109 found

Year:

  1.  1
    Aesthetic Gadgets: Rethinking Universalism in Evolutionary Aesthetics.Onerva Kiianlinna - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (71):71.
    There is a growing appetite for the inclusion of outcomes of empirical research into philosophical aesthetics. At the same time, evolutionary aesthetics remains in the margins with little mutual discussion with the various strands of philosophical aesthetics. This is surprising, because the evolutionary framework has the power to bring these two approaches together. This article demonstrates that the evolutionary approach builds a biocultural bridge between our philosophical and empirical understanding of humans as aesthetic agents who share the preconditions for aesthetic (...)
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  2.  1
    Ontology and Attention: Addressing the Challenge of the Amoralist Through Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology and Care Ethics.Anya Daly - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (67):67.
    This paper addresses the persistent philosophical problem posed by the amoralist—one who eschews moral values—by drawing on complementary resources within phenomenology and care ethics. How is it that the amoralist can reject ethical injunctions that serve the general good and be unpersuaded by ethical intuitions that for most would require neither explanation nor justification? And more generally, what is the basis for ethical motivation? Why is it that we can care for others? What are the underpinning ontological structures that are (...)
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  3.  1
    Care Ethics and the Feminist Personalism of Edith Stein.Petr Urban - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (60):60.
    The personalist ethics of Edith Stein and her feminist thought are intrinsically interrelated. This unique connection constitutes perhaps the main novelty of Stein’s ethical thought that makes her a forerunner of some recent developments in feminist ethics, particularly ethics of care. A few scholars have noticed the resemblance between Stein’s feminist personalism and care ethics, yet none of them have properly explored it. This paper offers an in-depth discussion of the overlaps and differences between Stein’s ethical insights and the core (...)
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  4.  2
    The Ontological Role of Applied Mathematics in Virtual Worlds.Miklós Hoffmann - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (22):22.
    In this paper, I will argue that with the emergence of digital virtual worlds by the animation industry, we need to rethink the role and authority of mathematics, also from an ontological point of view. First I will demonstrate that the application of mathematics to the creation and description of the digital, virtual worlds behaves in many respects analogously to the application of mathematics to the description of real-world phenomena from the viewpoint of the history of science. However, from other (...)
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  5.  7
    Aesthetics Without Objects: Towards a Process-Oriented Aesthetic Perception.Nicola Perullo - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (21):21.
    In this paper, I suggest an aesthetic model that is consistent with anti-foundational scientific knowledge. How has an aesthetics without foundation to be configured? In contrast to the conventional subject/object model, with idealistic and subjective aesthetics, but also with object-oriented assumptions, I suggest that aesthetics has to be characterized as relational aesthetics in terms of process-oriented perception and that this leads to an _Aesthetics Without Objects_ approach. The relational nature of processes means that they do not happen _inter_-, that is, (...)
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  6.  14
    Computability, Notation, and de Re Knowledge of Numbers.Stewart Shapiro, Eric Snyder & Richard Samuels - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (20):20.
    Saul Kripke once noted that there is a tight connection between computation and de re knowledge of whatever the computation acts upon. For example, the Euclidean algorithm can produce knowledge of _which number_ is the greatest common divisor of two numbers. Arguably, algorithms operate directly on syntactic items, such as strings, and on numbers and the like only via how the numbers are represented. So we broach matters of _notation_. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between (...)
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  7. Voice Syncretism Crosslinguistically: The View From Minimalism.Despina Oikonomou & Artemis Alexiadou - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (19):19.
    Voice syncretism is widely attested crosslinguistically. In this paper, we discuss three different types of Voice syncretism, under which the same morpheme participates in different configurations. We provide an approach under which the same Voice head can convey different interpretations depending on the environment it appears in, thus building on the notion of allosemy. We show that, in all cases under investigation, allosemy is closely associated with the existence of idiosyncratic patterns. By contrast, we notice that allosemy and idiosyncrasy are (...)
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  8.  20
    The Mathematics of Desert: Merit, Fit, and Well-Being.Stephen Kershnar & Michael Tooley - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (18):18.
    Here, we argue for a mathematical equation that captures desert. Our procedure consists of setting out principles that a correct equation must satisfy and then arguing that our set of equations satisfies them. We then consider two objections to the equation. First, an objector might argue that desert and well-being separately contribute to intrinsic goodness, and they do not separately contribute. The concern here is that our equations treat them as separate contributors. Second, our set of desert-equations are unlike equations (...)
