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  1.  1
    Mavrodes on the Nature of Arguments and the Epistemology of Moral Arguments for the Existence of God.Mohammad Saeed Akbari Dehghan & Naeme Poormohammadi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):1-18.
    In the classical tradition of arguments for the existence of God, a number of moral arguments have been proposed. Parallel to these arguments, moral arguments against the existence of God emerged. Here a question presents itself: does the existence of moral arguments against God discredit the ones for God and make the belief of theists unjustified? Our claim is that we can propose a new notion of argumentation which shields theistic moral arguments existence against atheistic ones. In this research, we (...)
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  2.  1
    Griffin on the Traditional Theological Approaches to the Problem of Evil.Haajar Darbandi Darian, Azam Ghasemi & Malek Shojaee Joshooghani - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):65-86.
    One of the most important issues in theology and philosophy of religion is the problem of evil and its relation to God and his omnipotence and omnibenevolence. Contemporary theologian and philosopher, David Ray Griffin, regards the efforts to answer the problem of evil as inconclusive. He designates traditional theists, who believe in God’s supernatural interference in the cause and effect chain of events, Supernaturalists. He believes that they interpret evil as only appearing evil. He tries to identify and refute certain (...)
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  3.  1
    The A Priori in Otto’s Notion of Religion and Mysticism.Akarm Ebrahimi & Enshallah Rahmati - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):87-107.
    The article grapples with Otto’s idea of unity and diversity in Mysticism. On the one hand, he believes in the diversity of Mysticisms and, on the other hand, he contends that various forms of Mysticism can be considered as a united body. Various forms of Mysticism, as he asserts, is formed in a realm beyond different cultures, ethnic groups and lands. Otto claims that this can be explained by appealing to a realm beyond the empirical. In this article, I shall (...)
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  4.  1
    Honesty as a Foundational Virtue in Light of Mystical Ethics.Seyed Ahmad Fazeli - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):173-195.
    In Mystical Ethics, honesty at a superficial level refers to the conformation of speech and actions with intention and purpose. This application of honesty has been analyzed in depth in Mystical Ethics and this analysis has resulted in honesty being considered as the foundation and basis of other virtues in five cases from which it can be understood that many of the virtues are not virtues without honesty. In fact, these five cases provide important and various meanings of the foundational (...)
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  5.  1
    The Role of Necessity in Facing the Problem of Evil in Plato’s Philosophy.Mohammad Firuzkuhy & Aliakbar Ahmadi Aframjani - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):197-210.
    Plato, when dealing with the problem of evil, more than anything, tries to keep the good and the ideas transcendent and uninvolved in evil. Therefore, apart from the fact that he recognizes humans as the cause of some evil, he talks of a concept called necessity which exists alongside rationality, and plays a vital role in the mechanism of the universe and its regulation. The existence of necessity, as an obstacle in the way of reason, provides an explanation for the (...)
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  6.  1
    Conciliationist Approach to the Challenge of Religious Disagreement.Ghazaleh Hojjati - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):19-40.
    Conciliationists believe that after the emergence of disagreement between epistemic peers, one cannot reasonably be committed to her previous belief or her degree of confidence in that. From this viewpoint, reasonable doxastic attitude in confronting disagreement is suspension of judgment or reducing the degree of confidence in the previous belief. Religious conciliationists believe that religious diversity challenges the justification of religious believes so that the reasonable epistemic response is to suspend the judgment till finding some appropriate evidence that demonstrates the (...)
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  7.  1
    God’s Self-Manifestation and Moser’s Moral Approach in Justifying Belief in God.Azam Sadat Hoseini Hoseinabad, Zahra Khazaei & Mohsen Javadi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):41-64.
    The present paper depicts Moser’s view on the justification of the belief in God. By debunking the efficiency of mere theoretical reason in proving the existence of God, introducing God as the source of justification, and using a moral perspective, he proposes a kind of voluntary knowledge. He assumes the right path to acquire true knowledge of god to be a direct and purposeful evidence, which is found in accordance to divine attributes. For their own redemption, before the interference of (...)
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  8.  1
    Theological Models of Lindbeck and Phillips: A Comparison.Seyed Amirreza Mazari & Jahangir Massoudi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):211-224.
