29 found

Year:

  1.  3
    Use of Analogy in the Development of Intercultural Competence.Yuko Abe - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):25-0.
    Analogy is defined in many different ways. In this paper it is understood as a process in which the familiar structure of a direct experience in one situation is used to make conclusions regarding an expected experience within another structure. This process is based on the perceived similarity of the structures, not on rational, theoretical analysis of the relations between their components and the mechanisms of their interactions. The use of analogy relies on the engagement of intuitive recognition of the (...)
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  2.  6
    Something’s Got to Give: Reconsidering the Justification for a Gender Divide in Sport.Andria Bianchi - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):23-0.
    The question of whether transgender athletes should be permitted to compete in accordance with their gender identity is an evolving debate. Most competitive sports have male and female categories. One of the primary challenges with this categorization system, however, is that some transgender athletes may be prevented from competing in accordance with their gender identity. The reason for this restriction is because of the idea that transgender women have an unfair advantage over their cisgender counterparts; this is seen as a (...)
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  3.  2
    Why You Don’T Have to Choose Between Accuracy and Human Officiating.S. Seth Bordner - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):33-0.
    Debates about the role of technology in sports officiating assume that technology would, _ceteris paribus_, improve accuracy over unassisted human officiating. While this is largely true, it also presents a false dilemma: that we can have accurately officiated sports or human officials, but not both. What this alleged dilemma ignores is that the criteria by which we measure accuracy are also up for revision. We _could_ have sports that are so defined as to be easily judged by human officials. A (...)
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  4.  2
    Interaction Histories and Short-Term Memory: Enactive Development of Turn-Taking Behaviours in a Childlike Humanoid Robot.Frank Broz, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, Hatice Kose & Kerstin Dautenhahn - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):26-0.
    In this article, an enactive architecture is described that allows a humanoid robot to learn to compose simple actions into turn-taking behaviours while playing interaction games with a human partner. The robot’s action choices are reinforced by social feedback from the human in the form of visual attention and measures of behavioural synchronisation. We demonstrate that the system can acquire and switch between behaviours learned through interaction based on social feedback from the human partner. The role of reinforcement based on (...)
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  5.  5
    Spurious, Emergent Laws in Number Worlds.Cristian S. Calude & Karl Svozil - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):17-0.
    We study some aspects of the emergence of _lógos_ from _xáos_ on a basal model of the universe using methods and techniques from algorithmic information and Ramsey theories. Thereby an intrinsic and unusual mixture of meaningful and spurious, emerging laws surfaces. The spurious, emergent laws abound, they can be found almost everywhere. In accord with the ancient Greek theogony one could say that _lógos_, the Gods and the laws of the universe, originate from “the void,„ or from _xáos_, a picture (...)
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  6.  2
    Art in the Face of Evil: Analogies Between the Conceptions of Two French Resistance Fighters.Estelle Carciofi - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):18-0.
    I present two conceptions of the human being and art: that of Renaud—the main fictional character of a short novel written by Vercors—and that of Albert Camus. Although these French resistance fighters experienced the same war, the same terrible events surprisingly lead them to opposite extremes: the first one to despair and the rejection of art perceived as an unbearable lie, the second one to hope and to artistic commitment. Analogical reasoning allows us to show both the similarities and the (...)
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  7. Rilkean Memories and the Self of a Robot.Antonio Chella - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):20-0.
    This paper discusses the concept of Rilkean memories, recently introduced by Mark Rowlands, to analyze the complex intermix of hardware and software related to the self of a robot. The Rilkean memory of an event is related to the trace of that episode left in the body of the individual. It transforms the act of remembering into behavioral and bodily dispositions, thus generating the peculiar behavioral style of the individual, which is at the basis of her autobiographical self. In the (...)
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  8.  12
    Applying Philosophy to Refereeing and Umpiring Technology.Harry Collins - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):21-0.