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  9. On Some Epistemological Advantages of the Notion of “Intervenient Aesthetic Field”.Giovanni Matteucci - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (17):17.
    The reality of the aesthetic seems to manifest itself more and more in relational and immersive ways that defy analyses that follow the trail of the modern tradition of philosophy, based on the dual gnoseological relationship between subject and object. Even some areas of the new cognitive sciences seem to converge towards a conception of experience as a complex horizon in which variously related vectors operate. From this point of view, it is worth exploring the notion of “field” as a (...)
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  10.  4
    Human Abductive Cognition Vindicated: Computational Locked Strategies, Dissipative Brains, and Eco-Cognitive Openness.Lorenzo Magnani - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (15):15.
    _Locked_ and _unlocked_ strategies are illustrated in this article as concepts that deal with important cognitive aspects of deep learning systems. They indicate different inference routines that refer to poor to rich cases of creative production of creative cognition. I maintain that these differences lead to important consequences when we analyze computational deep learning programs, such as AlphaGo/AlphaZero, which are able to realize various types of abductive hypothetical reasoning. These programs embed what I call locked abductive strategies, so, even if (...)
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  11.  1
    Human Rights and Democracy—Obligations and Delusions.Hans Kolstad - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (14):14.
    Based on today’s compromises with human rights and the numerous violations of them, which for several countries seems to be the rule rather than an exception, this article discusses the cause of the delusions that in today’s politics are attached to human rights. An analysis is made of the nature of human rights understood as something common and universal for all people. On this basis, a division of human rights is proposed, which at the same time means limiting them to (...)
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  12. In What Person to Say the Disaster? From R. Kusch Towards An-Other Cogitamus.Héctor Andrés Peña - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (13):13.
    “Latin America”, for the ecopolitical approach, could be appropriate as the proper name of the ecological disaster, even as its first person: the environmental catastrophe, by means of “Latin America”, would say “I”. Genealogically, and as part of the so-called “Third World”, it would delimit the frontiers where the disastrous takes place “naturally”. But “Latin America”, from the philosophical perspective, has also been the _locus_ par excellence to think about the vegetal and the indigenous. This article, driven by the current (...)
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  13.  1
    From Ama Lur to the Anthropocene and Back: The Earth in Basque Mythology.Luis Garagalza - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (12):12.
    What I propose is that, by delving into the world of mythologies, there we might find some indications, helpful for understanding what is happening with the environment today. To do so, I will revisit a particular mythology from the South of Europe, an archaic, namely Basque mythology. Here, earth appears as a maternal character and becomes, in a sense, divine in the figure of the goddess Mari, who occupied a central and predominant position in this cosmovision.
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  14.  6
    Lessons From Grandfather.Andrew Law & Ryan Wasserman - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (11):11.
    Assume that, even with a time machine, Tim does not have the ability to travel to the past and kill Grandfather. Why would that be? And what are the implications for traditional debates about freedom? We argue that there are at least two satisfactory explanations for why Tim cannot kill Grandfather. First, if an agent’s behavior at time _t_ is causally dependent on fact _F_, then the agent cannot perform an action that would require _F_ to have not obtained. Second, (...)
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  15.  1
    On the Limits of Across-the-Board Movement: Distributed Extraction Coordinations.Željko Bošković - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (10):10.
    The paper examines distributed extraction coordinations, in which different elements move out of conjuncts of a single coordination, as in _Which book and which magazine did Mary buy and Amy read respectively_, from a crosslinguistic perspective. A number of properties of such coordinations are discussed, which includes showing that they are also subject to the ATB requirement, which will shed light on the nature of the ATB phenomenon itself. It is also shown that there is a rather strong restriction on (...)
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  16. Is There an Environmental Principle of Causality?Cecilia Sá Cavalcante Schuback - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (9):9.
    This essay considers and reflects upon the principle of causality and its relation to the global environmental crisis. Parting from some of Immanuel Kant’s views on causality and freedom as well as from Heidegger’s reading of causality in Kant, it asks some questions about the role of human activity in the principle of causality, the relation between causality and freedom, and in what possible different way we could interpret causality and environment. The essay proposes that instead of trying to decide (...)
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  17.  28
    Deontological Desert.Shelly Kagan - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (8):8.
    Although the nature of moral desert has sometimes been examined in axiological terms—focusing on the thought that it is a good thing if people get what they deserve—deontologists typically think desert is more appropriately treated in terms of duties and obligations. They may, for example, prefer to talk in terms of there being a moral duty to give people what they deserve. This essay distinguishes a number of forms such a duty might take, and examines four of them more closely.. (...)