    One of the controversial topics in philosophy of religion is the Wittgensteinian theological models based on his notions of language game and lifestyle. Ostensibly, all these models result from the thoughts of the same person and have been at times subject to the same criticisms. However, some of the models have been more capable of offering convincing responses to those criticisms. The current study aims to investigate two popular models based on Wittgensteinian ideas. The first one is George Lindbeck’s cultural-linguistic (...)
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  9.  1
    Schopenhauer on the Meaning of Life: An Evaluation.Yadollah Rostami - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):109-126.
    Shopenhauer considers humam life to be meaningless. He denied the existence of God due to the existence of a plenty of pain and suffering in life and believes that people unreasonabley assume It to make their life meaningful. He also contends that creation of such a world is a mistake. The life of human being in this world is a process in which they do not have a clear goal. Thus, it is only an aimless continuation. In his view, since (...)
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  10.  1
    Newton’s Ontology and Its Theological Consequences.Mostafa Shaabani, Iraj Nikseresht & Abolfazl Kiyashemshaki - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):151-172.
    Newton’s world consists of atoms, which cause natural phenomena with their movement through vacuum. Force is another important element of Newton’s world. Newton denies the idea that gravity is an essential property of matter. This indicates his adherence to the traditional conception of substance. Moreover, it provides a reason for him to believe in divine omnipresence. Other components of Newton’s ontology are space and time. He believes in absolute space and time and that it is God who sustains space and (...)
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  11.  1
    Avicenna’s Theory of God’s Knowledge of Particulars; Investigating Marmura’s Interpretation.Amirhossein Zadyousefi, Mohammad Saeedimehr & Hossein Zamaniha - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):127-150.
    Michael E. Marmura, an outstanding Avicenna scholar, has presented a special interpretation of Avicenna’s view concerning God’s knowledge of particulars. In this paper, which consists of two parts, we will examine his interpretation of Avicenna. In the first part, we briefly present Marmura’s reading of Avicenna’s theory of God’s knowledge of particulars. According to Marmura’s interpretation of Avicenna, God only knows, individually, particular entities which are the only member of their species. Also, He knows, individually, particular events which are attributed (...)
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  12.  2
    مدل‌های الهیاتی در ترازوی آرای لیندبک و فیلیپس.سیدامیررضا مزاری & جهانگیر مسعودی - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):211-224.
    یکی از مباحث چالش‌برانگیز در حوزۀ فلسفۀ دین مدل‌هایی است که در حوزۀ الهیات از مفاهیم بازی زبانی و نحوه‌های زندگی ویتگنشتاین اخذ شده است. این مدل‌ها در ظاهر با این که ریشۀ فکری یکسانی در خاک اندیشه ویتگنشتاین دارند و گاهی انتقاداتی مشابه به آنها وارد شده است، در باطن امر برخی از این مدل‌ها بهتر توانسته‌اند از این انتقادات جان سالم به در برند. در این مقاله، دو مدل معروف ویتگنشتاینی را مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهیم: مدل زبانی‌ـ‌فرهنگی جورج (...)
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  13.  1
    Hume’s Mystical Fideism: An Alternative Reading of His View on the Problem of Evil.Siamak Abdollahi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):109-121.
    Close examination of the works of David Hume shows that his aim to explain the problem of evil is to attack natural theology and introduce it as a situation that is non-epistemological and unsystematic. So, contrary to what the majority of interpretations which typically express that he makes an argument against the existence of God, Hume wants to show that the statements of natural theology are rationally unprovable, and he does not want to totally decline them. As a matter of (...)
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  14.  1
    Tabatabaie on Semantics of Divine Attributes.Maryam Barooti, Ghasem Kakaie & Reza Akbarian - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):1-21.
    In the majority of his works, Tabatabaie takes the side of cataphaticism about divine attributes. But the theory is presented in his different works in different ways. There are at list 3 ways in which he has presented the theory including verticality of meaning regardless of instances, verticality of meaning with respect to expression of instances, and ungradedness of meaning with respect to the goal and the common function. In this article, we shall try to explain and analyze the three (...)
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  15.  1
    Plantinga on Natural Theology and the Relationship Between Science and Religion.Morteza Faghihi Fazel - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):123-142.
