77 found

Year:

  1.  7
    Self-Fulfilling Prophecies.Stephanie Rennick - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (78):78.
    Causal loops are a recurring feature in the philosophy of time travel, where it is generally agreed that they are logically possible but may come with a theoretical cost. This paper introduces an unfamiliar set of causal loop cases involving knowledge or beliefs about the future: self-fulfilling prophecy loops. I show how and when such loops arise and consider their relationship to more familiar causal loops.
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  2. A New Model of Mathematics Education: Flat Curriculum with Self-Contained Micro Topics.Miklós Hoffmann & Attila Egri-Nagy - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (76):76.
    The traditional way of presenting mathematical knowledge is logical deduction, which implies a monolithic structure with topics in a strict hierarchical relationship. Despite many recent developments and methodical inventions in mathematics education, many curricula are still close in spirit to this hierarchical structure. However, this organisation of mathematical ideas may not be the most conducive way for learning mathematics. In this paper, we suggest that flattening curricula by developing self-contained micro topics and by providing multiple entry points to knowledge by (...)
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  3.  3
    Transformational Creativity: The Link Between Creativity, Wisdom, and the Solution of Global Problems.Robert J. Sternberg - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (75):75.
    This article introduces the concept of transformational creativity, which is creativity that is deployed to make a positive, meaningful, and potentially enduring difference to the world. Transformational creativity is compared to transactional creativity, which is creativity deployed in search of a reward, whether externally or internally generated. The article also discusses different kinds of transactional and transformational creativity. For example, some transactional creativity is inert, meaning that it never comes to fruition. Transformational creativity can be directed inward, outward, or both (...)
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  4. A Narrative Review of Suicide: Aiming at a More Encompassing Understanding.Luís Madeira & Ana Teresa Miranda - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (74):74.
    The suicide experience combines despair with the perception of suicide as the last option to alter its suffering effectively and actively. Shneidman’s phenomenology understands the suicidal mind in terms of psychological pain, as opposed to focusing on the individual context. This article aims to meet and review information from articles and books published in the area of the Phenomenology of Suicide, mostly between 2017 and 2021. By integrating and relating the different philosophical perspectives of the patient, his or her family, (...)
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  5. Foundations of a Wisdom-Cultivating Pedagogy: Developing Systems Thinking Across the University Disciplines.Mark Bracher - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (73):73.
    Efforts to educate for wisdom are sorely needed in order to solve humanity’s most pressing problems, as explained by philosopher Nicholas Maxwell and psychologist Robert Sternberg, among others. This paper explains that the handful of wisdom pedagogies that have been put forward to date, however, are inadequate for developing the sort of wisdom that can solve our major problems, because they fail to identify and target for development four cognitive functions necessary for wise decision-making. These functions are causal analysis, prospection, (...)
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  6.  1
    Touching the Sound, Sounding the Touch. The Tactile Experience in the Music of Santiago Diez-Fischer as a Presentational Symbol.Eric Maestri - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (72):72.
    The music of Argentinian composer Santiago Diez-Fischer places particular emphasis on the sense of touch. The sonic textures and the notations the composer use illustrate this. In several pieces, his writing indicates surfaces to rub, caress, and press. The resulting sound is complex, often on the edge of noise. In this article, I argue that the notion of presentational symbol as proposed by Susanne Langer serves to clarify how such music is an expression of tactile experience. I show how this (...)
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  7.  4
    Changing, Annulling and Otherwising the Past.G. C. Goddu - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (71):71.
    Despite a growing number of models argument for the logical possibility of changing the past there continues to be resistance to and confusion surrounding the possibility of changing the past. In this paper I shall attempt to mitigate the resistance and alleviate at least some of the confusion by distinguishing changing the past from what Richard Hanley calls ‘annulling’ the past and distinguishing both from what I shall call ‘otherwising’ the past.
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  8. Lexicalised Locality: Local Domains and Non-Local Dependencies in a Lexicalised Tree Adjoining Grammar.Diego Gabriel Krivochen & Andrea Padovan - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (70):70.
    Contemporary generative grammar assumes that syntactic structure is best described in terms of sets, and that locality conditions, as well as cross-linguistic variation, is determined at the level of designated functional heads. Syntactic operations build a structure by deriving sets from lexical atoms and recursively yielding sets of sets. Additional restrictions over the format of structural descriptions limit the number of elements involved in each operation to two at each derivational step, a head and a non-head. In this paper, we (...)
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  9. Soundpainting Sign Language: Possibilities and Connections with Tactileology.Arnau Millà - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (69):69.
    This article introduce and expose the language of Soundpainting, its background, and how this artistic tool is being used as a language of communication and creation. It also presents the real-time composition and its peculiarities and the power of collective creation as a creative tool and interaction between artistic disciplines. As there are several cases of sensitive and creative languages, such as Soundpainting, that are used to communicate with artificial intelligence, finally, it expose two of them, which are both still (...)
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  10. Spinoza’s Theological–Political Treatise (1670–2020). Commemorating a Long-Forgotten Masterpiece.Henri Krop & Pooyan Tamimi Arab - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (67):67.