    This paper draws an earlier book entitled _Bad Call: Technology’s Attack on Referees and Umpires and How to Fix It_ and its various precursor papers. These show why it is that current match officiating aids are unable to provide the kind of accuracy that is often claimed for them and that sports aficianados have been led to expect from them. Accuracy is improving all the time but the notion of perfect accuracy is a myth because, for example, lines drawn on (...)
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  9.  11
    From Reflex to Reflection: Two Tricks AI Could Learn From Us.Jean-Louis Dessalles - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):27-0.
    Deep learning and other similar machine learning techniques have a huge advantage over other AI methods: they do function when applied to real-world data, ideally from scratch, without human intervention. However, they have several shortcomings that mere quantitative progress is unlikely to overcome. The paper analyses these shortcomings as resulting from the type of compression achieved by these techniques, which is limited to statistical compression. Two directions for qualitative improvement, inspired by comparison with cognitive processes, are proposed here, in the (...)
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  10.  6
    Embodiment: The Ecology of Mind.Paul Dumouchel - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):12-0.
    Following a suggestion from G. Bateson, this article enquires into the consequence of the idea of embodiment in philosophy of mind, taking seriously the notion of an ecology of mind. In the first half of this article, after distinguishing between the biological and the systemic approaches to ecology, I focus on three characteristics of the systemic approach. First, that a system is an abstract object that is multiply embodied in a collection of physically distinct heterogeneous objects. Second, that there is (...)
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  11.  10
    Analogy and Communication.Enrique Dussel - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):31-0.
    Analogy makes possible the dialogue between people. This dialogue, at the intercultural level and from distinct ontological comprehensions of life, cannot be achieved from a univocal pretension of meaning. Analogy permits, especially at the rhetoric level of Political Philosophy, an adequate interpretation of such complex concepts as people, state or rights. A semantics of these concepts by similarity allows us to advance in the process towards a better interpretation of the other interlocutor’s expression though never reaching identity.
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  12. Philosophy in Reality: Scientific Discovery and Logical Recovery.Joseph E. Brenner & Abir U. Igamberdiev - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):22-0.
    Three disciplines address the codified forms and rules of human thought and reasoning: logic, available since antiquity; dialectics as a process of logical reasoning; and semiotics which focuses on the epistemological properties of the extant domain. However, both the paradigmatic-historical model of knowledge and the logical-semiotic model of thought tend to incorrectly emphasize the separation and differences between the respective domains vs. their overlap and interactions. We propose a sublation of linguistic logics of objects and static forms by a dynamic (...)
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  13.  4
    The Problem of Meaning in AI and Robotics: Still with Us After All These Years.Tom Froese & Shigeru Taguchi - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):14-0.
    In this essay we critically evaluate the progress that has been made in solving the problem of meaning in artificial intelligence and robotics. We remain skeptical about solutions based on deep neural networks and cognitive robotics, which in our opinion do not fundamentally address the problem. We agree with the enactive approach to cognitive science that things appear as intrinsically meaningful for living beings because of their precarious existence as adaptive autopoietic individuals. But this approach inherits the problem of failing (...)
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  14.  9
    Casuistic Reasoning, Standards of Evidence, and Expertise on Elite Athletes’ Nutrition.Saana Jukola - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):19-0.
    This paper assesses the epistemic challenges of giving nutrition advice to elite athletes in light of recent philosophical discussion concerning evidence-based practice. Our trust in experts largely depends on the assumption that their advice is based on reliable evidence. In many fields, the evaluation of the reliability of evidence is made on the basis of standards that originate from evidence-based medicine. I show that at the Olympic or professional level, implementing nutritional plans in real-world competitions requires contextualization of knowledge in (...)
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  15.  8
    What Might a Theory of Causation Do for Sport?Evan Thomas Knott - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2).