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  18.  83
    Vertigos. Climates of Philosophy.Giovanbattista Tusa - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (7):7.
    In this essay, Giovanbattista Tusa suggests that we are currently witnessing a mutation, which disrupts the mythical imaginary that had confined viruses, climate change, and atmospheric turbulences to an immutable background in the all-too-human narrative of the struggle against nature. I argue that the incapacity of translating this mutation in cultural and social terms, and the repression of this traumatic experience, are the cause of the perturbation that haunts our time. Disorientation pervades philosophy when the entire imaginary to which it (...)
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  19.  4
    Hobbes and Spinoza on Sovereign Education.Boleslaw Z. Kabala & Thomas Cook - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (6):6.
    Most comparisons of Thomas Hobbes and Baruch Spinoza focus on the difference in understanding of natural right. We argue that Hobbes also places more weight on a rudimentary and exclusive education of the public by the state. We show that the difference is related to deeper disagreements over the prospect of Enlightenment. Hobbes is more sanguine than Spinoza about using the state to make people rational. Spinoza considers misguided an overemphasis on publicly educating everyone out of superstition—public education is important, (...)
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  20.  2
    Building a Way: Becoming Active in One’s Own Subjectivation Through Deleuze and Xunzi.Michael J. Ardoline - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):98.
    While Continental thought has no shortage of criticism and diagnosis of social, political, and ethical issues, it tends to avoid offering guidance on what to do about such issues. In Reconsidering the Life of Power, Garrison argues for a radical new alternative for the Continental tradition: it ought to stage an encounter with the Confucian tradition. This is because, he argues, both traditions have at the center of their political thought a focus on the social formation of subjects, that is, (...)
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  21.  1
    Deciding the Criteria Is Not Enough: Moral Issues to Consider for a Fair Allocation of Scarce ICU Resources.Davide Battisti & Mario Picozzi - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):92.
    During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, practitioners had to make tragic decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources in the ICU. The Italian debate has paid a lot of attention to identifying the specific regulatory criteria for the allocation of resources in the ICU; in this paper, however, we argue that deciding such criteria is not enough for the implementation of fair and transparent allocative decisions. In this respect, we discuss three ethical issues: in the Italian (...)
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  22. Paradoxes of Emotional Life: Second-Order Emotions.Antonio de Castro Caeiro - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):109.
    Heidegger explains our emotional life using three schemes: causal explanation, mental internalisation of emotions and metaphorical expression. None of the three schemes explains emotion though. Either because the causal nexus does not always occur or because objects and people in the external world are carriers of emotional agents or because language is already on a metaphorical level. Moreover, how is it possible that there are presently emotions constituting our life without our being aware of their existence? From the analysis of (...)
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  23.  4
    Modest Propositional Contents in Non-Human Animals.Laura Danón - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):93.
    Philosophers have understood propositional contents in many different ways, some of them imposing stricter demands on cognition than others. In this paper, I want to characterize a specific sub-type of propositional content that shares many core features with full-blown propositional contents while lacking others. I will call them modest propositional contents, and I will be especially interested in examining which behavioral patterns would justify their attribution to non-human animals. To accomplish these tasks, I will begin by contrasting modest propositional contents (...)
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  24.  3
    Feminist Care Ethics Confronts Mainstream Philosophy.Maurice Hamington & Maggie FitzGerald - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):91.
    The central role of care in human history is beyond questioning [...].
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  25. Global Distribution of COVID-19 Vaccine: Mine First.Joaquín Hortal-Carmona & Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):106.
    The COVID-19 pandemic dealt a severe blow to society as a whole and required countries to confront a situation that exceeded the limits of their borders. In this paper, we analyze how these countries as well as supranational organizations responded to this unprepared global emergency. We also explore what alternative models have been proposed in the wake of this crisis and propose some changes—other ways of acting—so that in future pandemics or global emergencies, we can deal with the situation more (...)
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  26. Object Coreference in German: The Reflexive Sich as a Problem for Derivational Approaches to Binding.Vera Lee-Schoenfeld & Nicholas Twiner - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):5.
    Despite Grewendorf’s well-known German binding data with the double-object verb _zeigen_ ‘show’, where one object reflexively binds the other and which suggests that the direct object is generated higher than the indirect object, this paper argues for the canonical surface order of IO > DO as base order. We highlight the exceptional status of Grewendorf’s examples, build on scope facts as well as a quantitative acceptability rating study, and exploit the fact that _zeigen_ can also be used as inherently reflexive (...)