    In entitling this Special Issue of Philosophies, commemorating the publication of the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus 350 years ago, ‘a long-forgotten masterpiece’, we acknowledge our debt to Edwin Curley, who in the 1990s wrote two papers called ‘Notes on a Neglected Masterpiece’ [...].
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  11. The Idea of Landing Sites and Its Inheritance Through Tactileology.Fuminori Akiba - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (66):66.
    From the perspective of sustainability, empowering people to live positively without being dominated by death is an important issue. One thing we can do in this vein is to expand one’s own physical sensation, which is the basis for us to live. From this point of view, Shusaku Arakawa and Madeline Gins’ idea of “landing sites” is very important. Landing sites are physical experiences that result from person–environment collaboration. In order to make as many people as possible aware of their (...)
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  12. Responsibilities for Climate Damage Within Borders: Reconciling Liability with Shared Responsibility.Kumie Hattori - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (65):65.
    The literature on climate justice has primarily focused on distributing the benefits and burdens of climate change, particularly those related to the costs of mitigation and adaptation. As such, less attention has been paid to emerging political issues surrounding loss and damage caused by the failure of mitigation and adaptation. This paper aims to fill this gap through discussions on reparative justice, which is correlated with the concept of liability. Since the concept of liability has controversial implications in climate politics (...)
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  13. Old Pedagogies for Wise Education: A Janussian Reflection on Universities.Zane M. Diamond - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (64):64.
    This paper presents a synthesis of time-honoured pedagogical approaches to develop wisdom suitable to address the urgent problem-solving requirement of the modern university. During these last 30 years, I have employed a range of critical, interpretivist, qualitative research methods to examine archival and archaeological evidence and conduct cross-cultural and often comparative and international case studies to study wisdom. My central concern has been to understand how teachers across diverse locations throughout history have learned to develop wisdom and how they have (...)
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  14. Searching for Practical Wisdom in Higher Education with Logos_, _Pathos_ and _Ethos. Case: Finnish Universities of Sciences.Maria Jakubik - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (63):63.
    In our complex and highly connected world, educating for life—that is, educating students with knowledge, skills, and competences infused with practical wisdom and ethical and moral values—is essential. The paper seeks to answer the question: _how could university education facilitate the progress to a wiser and better world?_ The methodology involves case study research based on both secondary and primary data. The missions, visions, and values of fourteen public Finnish universities are analyzed for PW. The findings demonstrate that universities, by (...)
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  15. Distribution of Responsibility for Climate Change Within the Milieu.Laÿna Droz - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (62):62.
    This article approaches the challenges of the distribution of responsibility for climate change on a local level using the framework of the milieu. It suggests that the framework of the milieu, inspired by Japanese and cross-cultural environmental philosophy, provides pathways to address the four challenges of climate change. The framework of the milieu clarifies the interrelations between the individual, the community, and the local milieu and is open to a conservative view of human communities and an inclusive view of multispecies (...)
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  16.  1
    Climate Change Inaction and Optimism.Philip J. Wilson - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (61):61.
    The problem of climate change inaction is sometimes said to be ‘wicked’, or essentially insoluble, and it has also been seen as a collective action problem, which is correct but inconsequential. In the absence of progress, much is made of various frailties of the public, hence the need for an optimistic tone in public discourse to overcome fatalism and encourage positive action. This argument is immaterial without meaningful action in the first place, and to favour what amounts to the suppression (...)
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  17. Investigation of Tactile Illusion Based on Gestalt Theory.Hiraku Komura, Toshiki Nakamura & Masahiro Ohka - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (60):60.
    Time-evolving tactile sensations are important in communication between animals as well as humans. In recent years, this research area has been defined as “tactileology,” and various studies have been conducted. This study utilized the tactile Gestalt theory to investigate these sensations. Since humans recognize shapes with their visual sense and melodies with their auditory sense based on the Prägnanz principle in the Gestalt theory, this study assumed that a time-evolving texture sensation is induced by a tactile Gestalt. Therefore, the operation (...)
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  18. On the Explicit Function of Life Within a Physical Universe.Annette Grathoff - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (59):59.
    To describe the meaning of functionality in a universe before life evolved, existing etiological and systemic accounts of function are evaluated. Since the theory of function is only applicable in context with living beings and artifacts used by living beings and therefore cannot predict how a prebiotic form of functionality could evolve, a maintenance account for functionality is proposed. This account ascribes functionality to a structurally disposed property that increases the probability of maintenance or recurrence of the property in the (...)
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  19. Philosophical Aspects of Astrobiology Revisited.Rainer E. Zimmermann - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (55):55.
    Given the idea that Life as we know it is nothing but a special form of a generically underlying dynamical structure within the physical Universe, we try to introduce a concept of Life that is not only derived from first principles of fundamental physics, but also metaphysically based on philosophical assumptions about the foundations of the world. After clarifying the terminology somewhat, especially with a view to differentiating reality from modality, we give an example for a mathematical representation of what (...)
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  20. From Reality Without Mysteries to the Mystery of the World: Marilena Chaui’s Reading of Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Viviane Magno - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (45):45.
    This article offers an overview of Marilena Chaui’s reading of the _Tractatus Theologico-Politicus_. Chaui has published numerous books and essays on Baruch Spinoza. Her two-volume study _The Nerve of Reality_ is the culmination of a decades-long engagement with the Dutch philosopher, and her research has been a valuable resource for generations of Latin American scholars. From this extensive output, we focus on Chaui’s main texts on the theological-political, concentrating on her analysis of the concept of superstition and the philosophical language (...)