    The purpose of this research is to articulate how a theory of causation might be serviceable to a theory of sport. This article makes conceptual links between Bernard Suits’ theory of game-playing, causation, and theories of causation. It justifies theories of causation while drawing on connections between sport and counterfactuals. It articulates the value of theories of causation while emphasizing possible limitations. A singularist theory of causation is found to be more broadly serviceable with particular regard to its analysis of (...)
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  16.  4
    Linguistic Meaning, Rigid Designators, and Legal Philosophy.Matthew McManus - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):15-0.
    This essay is intended to engage some of the controversies that have emerged in legal philosophy concerning the theory of linguistic meaning we should adopt with reference to the law. In particular, I will focus on two theories of linguistic meaning that have opposing positions both on the nature of meaning, and the consequences this might have for law and legal objectivity. The first can be called plain meaning view. The plain meaning theory claims that the meaning of legal terms (...)
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  17.  4
    Logical Analogies: Interpretations, Oppositions, and Probabilism.Walter Redmond - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):13-0.
    I present two logical systems to show the “analogy of proportionality„ common to several interpretations: modality, quantification, truth-functional relations, moral attitudes, states of knowledge, and states of belief. To display the two underlying analogical relations, I call upon the originally Scholastic convention, recently put to use again, of using squares, hexagons, and octagons “of opposition„. A combined epistemic–deontic logic happens to be found in the traditional “probabilist„ theory of the “good conscience„, and I shall then briefly explain how this is (...)
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  18. Chips and Showmanship: Running and Technology.Pam R. Sailors - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):30-0.
    A brief review and classification of technology in general begins the paper, followed by an application of the classification to two specific marathon case studies: the 2018 Boston marathon and the 2017 Nike Breaking2 Project marathon. Then concepts from an array of sport philosophers are discussed to suggest an explanation for why each of the case studies strikes us as problematic. The conclusion provides a reasonable explanation for our misgivings, as well as an indication of how we might evaluate sporting (...)
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  19.  9
    Analogy in Terms of Identity, Equivalence, Similarity, and Their Cryptomorphs.Marcin J. Schroeder - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):32-0.
    Analogy belongs to the class of concepts notorious for a variety of definitions generating continuing disputes about their preferred understanding. Analogy is typically defined by or at least associated with similarity, but as long as similarity remains undefined this association does not eliminate ambiguity. In this paper, analogy is considered synonymous with a slightly generalized mathematical concept of similarity which under the name of tolerance relation has been the subject of extensive studies over several decades. In this approach, analogy can (...)
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  20.  9
    Sports Tournaments and Social Choice Theory.Rory Smead - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):28-0.
    Sports tournaments provide a procedure for producing a champion and ranking the contestants based on game results. As such, tournaments mirror aggregation methods in social choice theory, where diverse individual preferences are put together to form an overall social preference. This connection allows us a novel way of conceptualizing sports tournaments, their results, and significance. I argue that there are genuine intransitive dominance relationships in sports, that social choice theory provides a framework for understanding rankings in such situations and that (...)
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  21.  37
    Nonconscious Cognitive Suffering: Considering Suffering Risks of Embodied Artificial Intelligence.Steven Umbrello & Stefan Lorenz Sorgner - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):24.
    Strong arguments have been formulated that the computational limits of disembodied artificial intelligence (AI) will, sooner or later, be a problem that needs to be addressed. Similarly, convincing cases for how embodied forms of AI can exceed these limits makes for worthwhile research avenues. This paper discusses how embodied cognition brings with it other forms of information integration and decision-making consequences that typically involve discussions of machine cognition and similarly, machine consciousness. N. Katherine Hayles’s novel conception of nonconscious cognition in (...)
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  22.  53
    The Quale of Time.Cosmin Vișan - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):1-18.
    Time is one of the greatest subjects of interest to the disciplines of both Science and Philosophy, being seen to have a greater importance in the workings of reality than other entities. In this paper, a phenomenological analysis of time based on the general workings of the emergent structure of consciousness will be done, and time will be shown to be no different than any other qualia. It will be shown that, like any other qualia, time is an emergent level (...)