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  27. The Difficulties in Symbol Grounding Problem and the Direction for Solving It.Jianhui Li & Haohao Mao - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):108.
    The symbol grounding problem proposed by Stevan Harnad in 1990, originates from Searle’s “Chinese Room Argument” and refers to the problem of how a pure symbolic system acquires its meaning. While many solutions to this problem have been proposed, all of them have encountered inconsistencies to different extents. A recent approach for resolving the problem is to divide the SGP into hard and easy problems echoing the distinction between hard and easy problems for resolving the enigma of consciousness. This however (...)
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  28. Conceptualizing Machines in an Eco-Cognitive Perspective.Lorenzo Magnani - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):94.
    Eco-cognitive computationalism explores computing in context, adhering to some of the key ideas presented by modern cognitive science perspectives on embodied, situated, and distributed cognition. First of all, when physical computation is seen from the perspective of the ecology of cognition it is possible to clearly understand the role Turing assigned to the process of “education” of the machine, paralleling it to the education of human brains, in the invention of the Logical Universal Machine. It is this Turing’s emphasis on (...)
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  29. Situated Affectivity, Enactivism, and the Weapons Effect.Michelle Maiese - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):97.
    Existing research on the “weapons effect” indicates that simply seeing a weapon can prime aggressive thoughts and appraisals and increase aggressive behavior. But how and why does this happen? I begin by discussing prevailing explanations of the weapons effect and propose that these accounts tend to be over-intellectualistic insofar as they downplay or overlook the important role played by affectivity. In my view, insights from the fields of situated affectivity and enactivism help us to understand how cognitive and affective processes (...)
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  30.  1
    The Medieval Problem of the Productivity of Art.Kamil Majcherek - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):101.
    This paper is focused on one of the key questions constituting the medieval debate about the ontological status of artefacts, which has to do with the productivity of art. We ordinarily speak about artefacts, such as statues or chairs, as produced by their artificers, and Aristotle describes art in general as a productive habit. In the first part of the paper, I look at how the proponents of the realist view of artefacts argue that the productivity of art can only (...)
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  31.  4
    Beyond the Altruistic Donor: Embedding Solidarity in Organ Procurement Policies.María Victoria Martínez-López, Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho, Belén Liedo, Jon Rueda & Alberto Molina-Pérez - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):107.
    Altruism and solidarity are concepts that are closely related to organ donation for transplantation. On the one hand, they are typically used for encouraging people to donate. On the other hand, they also underpin the regulations in force in each country to different extents. They are often used indistinctly and equivocally, despite the different ethical implications of each concept. This paper aims to clarify to what extent we can speak of altruism and solidarity in the predominant models of organ donation. (...)
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  32.  1
    Aesthetic Criteria in Fundamental Physics—The Viewpoint of Plato.Ivan Melo - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):96.
    I discuss the role of beauty in physics. Physicists are sometimes described as platonists for their conviction that the fundamental laws are elegant and aesthetic arguments represent an important epistemic tool. After a review of the ideas of Plato and some of the leading figures of modern physics, which suggest that this is indeed the case, I present a list of current aesthetic criteria. I focus on symmetry and unity and demonstrate their increasing relevance in an array of experimentally verified (...)
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  33. Self-Pity as Resilience Against Injustice.Dina Mendonça - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):105.
    This paper proposes that being able to feel self-pity is important to be resilient against injustices because it enables self-transformation. The suggestion for this reassessment of self-pity as a crucial self-conscious emotion for a more humanistic world aims to be an example of how philosophical reflection can be insightful for emotion research. The first part of the paper outlines a general introduction of philosophy of emotions and a description of how Hume’s analysis of pride changed its meaning and pertinently linked (...)
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  34.  1
    Getting Real: Ockham on the Human Contribution to the Nature and Production of Artifacts.Jenny Pelletier - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):90.
    Given his known predilection for ontological parsimony, Ockham’s ontology of artifacts is unsurprisingly reductionist: artifacts are nothing over and above their existing and appropriately ordered parts. However, the case of artifacts is notable in that they are real objects that human artisans produce by bringing about a real change: they spatially rearrange existing natural thing or their parts for the sake of some end. This article argues that the human contribution to the nature and production of artifacts is two-fold: the (...)