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  21.  53
    What Time-Travel Teaches Us About Future-Bias.Kristie Miller - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (38):38.
    Future-biased individuals systematically prefer positively valenced events to be in the future (positive future-bias) and negatively valenced events to be in the past (negative future-bias). The most extreme form of future-bias is absolute future-bias, whereby we completely discount the value of past events when forming our preferences. Various authors have thought that we are absolutely future-biased (Sullivan (2018:58); Parfit (1984:173) and that future-bias (absolute or otherwise) is at least rationally permissible (Prior (1959), Hare (2007; 2008), Kauppinen (2018), Heathwood (2008)). The (...)
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  22.  5
    Double Blind Peer-Review in Philosophies.Marcin J. Schroeder & Carla Aloè - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (36):36.
    Peer-review has become increasingly important to the way scholarly journals assess whether a manuscript is suitable for publication [...].
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  23.  1
    De-Creation in Japanese Painting: Materialization of Thoroughly Passive Attitude.Kyoko Nakamura - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (35):35.
    This paper demonstrates the method and meaning behind the argument that contemporary philosophers have found the key to “de-creation” in potentiality by implementing it in artwork. While creation in the usual sense seems to imply an active attitude, de-creation implies a passive attitude of simply waiting for something from the outside by constructing a mechanism to set up the gap to which something outside comes. The methods of de-creation are typically found in representations of reality using “_Kakiwari_,” which is commonly (...)
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  24.  3
    Spinoza and the Possibility of a Philosophical Religion.Martijn Buijs - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (34):34.
    What is a philosophical religion? Carlos Fraenkel proposes that we use this term to describe “the interpretation of the historical forms of a religion in philosophical terms”. Such a philosophical interpretation allows religious traditions to be utilized in service of a political-pedagogical program, the goal of which is orienting society towards the highest good: human excellence. Here, I outline the idea of a philosophical religion as it can be found in the Arabic tradition of rationalist Aristotelianism and scrutinize Spinoza’s ambiguous (...)
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  25.  7
    To What Inanimate Matter Are We Most Closely Related and Does the Origin of Life Harbor Meaning?William F. Martin, Falk S. P. Nagies & Andrey do Nascimento Vieira - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (33):33.
    The question concerning the meaning of life is important, but it immediately confronts the present authors with insurmountable obstacles from a philosophical standpoint, as it would require us to define not only what we hold to be life, but what we hold to be meaning in addition, requiring us to do both in a properly researched context. We unconditionally surrender to that challenge. Instead, we offer a vernacular, armchair approach to life’s origin and meaning, with some layman’s thoughts on the (...)
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  26.  11
    Spinoza: A Baconian in the TTP, but Not in the Ethics?Jo Van Cauter & Daniel Schneider - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (32):32.
    This paper resolves some puzzles regarding Spinoza’s appropriations and rejections of various aspects of Bacon’s methodology, and uses these solutions to resolve some long-standing puzzles concerning Spinoza’s modus operandi in the TTP. We argue first that, appearances to contrary, Spinoza takes a consistent line in his assessment of Bacon’s epistemic approach. We argue that Spinoza follows Bacon in grounding his overall epistemic method in a “historiola mentis”, and that differences between Spinoza’s and Bacon’s respective historiola mentis can explain Spinoza’s embrace (...)
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  27. AI Ethics and Value Alignment for Nonhuman Animals.Soenke Ziesche - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (31):31.
    This article is about a specific, but so far neglected peril of AI, which is that AI systems may become existential as well as causing suffering risks for nonhuman animals. The AI value alignment problem has now been acknowledged as critical for AI safety as well as very hard. However, currently it has only been attempted to align the values of AI systems with human values. It is argued here that this ought to be extended to the values of nonhuman (...)
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  28. Gadamer’s Appropriation of Pietism.Barry Stephenson - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (30):30.
    A foundation stone of Hans Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is the notion of the _sensus communis_. The philosophical significance of a “sensus communis” begins with Aristotle, who offered scattered reflections. The topic was taken up in earnest in Enlightenment thought and in German idealism, but it became more of an individual faculty, lacking the deep sense of community and tradition found in earlier formulations. In this paper, the author demonstrates Gadamer’s debt to Pietist thought, examining his appropriation and use of (...)
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  29.  1
    Curators Serving the Public Good.Jean-Paul Martinon - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (28):28.
    This article investigates a principle inscribed at the top of most codes of ethics for curators: they should always “serve the public good.” No self-respecting curator would ever admit to serve “the private good,” that is, the good of the few, whether that of an elite in power or of a circle of friends or allies. The principle of “serving the public good” is inalienable and unquestionable even in situations where it is most open to doubt. However, what exactly is (...)
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  30. Spinoza in His Time: The 17th-Century Religious Context.Joke Spaans - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (27):27.
    In one of the last paragraphs of his _Tractatus theologico-politicus_, Spinoza extolls the harmony between people of a diversity of faiths, maintained by the magistracy of Amsterdam. However, he also seems apprehensive about the possibility of the return of chaos, such as during the Arminian Controversies in the Dutch Republic in the 1610s and the English Civil War in the 1640s and 1650s. The so-called Wolzogen affair in 1668 probably rattled him. Spinoza’s fears would, however, prove groundless. Theological controversy in (...)
