attention on the togata. The paper will also distinguish between the attestation of the term togata in ancient writers, who are likely to have actually watched these theatrical performances in person and known more directly what they were talking about, (...)
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  36. Addendum to ‘Did Cicero “Proscribe” Marcus Antonius?’.John T. Ramsey - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):452-454.
    This note adduces three passages in Seneca the Elder to reinforce a demonstration in CQ 69, 793–8001 that the text of Plin. HN 7.117 has suffered corruption in one of its clauses and requires emendation to restore Pliny's intent. This additional evidence concerns a trope employed by declaimers which could have predisposed a scribe to alter Pliny's text to state that Cicero proscribed Mark Antony. Such a statement has no place in a list of achievements that otherwise all belong to (...)
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  37.  1
    Themistius Against Porphyry (?) On ‘Why We Do Not Remember’.Robert Roreitner - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):379-385.
    This article sheds new light on Themistius’ argument in what is philosophically the most original section of his extant work, namely On Aristotle's On the Soul 100.16–109.3: here, Themistius offers a systematic interpretation of Aristotle's ‘agent’ intellect and its ‘potential’ and ‘passive’ counterparts. A solution to two textual difficulties at 101.36–102.2 is proposed, supported by the Arabic translation. This allows us to see that Themistius engages at length with a Platonizing reading of the enigmatic final lines of De anima III.5, (...)
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  38.  1
    The Historia Avgvsta Before Ms Pal. Lat. 899: Lost Manuscripts and Scribal Mediation.Martin Shedd - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):402-421.
    This article re-evaluates the role of the manuscript tradition of the Historia Augusta in debates over the original contents and authorship of the text. Evidence for physical disruptions to the text before our oldest surviving manuscripts points to an earlier manuscript distributed across multiple codices. A multi-volume archetype eliminates critical arguments against the author's claims about lives missing before the Life of Hadrian as well as in the lacuna for the years a.d. 244–260. Other multi-volume codices of the eighth and (...)
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  39. The Rates of Jury Pay and Assembly Pay in Fourth-Century Athens.Robert Sing - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):119-134.
    During the fourth century, the amount of money Athenians got from the polis for volunteering to sit on a jury and for attending the assembly diverged significantly. Jury pay remained at 3 obols a day, despite inflation, while the pay given for a principal assembly eventually rose from 1 obol to 9 obols—outpacing inflation and overcompensating most citizens for their time. What demographic reconstruction of the jury can explain why the real value of jury pay never declined to the point (...)
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  40.  1
    On the Political Outlook of the ‘Anonymus Iamblichi’.Anders Dahl Sørensen - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):95-107.
    The political outlook of the so-called ‘Anonymus Iamblichi’ has been a subject of controversy in the scholarly literature, with some commentators judging him to be a committed democrat, while others see in him a partisan of aristocracy or even oligarchy. This disagreement is not surprising, for the text contains passages that seem to pull in opposite directions. The article suggests that we move beyond the one-dimensional oligarch-or-democrat model traditionally employed and instead approach the issue from a fresh angle, applying the (...)
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  41.  2
    A Neglected Manuscript of the Glossary of Placidus and the History of the Text.Jarrett T. Welsh & Jesse Hill - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):422-439.
    This paper identifies a neglected manuscript, Viterbo, Centro Diocesano di Documentazione, Capitolare 51, as the extant archetype of the Libri Romani version of the glossary of Placidus. It first demonstrates that R is the parent of the three witnesses to the Libri Romani text used by editors, and it considers the implications of the neglected manuscript for future editions of the text. It then corroborates the importance of R by tracing its travels in humanistic and antiquarian circles in Italy in (...)
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  42. An Emendation in Hesychius Π 196.Georgios A. Xenis - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):462-464.
    The entry π 196 of Hesychius is textually corrupt. This note challenges the traditional way of explaining the corruption and emending the text, which goes back to Marcus Musurus, and replaces it with a simpler and more economical approach.
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