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  35.  1
    Introduction to Special Issue Time Travel.Alasdair Richmond - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):100.
    The philosophy of time travel has an illustrious pedigree, having seen ground-breaking physical and philosophical treatments in the late 1940s and early 1950s from Kurt Gödel [...].
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  36.  2
    Epistemic Emotions Justified.Laura Silva - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):104.
    The view that emotions can provide defeasible justification for evaluative beliefs is widespread in the emotion literature. Despite this, the question of whether epistemic emotions can provide defeasible justification for theoretical beliefs has been almost entirely ignored. There seems to be an implicit consensus that while emotions may have justificatory roles to play in the former case, they have no such roles to play in the latter case. Here, I argue against this consensus by sketching a proposal for securing epistemic (...)
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  37. COVID-19 Pandemic and the Plight of the Elderly: Nordic Experiences.Tuija Takala - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):103.
    Part of the rationale behind public health measures is protecting the vulnerable. One of the groups most vulnerable to COVID-19 are the elderly and, consequently, many countries adopted public health measures that aimed to keep the elderly safe. The effectiveness and the consequences of those measures, however, leaves a lot to be desired. In my article, I will look at the steps that the Nordic countries took to protect their elderly and assess their success. I will further analyze those in (...)
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  38. The Triage of “Blameworthy” Patients.Fabrizio Turoldo - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):99.
    One question that has sometimes cropped up in the debate on triage and the management of scarce healthcare resources concerns patients’ merits, demerits, and responsibility with regard to their own medical condition. During the current pandemic, some have wondered, when it comes to accessing healthcare, whether patients who have refused vaccination—despite the availability of vaccines and pressure to get vaccinated from the health authorities—should be given the same priority as patients who have diligently undergone vaccination in accordance with the authorities’ (...)
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  39. Categories with Complements.Juan Uriagereka - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):102.
    Verbs and nouns gear θ-dependencies, Case, agreement, or construal relations. Building on Chomsky’s 1974 decomposition of such categories into ±N, ±V features, by translating said features into ±1, ±i scalars that allow for the construction of a vector space, this paper studies the possibility of organizing said features into 2 × 2 square matrices. In the system proposed to explore “head-complement” relations, operating on nouns yields a measurable/observable, which in turn limits other potential combinations with abstract lexical categories. Functional/grammatical categories (...)
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  40. Could a Computer Learn to Be an Appeals Court Judge? The Place of the Unspeakable and Unwriteable in All-Purpose Intelligent Systems.John Woods - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):95.
    I will take it that general intelligence is intelligence of the kind that a typical human being—Fred, say—manifests in his role as a cognitive agent, that is, as an acquirer, receiver and circulator of knowledge in his cognitive economy. Framed in these terms, the word “general” underserves our ends. Hereafter our questions will bear upon the all-purpose intelligence of beings like Fred. Frederika appears as Fred’s AI-counterpart, not as a fully programmed and engineered being, but as a presently unrealized theoretical (...)
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  41.  1
    Integral Studies and Integral Practices for Humanity and Nature.Tomohiro Akiyama - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):82.
    Humanity is facing a crisis of survival. In order to save humanity and nature, we must rebuild their foundations. This paper proposes integral studies and integral practices as a possible new paradigm for the 21st century. First, we investigated the necessity of integral studies and integral practices, which were suggested by the following three evidences: limitations of the Spiritual Revolution and modern philosophy, limitations of the Scientific Revolution and modern science, and contemporary practical problems that threaten the future of humanity (...)
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  42.  4
    Abelard and Other Twelfth-Century Thinkers on Social Constructions.Andrew W. Arlig - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):84.
    This article aims to supplement our understanding of later developments within European universities, that is, Scholastic thought, by attending to how certain pre-Scholastics, namely, Peter Abelard and other twelfth-century philosophers, thought about artifacts and social constructions more generally. It focuses on the treatment of artifacts that can be cobbled together out of Abelard’s Dialectica. The article argues that Abelard attempts to sharply distinguish the world of things from the world of human-made objects. This is most apparent in his treatment of (...)
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  43. Caring for Whom? Racial Practices of Care and Liberal Constructivism.Asha Leena Bhandary - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):78.
    Inequalities in expectations to receive care permeate social structures, reinforcing racialized and gendered hierarchies. Harming the people who are overburdened and disadvantaged as caregivers, these inequalities also shape the subjectivities and corporeal habits of the class of people who expect to receive care from others. With three examples, I illustrate a series of justificatory asymmetries across gender and racial lines that illustrate asymmetries in deference and attendance to the needs of others as well as assertions of the rightful occupation of (...)