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  31. Letter to Matter and Various Incomprehensibilities—The Effective Ethicality of Scientific and Humanistic Interdisciplinarity.Gianfranco Minati - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (26):26.
    The article is based on the dual concepts of theoretical incompleteness in systems science and theoretical incomprehensibility in philosophy previously introduced in the literature. Issues of incompleteness relate to the logical openness of complexity models in their nonequivalence and necessary non-zippable incompletable multiplicity. This concerns the quasi-ness of phenomena and the constructivist nature of models. Theoretically, incomprehensibility is considered in different ways, such as the inexhaustible multiplicity of the constructivist reality corresponding to the logical openness of both the world and (...)
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  32.  11
    Education, Consciousness and Negative Feedback: Towards the Renewal of Modern Philosophy of Education.Eetu Pikkarainen - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (25):25.
    Among the biggest challenges facing the contemporary human condition, and therefore also education, is responding to the climate crisis. One of the sources of the crisis is assumed to be _absent-mindedness_, presented by Leslie Dewart as a distortion of the development of human consciousness. Dewart’s poorly-known philosophical consciousness study is presented in this paper in broad outline. The problems in the study of consciousness, the most important of which are the qualitative representations—qualia—and the question of free will, are also briefly (...)
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  33. The Objective Bayesian Probability That an Unknown Positive Real Variable Is Greater Than a Known Is 1/2.Christopher D. Fiorillo & Sunil L. Kim - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (24):24.
    If there are two dependent positive real variables x 1 and x 2, and only x 1 is known, what is the probability that x 2 is larger versus smaller than x 1? There is no uniquely correct answer according to “frequentist” and “subjective Bayesian” definitions of probability. Here we derive the answer given the “objective Bayesian” definition developed by Jeffreys, Cox, and Jaynes. We declare the standard distance metric in one dimension, d ≡ | A − B |, and (...)
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  34.  2
    The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus and the Dutch: Spinoza’s Intervention in the Political-Religious Controversies of the Dutch Republic.Henri Krop - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (23):23.
    This paper outlines the Dutch background of the _Tractatus theologico-politicus_ and aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the _Theological-Political Treatise_. It reads Spinoza’s first main work published anonymously as an intervention in the many political-religious controversies, which began in 1579 and ravaged the Dutch Republic during the first century of its history. The three main topics of these controversies are also the focus of the TTP: I. the freedom to philosophize; II. the relation between Church and State, and (...)
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  35. Understanding the Role of Objectivity in Machine Learning and Research Evaluation.Saleha Javed, Tosin P. Adewumi, Foteini Simistira Liwicki & Marcus Liwicki - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (22):22.
    This article makes the case for more objectivity in Machine Learning research. Any research work that claims to hold benefits has to be scrutinized based on many parameters, such as the methodology employed, ethical considerations and its theoretical or technical contribution. We approach this discussion from a Naturalist philosophical outlook. Although every analysis may be subjective, it is important for the research community to keep vetting the research for continuous growth and to produce even better work. We suggest standardizing some (...)
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  36. A Fuzzy Take on the Logical Issues of Statistical Hypothesis Testing.Matthew Booth & Fabien Paillusson - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (21):21.
    Statistical Hypothesis Testing is a class of inference methods whereby one makes use of empirical data to test a hypothesis and often emit a judgment about whether to reject it or not. In this paper, we focus on the logical aspect of this strategy, which is largely independent of the adopted school of thought, at least within the various frequentist approaches. We identify SHT as taking the form of an unsound argument from Modus Tollens in classical logic, and, in order (...)
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  37.  2
    The Coherence of Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise.Yoram Stein - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (20):20.
    Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus has been critiqued as contradictory and inconsistent. This is why I believe that the question with regard to Spinoza’s ‘neglected masterpiece’ should be: How to read the Treatise as a coherent philosophical work? I suggest that the reason why the Treatise seems contradictory is because of the complex juxtaposition of its two main foci: the relationship between theology and philosophy, and that of theology and politics. In this paper, I will argue against the claim of contradiction and (...)
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  38. Philosophy and Psychology Engaged: The Sincere, Practical, Timely and Felicitous Proposal of a Highly Suitable Marriage.Larry Culliford - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (19):19.
    Multiple impending threats signify a pressing need for improved social relations globally. School leavers, curious about people and life, are naturally attracted to philosophy and psychology. An open alliance of the two will enhance their contributions towards a healthier future for humanity. A six-stage scheme of developmental psychology towards ‘individuation’, ‘full personality integration’ and ‘universalism’—including a description of transition processes between stages—defines shared goals for both disciplines. A paradigm change introduces a hierarchically superior, seamlessly encompassing, ‘spiritual’ dimension to the established (...)
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  39.  8
    Examining the Continuity Between Life and Mind: Is There a Continuity Between Autopoietic Intentionality and Representationality?Wanja Wiese & Karl J. Friston - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (18):18.