    Natural theology is known to be a type of theology that seeks to justify religious beliefs, particularly the belief in God, based on human knowledge unaided by revelation. Natural theology has been always seen to be a link relating science and religion. If the purpose of religion, the revealed truths and the purpose of science is a collection of human knowledge, then natural theology can always be cemented by the efforts of theologians to establish a relationship between religion and human (...)
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  16.  1
    The Ethics of Reverence for Life.Jaafar Fallahi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):143-165.
    Ethics of reverence for life – presented by Albert Schweitzer - advocates any kind of life be it human or not. Arthur Schopenhauer believes that one has to deny life and resign from him. In this essay the relation between ethics of reverence for life and Schopenhauer’s thoughts is investigated. Reverence for life is based on the will to live and methodologically on particular and concrete experiences, which shows the similarity between its metaphysical bases of the ethics and that of (...)
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  17.  1
    The Moral Argument Against the Existence of God?Amirhossein Khodaparast - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):23-46.
    While the moral argument for the existence of God is a more familiar issue in philosophy of religion, recently, atheist philosophers have proposed a moral argument against the existence of God. This argument has been formulated in at least five ways: from the problem of evil, from the critique of alienation, from autonomy, from the critique of expediency, and from the immoral teachings of world religions. Some of these formulations can be regarded as a theoretical moral argument against the existence (...)
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  18.  1
    Different Readings of Isfahani’s Argument for the Existence of God.Mohammad Mohammadrezai & Mahdi Khayatzadeh - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):167-183.
    Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Gharawi Isfahani presented an argument for the existence of God which is classified among ontological arguments. Among contemporary thinkers in Iran, this argument has attracted serious supporters and critics alike. Overall, five readings have been put forth for this argument. In the present study, these five readings have been analyzed in three main frameworks including the concept of the Necessary Being as a mental concept, the concept of Necessary Being as representing something out of itself and finally, (...)
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  19.  1
    Theoretical and Practical Moral Arguments for the Existence of God: A Critical Review.Ali Reza Mosadeghi Haghighi, Aflatun Sadeghi, Mohammad Hosein Mahdavinejad & Ismaail Zare - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):211-232.
    The moral arguments for the existence of God which are formed by appealing to moral thought and experience can be categorized into theoretical and practical arguments. Kant was the first thinker who introduced the argument based on the fact that morality is an intellectual commitment. He asserted that it is necessary to assume the existence of God in order to realize goodness that is the ultimate goal of human moral life. His argument, from the critics’ point of view, is self-contradictory (...)
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  20.  1
    Roger Trigg on Religious Commitment and Rationality.Fatemeh Saeedi & Abdorasoul Kashfi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):47-67.
    Religious commitment and its relation to rationality has been always one of the important questions in philosophy of religion. Trigg is one of the contemporary philosophers who has considered this issue. In this article, we consider his view regarding the nature of commitment and its relation to belief, meaning, justification and rationality. He thinks that commitment has two elements: propositional belief and personal commitment to it. Since Trigg thinks that the first element is fundamental, this article concentrates on it. Concerning (...)
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  21.  1
    Al-Ghazali on the Representative Language of Revelation.Saeede Saeedi & Mousa Malayeri - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):69-91.
    Al-Ghazali, as one of the greatest thinkers of the Islamic world, has proposed notable views on religious language. He has addressed the language of revelation according to ontological and epistemological bases and theological-mystical approaches. His most important work in this subject is Jawaher-al-Koran. In this book, which pertains to the period of his engagement with mysticism, al-Ghazali has comprehensively addressed the esoteric understanding of the Qur’an. Based on his notion of revelation and his theory of the conformity of different worlds, (...)
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  22.  1
    Hume’s Position and Influence on Phillips’ Philosophical System.Shahab Shahidi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 15 (2):93-107.
    D. Z. Phillips is one of the most important philosophers who believe in non-realism about religious language. He was highly influenced by Hume and believed Hume has criticized the arguments for the existence of God in three levels. Although he considers these criticisms as successful ones, by appealing to the hermeneutics of contemplation, he maintains that we should go beyond Hume and contemplate religious concepts. He separates his way from the proponents of hermeneutics of recollection and suspicion. According to him, (...)
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