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  44.  2
    Axiological Retributivism and the Desert Neutrality Paradox.Tim Campbell - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):80.
    According to axiological retributivism, people can deserve what is bad for them and an outcome in which someone gets what she deserves, even if it is bad for her, can thereby have intrinsic positive value. A question seldom asked is how axiological retributivism should deal with comparisons of outcomes that differ with respect to the number and identities of deserving agents. Attempting to answer this question exposes a problem for axiological retributivism that parallels a well-known problem in population axiology introduced (...)
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  45.  8
    What Philosophy Contributes to Emotion Science.Ronald De Sousa - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):87.
    Contemporary philosophers have paid increasing attention to the empirical research on emotions that has blossomed in many areas of the social sciences. In this paper, I first sketch the common roots of science and philosophy in Ancient Greek thought. I illustrate the way that specific empirical sciences can be regarded as branching out from a central trunk of philosophical speculation. On the basis of seven informal characterizations of what is distinctive about philosophical thinking, I then draw attention to the fact (...)
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  46. Complex Cardinal Numerals and the Strong Minimalist Thesis.Anna Maria Di Sciullo - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):81.
    Different analyses of complex cardinal numerals have been proposed in Generative Grammar. This article provides an analysis of these expressions based on the Strong Minimalist Thesis, according to which the derivations of linguistic expressions are generated by a simple combinatorial operation, applying in accord with principles external to the language faculty. The proposed derivations account for the asymmetrical structure of additive and multiplicative complexes and for the instructions they provide to the external systems for their interpretation. They harmonize with those (...)
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  47. The Accidental Philosopher and One of the Hardest Problems in the World.Sonje Finnestad & Eric Neufeld - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):76.
    Given the difficulties of defining “machine” and “think”, Turing proposed to replace the question “Can machines think?” with a proxy: how well can an agent engage in sustained conversation with a human? Though Turing neither described himself as a philosopher nor published much on philosophical matters, his Imitation Game has stood the test of time. Most understood at that time that success would not come easy, but few would have guessed just how difficult engaging in ordinary conversation would turn out (...)
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  48. Wittgenstein and Care Ethics as a Plea for Realism.Sandra Laugier - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):86.
    This paper aims to bring together the appeal to the ordinary in the ethics of care and the ‘destruction’ or philosophical subversion which Wittgenstein references in his Philosophical Investigations: Where does our investigation get its importance from, since it seems to destroy everything interesting, all that is great and important? What we are destroying is nothing but houses of cards. The paper pursues a connection between the ethics of care and ordinary language philosophy as represented by Wittgenstein, Austin and Cavell, (...)
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  49.  1
    Theory of Knowledge Based on the Idea of the Discursive Space.Rafal Maciag - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):72.
    This paper discusses the theory of knowledge based on the idea of dynamical space. The goal of this effort is to comprehend the knowledge that remains beyond the human domain, e.g., of the artificial cognitive systems. This theory occurs in two versions, weak and strong. The weak version is limited to knowledge in which retention and articulation are performed through the discourse. The strong version is general and is not limited in any way. In the weak version, knowledge is represented (...)
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  50.  3
    The Role of the Excluded.Gianfranco Minati - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):83.
    We consider the peculiarity of unique events, such as those of a natural, evolutionary, and social nature. In particular, we consider unique social events that have had either the claim or the vocation of being salvific for humanity, such as the introduction over time of the Torah, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. We question how the claimed, general salvific vocation contrasts, or is inconsistent with, the non-retroactive temporality and locality of such events, which could not have happened otherwise. This undeclared (...)
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  51.  1
    Enactivism and Material Culture: How Enactivism Could Redefine Enculturation Processes.Alvaro David Monterroza-Rios & Carlos Mario Gutiérrez-Aguilar - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):75.
    Culture has traditionally been considered as a set of knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, norms, and morals, acquired by a human being as a member of a group. Some anthropologists interpret this as a set of abstract representations, such as information or knowledge, while others interpret it as behavioral control mechanisms. These views assume that the contents of a particular culture must be processed by the minds of individuals, either in a direct way or by resorting to learned mental structures in (...)
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  52.  2
    Building Ecological Solidarity: Rewilding Practices as an Example.Cristian Moyano-Fernández - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):77.