    A weak version of life-mind continuity thesis entails that every living system also has a basic mind. The strong version entails that the same concepts that are sufficient to explain basic minds are also central to understanding non-basic minds. We argue that recent work on the free energy principle supports the following claims with respect to the life-mind continuity thesis: there is a strong continuity between life and mind; all living systems can be described as if they had representational states; (...)
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  40. Sport and Enhancement in the Age of Human Rights: Genetic Testing as a Case Study.Silvia Salardi - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (17):17.
    The paper focuses on the ethical–legal implications of a specific area of scientific and technological progress for the recognition of sport as a human right, which is the field of genetic advances with regard to application of genetic testing for non-medical purposes, and in particular for talent identification. As with most biomedical innovations, this use of genetic tests has both constructive and more ethical–legal problematic implications. The attempt made by this paper is to highlight controversial implications of genetic talent identification (...)
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  41. Learning to Say No, the Ethics of Artist-Curator Relationships.Mirjami Schuppert - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (16):16.
    The article suggests that the perceived ethics of curatorial practice are not often in balance with operative ethics, and analyses the problem by focusing on the curator-artist relationship. Contemporary art curators constantly find themselves in a situation where they have to choose between the needs of the few and the many. Counter-hegemony theory is used to examine the curator’s duty toward the many, while the reading of Jacque Derrida’s concept of responsibility toward an individual and Alain Badiou’s ‘singularity of situations’ (...)
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  42.  1
    A Pro-Choice Response to New York’s Reproductive Health Act.Bertha Alvarez Manninen - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (15):15.
    On 22 January 2019, New York state passed the Reproductive Health Act, which specifies three circumstances under which a healthcare provider may perform an abortion in New York: the patient is within twenty-four weeks of pregnancy, the fetus is non-viable, or the abortion is necessary to protect the patient’s life or health. The first one, that of abortion being accessible within the first twenty-four weeks of pregnancy, is not unique to New York, as many other states allow medical professionals to (...)
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  43. A “Strong” Approach to Sustainability Literacy: Embodied Ecology and Media.Cary Campbell, Nataša Lacković & Alin Olteanu - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (14):14.
    This article outlines a “strong” theoretical approach to sustainability literacy, building on an earlier definition of strong and weak environmental literacy. The argument builds upon a specific semiotic approach to educational philosophy, to which these authors have been contributing. Here, we highlight how a view of learning that centers on embodied and multimodal communication invites bridging biosemiotics with critical media literacy, in pursuit of a strong, integrated sustainability literacy. The need for such a construal of literacy can be observed in (...)
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  44.  13
    Social Practices and Embubblement.Raffaela Giovagnoli & Lorenzo Magnani - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (13):13.
    The present contribution describes the nature of social practices based on habitual behavior. The first part concerns the notion of “habit” from a perspective that crosses philosophy and science. Habits structure our daily life and possess a social nature, as shown by informally shared habits and institutionalized rituals. After a brief reference to the philosophical debate, we point out the fundamental dimensions of habitual behavior, i.e., routine and goal-directed behavior. They also characterize shared social habits like rituals because we need (...)
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  45. Traditional Logic and Computational Thinking.J. -Martín Castro-Manzano - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (12):12.
    In this contribution, we try to show that traditional Aristotelian logic can be useful for computational thinking. To achieve this objective, we argue in favor of two statements: that traditional logic is not classical and that logic programming emanating from traditional logic is not classical logic programming.
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  46. Living Systems Escape Solipsism by Inverse Causality to Manage the Probability Distribution of Events.Toshiyuki Nakajima - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (11):11.
    The external worlds do not objectively exist for living systems because these worlds are unknown from within systems. How can they escape solipsism to survive and reproduce as open systems? Living systems must construct their hypothetical models of external entities in the form of their internal structures to determine how to change states appropriately to achieve a favorable probability distribution of the events they experience. The model construction involves the generation of symbols referring to external entities. This paper attempts to (...)
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  47.  11
    And That’s Not All: (Sur)Faces of Justice in Philosophy of Education.Marianna Papastephanou - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (10):10.
    Adjectives such as “environmental”, “social”, “cosmopolitan”, “relational”, “distributive”, etc. reflect how scholars discern the many faces of justice and put several claims to, and claimants of, justice in perspective. They have also helped related research to focus on some surfaces of justice, that is, on spaces that invite justice, localities and formations, such as the state, social policies, social institutions, etc. within which ethical-political challenges unravel. Diverse philosophical perspectives enable context-specific explorations of faces of justice. However, I argue, there is (...)
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  48. Introduction to Special Issue “Human Enhancement Technologies and Our Merger with Machines”.Woodrow Barfield & Sayoko Blodgett-Ford - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (9):9-0.
    We are pleased to introduce the authors and papers which form the Special Issue “Human Enhancement Technologies and Our Merger with Machines” [...].
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  49.  9
    Agency, Responsibility, Selves, and the Mechanical Mind.Fiorella Battaglia - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (7):7-0.
    Moral issues arise not only when neural technology directly influences and affects people’s lives, but also when the impact of its interventions indirectly conceptualizes the mind in new, and unexpected ways. It is the case that theories of consciousness, theories of subjectivity, and third person perspective on the brain provide rival perspectives addressing the mind. Through a review of these three main approaches to the mind, and particularly as applied to an “extended mind”, the paper identifies a major area of (...)