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  23.  12
    Logical Problems in Analysis of Analogy.Jan Woleński - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):29-0.
    The paper discusses some logical problems concerning analogy. The traditional understanding of analogy as _proportion_ is inadequate, at least if proportionality is taken in mathematical sense. This situation is clear if we considered various special cases of analogy for instance _analogia legis_ and _analogia juris._ Since analogy assumes a similarity of analogata as analogical, a general analysis of analogical relation must begin with the concept of similarity. It can be defined as possessing a common property. This idea is formalized by (...)
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  24. Analogy and Visual Content: The Logica Memorativa of Thomas Murner.Juan Manuel Campos Benítez - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (1):2-0.
    In this article, after some thoughts on medieval logic and teaching, we present Thomas Murner’s text, Logica memorativa, showing some of his mnemonic strategies for the student to learn logic quickly. Murner offers a type of “flash cards” that illustrate much of the teaching of logic at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The first impression is visual, because the cards do not contain words that illustrate their content. Murner’s exposition rests on analogies between logic themes that are explained and (...)
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  25.  5
    The Encultured Primate: Thresholds and Transitions in Hominin Cultural Evolution.Chris Buskes - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (1):6-0.
    This article tries to shed light on the mystery of human culture. Human beings are the only extant species with cumulative, evolving cultures. Many animal species do have cultural traditions in the form of socially transmitted practices but they typically lack cumulative culture. Why is that? This discrepancy between humans and animals is even more puzzling if one realizes that culture seems highly advantageous. Thanks to their accumulated knowledge and techniques our early ancestors were able to leave their cradle in (...)
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  26.  3
    Enactivism and Robotic Language Acquisition: A Report From the Frontier.Frank Förster - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (1):11-0.
    In this article, I assess an existing language acquisition architecture, which was deployed in linguistically unconstrained human–robot interaction, together with experimental design decisions with regard to their enactivist credentials. Despite initial scepticism with respect to enactivism’s applicability to the social domain, the introduction of the notion of participatory sense-making in the more recent enactive literature extends the framework’s reach to encompass this domain. With some exceptions, both our architecture and form of experimentation appear to be largely compatible with enactivist tenets. (...)
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  27.  9
    The Digital and the Real Universe Foundations of Natural Philosophy and Computational Physics.Klaus Mainzer - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (1):3-0.
    In the age of digitization, the world seems to be reducible to a digital computer. However, mathematically, modern quantum field theories do not only depend on discrete, but also continuous concepts. Ancient debates in natural philosophy on atomism versus the continuum are deeply involved in modern research on digital and computational physics. This example underlines that modern physics, in the tradition of Newton’s Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis, is a further development of natural philosophy with the rigorous methods of mathematics, measuring, (...)
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  28. An Evo-Devo Perspective on Analogy in Biology.Alessandro Minelli - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (1):5-0.
    To explain the amazing morphological and biomechanical analogy between two distantly related vertebrates as are a dolphin and a shark, an explanation exclusively framed in terms of adaptation is far from satisfactory. The same is true, of course, of any other comparison between structurally similar, but phylogenetically unrelated organisms. A purely evolutionary argument does not throw any light on how the developmental processes of their ancestors could eventually evolve in such a way as to eventually produce these peculiar phenotypes. How (...)
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  29.  9
    The Coming Emptiness: On the Meaning of the Emptiness of the Universe in Natural Philosophy.Gregor Schiemann - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (1):1-0.
    The cosmological relevance of emptiness—that is, space without bodies—is not yet sufficiently appreciated in natural philosophy. This paper addresses two aspects of cosmic emptiness from the perspective of natural philosophy: the distances to the stars in the closer cosmic environment and the expansion of space as a result of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Both aspects will be discussed from both a historical and a systematic perspective. Emptiness can be interpreted as “coming” in a two-fold sense: whereas in the (...)
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