    Solidarity within bioethics is increasingly being recognized as an important means of improving health for all. Its contribution seems particularly relevant when there are injustices or inequalities in health and different individuals or groups are disadvantaged. But the current context of ecological collapse, characterized mainly by a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem decline, affects global health in a different way to other factors. This scenario creates new challenges, risks and problems that require new insights from a bioethical perspective. I, therefore, (...)
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  53.  2
    A Byzantine Metaphysics of Artefacts? The Case of Michael of Ephesus’ Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics.Marilù Papandreou - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):88.
    The ontology of artefacts in Byzantine philosophy is still a terra incognita. One way of mapping this unexplored territory is to delve into Michael of Ephesus’ commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Written around 1100, this commentary provides a detailed interpretation of the most important source for Aristotle’s ontological account of artefacts. By highlighting Michael’s main metaphysical tenets and his interpretation of key-passages of the Aristotelian work, this study aims to reconstruct Michael’s ontology of artefacts and present it as one instance, which (...)
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  54. Just Rules for Innovative Pharmaceuticals.Thomas Pogge - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):79.
    Globalized in 1995 through the TRIPs Agreement, humanity’s dominant mechanism for encouraging innovations involves 20-year product patents, whose monopoly features enable innovators to reap large markups or licensing fees from early users. Exclusive reliance on this reward mechanism in the pharmaceutical sector is morally problematic for two main reasons. First, it imposes a great burden on poor people who cannot afford to buy patented treatments at monopoly prices and whose specific health problems are therefore neglected by pharmacological research. Second, it (...)
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  55.  1
    Diabolical Diagramming: Deleuze, Dupuy, and Catastrophe.Corry Shores - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):74.
    Jean-Pierre Dupuy argues that our failure to prevent the looming climate catastrophe results from a faulty metaphysics of time: because we believe the present can proceed down one of the many branches that extend into the future, some of which bypass the catastrophe, we do not think it is absolutely urgent to take drastic action now. His solution to this problem of demotivation is “enlightened doomsaying” in “projected time”, which means that we affirm the coming catastrophe as something real in (...)
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  56.  6
    Naturalising Mathematics? A Wittgensteinian Perspective.Jan Stam, Martin Stokhof & Michiel Van Lambalgen - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):85.
    There is a noticeable gap between results of cognitive neuroscientific research into basic mathematical abilities and philosophical and empirical investigations of mathematics as a distinct intellectual activity. The paper explores the relevance of a Wittgensteinian framework for dealing with this discrepancy.
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  57.  1
    The AI Carbon Footprint and Responsibilities of AI Scientists.Guglielmo Tamburrini - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):4.
    This article examines ethical implications of the growing AI carbon footprint, focusing on the fair distribution of prospective responsibilities among groups of involved actors. First, major groups of involved actors are identified, including AI scientists, AI industry, and AI infrastructure providers, from datacenters to electrical energy suppliers. Second, responsibilities of AI scientists concerning climate warming mitigation actions are disentangled from responsibilities of other involved actors. Third, to implement these responsibilities nudging interventions are suggested, leveraging on AI competitive games which would (...)
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  58.  2
    An Ethics of Needs: Deconstructing Neoliberal Biopolitics and Care Ethics with Derrida and Spivak.Tiina Vaittinen - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):73.
    The body in need of care is the subaltern of the neoliberal epistemic order: it is that which cannot be heard, and that which is muted, partially so even in care ethics. In order to read the writing by which the needy body writes the world, a new ethics must be articulated. Building on Jacques Derrida’s philosophy of deconstruction, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s notions of subalternity and epistemic violence, critical disability scholarship, and corporeal care theories, in this article I develop an (...)
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  59. The Unity of Hobbes’s Philosophy: Science, Politics, and God?Zachary Vereb - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (4):89.
    This paper re-examines the dispute concerning Hobbes’s religious beliefs in light of his natural philosophy. First, I argue that atheistic readings of Hobbes can be more plausibly defended provided interpreters make use of a methodological unity thesis. Second, I suggest that theistic readers of Hobbes have good reason to favor the autonomy thesis. I conclude by highlighting how a re-examination of the theism dispute motivates reconsideration of the role of Hobbes’s natural philosophy and scientific methodology vis à vis politics. Maintaining (...)
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  60. From Turing to Conscious Machines.Igor Aleksander - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):57.