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  50. Transdisciplinary AI Observatory—Retrospective Analyses and Future-Oriented Contradistinctions.Nadisha-Marie Aliman, Leon Kester & Roman Yampolskiy - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (6):6-0.
    In the last years, artificial intelligence safety gained international recognition in the light of heterogeneous safety-critical and ethical issues that risk overshadowing the broad beneficial impacts of AI. In this context, the implementation of AI observatory endeavors represents one key research direction. This paper motivates the need for an inherently _transdisciplinary_ AI observatory approach integrating diverse retrospective and counterfactual views. We delineate aims and limitations while providing hands-on-advice utilizing _concrete practical examples_. Distinguishing between unintentionally and intentionally triggered AI risks with (...)
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  51.  2
    Human Enhancements and Voting: Towards a Declaration of Rights and Responsibilities of Beings.Sayoko J. Blodgett-Ford - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (5):5-0.
    The phenomenon and ethics of “voting” will be explored in the context of human enhancements. “Voting” will be examined for enhanced humans with moderate and extreme enhancements. Existing patterns of discrimination in voting around the globe could continue substantially “as is” for those with moderate enhancements. For extreme enhancements, voting rights could be challenged if the very humanity of the enhanced was in doubt. Humans who were not enhanced could also be disenfranchised if certain enhancements become prevalent. Voting will be (...)
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  52.  16
    Sisyphus and Climate Change: Educating in the Context of Tragedies of the Commons.Susan T. Gardner - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (4):4-0.
    The tragedy of the commons is a primary contributing factor in ensuring that humanity makes no serious inroads in averting climate change. As a recent Canadian politician pointed out, we could shut down the Canadian economy tomorrow, and it would make no measurable difference in global greenhouse gas emissions. When coordinated effort is required, it would seem that doing the “right thing” alone is irrational: it will harm oneself with no positive consequences as a result. Such is the tragedy. And (...)
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  53.  2
    Epistemology and Ethics in Zhuangzi.S. Evan Kreider - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):58.
    On a prima facia reading, Zhuangzi seems to endorse some form of skepticism or relativism. This seems at odds with Zhuangzi as one of the two main sources of classical Daoism, considering the ideals of virtue and self-development promoted by that philosophy. However, Zhuangzi’s metaphorical and allegorical style lends itself to a number of interpretations of his epistemology, as well as the kind of self-knowledge and ethical development it might allow. A survey of the relevant literature shows that the epistemological (...)
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  54. To Be or to Have Been Lucky, That Is the Question.Antony Lesage & Jean-Marc Victor - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):57.
    Is it possible to measure the dispersion of ex ante chances among people, be it gambling, health, or social opportunities? We explore this question and provide some tools, including a statistical test, to evidence the actual dispersion of ex ante chances in various areas, with a focus on chronic diseases. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we derive the distribution of the risk of becoming ill in the global population as well as in the population of affected people. We find (...)
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  55.  1
    Homo Philosophicus: Reflections on the Nature and Function of Philosophical Thought.Said Mikki - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):77.
    The philosopher is a fundamental mode of existence of the human being, yet it is experienced only by a minority, an elite. Those constitute, among themselves, a subspecies of _Homo sapiens_ that is sometimes dubbed _Homo philosophicus_. Our goal here is to investigate, in depth, the philosophical foundations of this ontological-anthropological concept. We analyze the concept of the philosopher into three basic components: the thinker, the artist, and the mathematician, arguing that the three fundamentally participate in maintaining the operation of (...)
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  56.  2
    Aesthetic Theory and the Philosophy of Nature.Said Mikki - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):56.
    We investigate the fundamental relationship between philosophical aesthetics and the philosophy of nature, arguing for a position in which the latter encompasses the former. Two traditions are set against each other, one is natural aesthetics, whose covering philosophy is Idealism, and the other is the aesthetics of nature, the position defended in this article, with the general program of a comprehensive philosophy of nature as its covering theory. Our approach is philosophical, operating within the framework of the ontology of the (...)
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  57.  1
    Two Experimental Devices for Record and Playback of Tactile Data.Masahiro Ohka, Hiraku Komura, Keisuke Watanabe & Ryota Nomura - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):54.
    A tactile record and playback system will progress _tactileology_—a new cross-disciplinary field related to tactile sensations—as it will enhance its use in the instruction, archiving, and analysis of human manipulation. In this paper, we describe two key devices for achieving tactileology: a tactile sensor capturing human tactile sense and a robotic tactile sensor, both of which can detect not only normal force but also tangential force. This is beneficial because people manipulate objects and tools in various ways, such as grasping, (...)
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  58.  16
    A Fair Distribution of Responsibility for Climate Adaptation -Translating Principles of Distribution From an International to a Local Context.Erik Persson, Kerstin Eriksson & Åsa Knaggård - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):68.
    Distribution of responsibility is one of the main focus areas in discussions about climate change ethics. Most of these discussions deal with the distribution of responsibility for climate change mitigation at the international level. The aim of this paper is to investigate if and how these principles can be used to inform the search for a fair distribution of responsibility for climate change adaptation on the local level. We found that the most influential distribution principles on the international level were (...)
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  59.  1
    Is Organization of Living Systems Explained by Probability?Naoki Sato - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):3-0.
    Traditionally, life has been thought improbable without assuming a special principle, such as vital power. Here, I try to understand organization of living systems in terms of a more rational and materialistic notion. I have introduced the notion of inhomogeneity, which is a novel interpretation of “negentropy”, and equivalent to “bound information”, according to the probabilistic interpretation of entropy. Free energy of metabolites is a labile inhomogeneity, whereas genetic information is a more stable inhomogeneity. Dynamic emergence can result from the (...)
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  60.  4
    Understanding and Avoiding AI Failures: A Practical Guide.Robert Williams & Roman Yampolskiy - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):53.
    As AI technologies increase in capability and ubiquity, AI accidents are becoming more common. Based on normal accident theory, high reliability theory, and open systems theory, we create a framework for understanding the risks associated with AI applications. This framework is designed to direct attention to pertinent system properties without requiring unwieldy amounts of accuracy. In addition, we also use AI safety principles to quantify the unique risks of increased intelligence and human-like qualities in AI. Together, these two fields give (...)
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  61.  2
    When Students Rally for Anti-Racism. Engaging with Racial Literacy in Higher Education.Hari Prasad Adhikari-Sacré & Kris Rutten - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):48.
    Despite a decade of diversity policy plans, a wave of student rallies has ignited debates across western European university campuses. We observe these debates from a situated call for anti-racism in Belgian higher education institutions, and critically reflect on the gap between diversity policy discourse and calls for anti-racism. The students’ initiatives make a plea for racial literacy in the curriculum, to foster a critical awareness on how racial hierarchies have been educated through curricula and institutional processes. Students rethink race (...)
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  62.  1
    On Educational Assessment Theory: A High-Level Discussion of Adolphe Quetelet, Platonism, and Ergodicity.Patrick Francis Bloniasz - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):46.
    Educational assessments, specifically standardized and normalized exams, owe most of their foundations to psychological test theory in psychometrics. While the theoretical assumptions of these practices are widespread and relatively uncontroversial in the testing community, there are at least two that are philosophically and mathematically suspect and have troubling implications in education. Assumption 1 is that repeated assessment measures that are calculated into an arithmetic mean are thought to represent some real stable, quantitative psychological trait or ability plus some error. Assumption (...)
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  63.  1
    The Phenomenology of “Pure” Consciousness as Reported by an Experienced Meditator of the Tibetan Buddhist Karma Kagyu Tradition. Analysis of Interview Content Concerning Different Meditative States.Cyril Costines, Tilmann Lhündrup Borghardt & Marc Wittmann - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):50.
    A philosopher and a cognitive neuroscientist conversed with Buddhist lama Tilmann Lhündrup Borghardt about the unresolved phenomenological concerns and logical questions surrounding “pure” consciousness or minimal phenomenal experience, a quasi-contentless, non-dual state whose phenomenology of “emptiness” is often described in terms of the phenomenal quality of luminosity that experienced meditators have reported occurs in deep meditative states. Here, we present the excerpts of the conversation that relate to the question of how it is possible to first have and later retrieve (...)
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  64. Of Prophecy and Piety: Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus Between Al-Farabî and Erasmus.Michiel Leezenberg - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):51.
    In this contribution, I discuss some less well-known premodern and early modern antecedents of Spinoza’s concepts and claims in the _Tractatus Theologico-Politicus_. On the one hand, I will argue, Spinoza’s notion of prophecy owes more to Moses Maimonides than to any Christian author; and through Maimonides, Spinoza may be linked to the discussion of prophecy in _The Virtuous City_ by the tenth-century Islamic philosopher al-Farabî. Spinoza’s concern with prophecy as a popular formulation of the Divine Law may be fruitfully seen (...)
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  65.  3
    On Russell’s 1927 Book The Analysis of Matter.Said Mikki - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):40.
    The goal of this article is to bring into wider attention the often neglected important work by Bertrand Russell on the philosophy of nature and the foundations of physics, published in the year 1927. It is suggested that the idea of what could be named Russell space, introduced in Part III of that book, may be viewed as more fundamental than many other types of spaces since the highly abstract nature of the topological ordinal space proposed by Russell there would (...)
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  66.  1
    The Reception of Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise in the Islamic Republic of Iran.Sina Mirzaei - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):42.
    In the form of a case study and based upon novel material about the reception of Spinoza’s Theological–Political Treatise in Iran, this paper studies issues with the interactions among political, theological and philosophical ideas in the reception of Spinoza’s TTP. The paper starts with the first Iranian encounters with Spinoza’s philosophy in the Qajar era in the nineteenth century and then focuses on the reception of the TTP in the period after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. The first translation of the (...)
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  67.  1
    On the Evolution of the Biological Framework for Insight.Claudio Neidhöfer - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):43.
    The details of abiogenesis, to date, remain a matter of debate and constitute a key mystery in science and philosophy. The prevailing scientific hypothesis implies an evolutionary process of increasing complexity on Earth starting from replicating polymers. Defining the cut-off point where life begins is another moot point beyond the scope of this article. We will instead walk through the known evolutionary steps that led from these first exceptional polymers to the vast network of living biomatter that spans our world (...)
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  68.  1
    Drake-Like Calculations for the Frequency of Life in the Universe.Karl-Florian Platt - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):49.
    This article is intended to provide a review of some modifications to the Drake equation, a 1961 concept presented by Frank Drake to determine the number of extra-terrestrial civilizations able to communicate. A reduced version of the Drake equation will then be presented. This can be used to estimate an important question for astrobiology, the frequency with which planets are habitable. Finally, a concept is presented that can also integrate the habitability of moons into the reduced Drake equation.
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  69. How Political Repression Stifled the Nascent Foundations of Heredity Research Before Mendel in Central European Sheep Breeding Societies.Péter Poczai, Jorge A. Santiago-Blay, Jiří Sekerák & Attila T. Szabó - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):41.
    The nineteenth century was a time of great economic, social, and political change. The population of a modernizing Europe began demanding more freedom, which in turn propelled the ongoing discussion on the philosophy of nature. This spurred on Central European sheep breeders to debate the deepest secrets of nature: the transmission of traits from one generation to another. Scholarly questions of heredity were profoundly entwined with philosophy and politics when particular awareness of “the genetic laws of nature” claimed natural equality. (...)
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  70.  1
    Network Analysis of the Interaction Between Different Religious and Philosophical Movements in Early Judaism.Igor R. Tantlevskij, Ekaterina V. Gromova & Dmitry Gromov - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):2-0.
    This paper presents an attempt to systematically describe and interpret the evolution of different religious and political movements in Judaea during the period of the Second Temple using the methods of the theory of social networks. We extensively analyzed the relationship between the main Jewish sects: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and later also Zealots. It is shown that the evolution of the relations between these sects agreed with the theory of social balance and their relations evolved toward more socially balanced structures.
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  71.  7
    Naturalizing Logic: How Knowledge of Mechanisms Enhances Inductive Inference.Paul Thagard - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):52.
    This paper naturalizes inductive inference by showing how scientific knowledge of real mechanisms provides large benefits to it. I show how knowledge about mechanisms contributes to generalization, inference to the best explanation, causal inference, and reasoning with probabilities. Generalization from some A are B to all A are B is more plausible when a mechanism connects A to B. Inference to the best explanation is strengthened when the explanations are mechanistic and when explanatory hypotheses are themselves mechanistically explained. Causal inference (...)
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  72.  6
    Reproductive Timing and Climate Change.Olle Torpman - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):47.
    It has been argued that the most impactful choice an individual could make, with respect to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, is to have fewer children. This paper brings up a related aspect of individuals’ reproductive choices that has been neglected in the climate ethics literature: the timing aspect. It is argued that, from a climate change perspective, it does not matter only how many children people bring into existence, but also when they are brought into existence. The reason is that (...)
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  73.  31
    The Ecological Turn in Design: Adopting A Posthumanist Ethics to Inform Value Sensitive Design.Steven Umbrello - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):29.
    Design for Values (DfV) philosophies are a series of design approaches that aim to incorporate human values into the early phases of technological design to direct innovation into beneficial outcomes. The difficulty and necessity of directing advantageous futures for transformative technologies through the application and adoption of value-based design approaches are apparent. However, questions of whose values to design are of critical importance. DfV philosophies typically aim to enrol the stakeholders who may be affected by the emergence of such a (...)
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  74.  3
    Conspiracy Theories as Superstition: Today’s Mirror Image in Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Jamie van der Klaauw - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):39.
    The contention in this paper is that the theological-political disputes Spinoza was concerned with 350 years ago are similar to the conspiratorial disputes we experience today. The world in Spinoza’s Tractatus theologico-politicus, a political intervention in his time, serves as a “mirror image”, that is to say, it deals with the same problem we face today albeit in a different mode. Understanding our contemporary condition under the auspices of a Spinozist perspective, problems in countermeasures to the conspiratorial disputes come to (...)
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  75.  1
    Professional Virtues for a Responsible Adaptation to Sea Level Rise.Anna Wedin - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):37.
    In the field of responsibility and climate change, much attention has been paid to actions and what we need to do in order to take responsibility. This paper shifts the perspective from what we should do to how we should be in order to be responsible. Looking at the case of local adaptation to sea level rise, the question of what characterizes a responsible planner is addressed. Departing from the idea of professional virtues, aspirational characteristics are extrapolated from three codes (...)
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  76. Doctrine of the Ciphers Intercursions Among Zeropoint-Utopia-Core.Doris Zeilinger - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (2):44.
    The Blochian concept of cipher is discussed in some detail with a view to possible developments in the modern philosophy of nature. Parallels and differences are listed as to the Idealistic tradition in Germany preceding Bloch’s approach. It is found that within the framework of a strict process philosophy of the Blochian type, life forms and human life in particular show up as systemic parts of a nature that is projecting itself towards what has not yet become, hence a strong (...)
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  77. The Concept of “Tradition” in Edmund Husserl.Rossi Claudio - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (1):1-0.
    That of tradition is a so-called limit problem of Husserlian phenomenology. The text is based on an investigation of the existential and historical character of the formal ego, which implies its temporal and historical stratification and personal constitution. The ego is essentially situated in a spiritual context historically determined by a transmission of ideas and values that have a communitarian character. The fundamental point of this study is to affirm that, in Husserlian thought, tradition, being a transcendental prerequisite of the (...)
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