    In the period between Turing’s 1950 “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” and the current considerable public exposure to the term “artificial intelligence ”, Turing’s question “Can a machine think?” has become a topic of daily debate in the media, the home, and, indeed, the pub. However, “Can a machine think?” is sliding towards a more controversial issue: “Can a machine be conscious?” Of course, the two issues are linked. It is held here that consciousness is a pre-requisite to thought. In Turing’s (...)
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  61.  1
    Jacques Rancière and Care Ethics: Four Lessons in (Feminist) Emancipation.Sophie Bourgault - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):62.
    This paper proposes a conversation between Jacques Rancière and feminist care ethicists. It argues that there are important resonances between these two bodies of scholarship, thanks to their similar indictments of Western hierarchies and binaries, their shared invitation to “blur boundaries” and embrace a politics of “impropriety”, and their views on the significance of storytelling/narratives and of the ordinary. Drawing largely on Disagreement, Proletarian Nights, and The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation, I also indicate that Rancière’s work offers (...)
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  62.  1
    Different Roles for Multiple Perspectives and Rigorous Testing in Scientific Theories and Models: Towards More Open, Context-Appropriate Verificationism.Peter Cariani - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):54.
    A form of context-appropriate verificationism is proposed that distinguishes between scientific theories as evolving systems of ideas and operationally-specified, testable formal-empirical models. Theories undergo three stages : a formative, exploratory, heuristic phase of theory conception, a developmental phase of theory-pruning and refinement, and a mature, rigorous phase of testing specific, explicit models. The first phase depends on Feyerabendian open possibility, the second on theoretical plausibility and internal coherence, and the third on testability. Multiple perspectives produce variety necessary for theory formation, (...)
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  63.  3
    Thinking About the Institutionalization of Care with Hannah Arendt: A Nonsense Filiation?Catherine Chaberty & Christine Noel Lemaitre - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):51.
    In recent decades, some feminists have turned to the writings of Hannah Arendt in order to propose a truly emancipatory ethic of care or to find the principles that could lead to the political institutionalization of care. Nevertheless, the feminist interpretations of Hannah Arendt are particularly contrasted. According to Sophie Bourgault, this recourse to Hannah Arendt is deeply problematic, mainly because of her strong distinction between the private and public spheres. This article discusses the relevance of using Arendt’s concepts to (...)
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  64. Muay Thai, Psychological Well-Being, and Cultivation of Combat-Relevant Affordances.Adam M. Croom - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):65.
    Some philosophers argue that martial arts training is maladaptive, contributes to psychological illness, and provides a social harm, whereas others argue that martial arts training is adaptive, contributes to psychological wellness, and provides a social benefit. This debate is important to scholars and the general public since beliefs about martial arts training can have a real impact on how we evaluate martial artists for job opportunities and career advancement, and in general, how we treat martial artists from different cultures in (...)
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  65.  1
    Care Ethics and Paternalism: A Beauvoirian Approach.Deniz Durmuş - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):53.
    Feminist care ethics has become a prominent ethical theory that influenced theoretical and practical discussions in a variety of disciplines and institutions on a global scale. However, it has been criticized by transnational feminist scholars for operating with Western-centric assumptions and registers, especially by universalizing care as it is practiced in the Global North. It has also been criticized for prioritizing gender over other categories of intersectionality and hence for not being truly intersectional. Given the imperialist and colonial legacies embedded (...)
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  66.  2
    The Politician: Action and Creation in the Practical Ontology of Gilles Deleuze.Julian Ferreyra - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):50.
    This paper addresses an action that, from a Deleuzian perspective, is capable of modifying the despairing current social situation in which we are immersed, through the creation of political Ideas. Even though Deleuze conceives social Ideas as vast civilizing structures, we propose to bring into the political domain the logic of other acts of creation, such as the artistic or the philosophical, where the monumental coexists with minor figures that are nonetheless capable of introducing novelty into the world. The politician (...)
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  67.  2
    International Human Rights Protections Find Support in Hobbes’ Leviathan.Hege Cathrine Finholt - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):47.
    In her paper “Sovereignty and the International Protection of Human rights”, Cristina Lafont argues that “The obligation of respecting human rights in the sense of not contributing to their violation seems to be a universal obligation and thus one that binds states just as much as non-state actors.” In this paper, I argue that one can find support for this claim in Thomas Hobbes’ _Leviathan._ This requires a different reading of _Leviathan_ than the one that is typically performed by realist (...)
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  68.  2
    Violence and Care: Fanon and the Ethics of Care on Harm, Trauma, and Repair.Maggie FitzGerald - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):64.
    According to Frantz Fanon, the psychological and social-political are deeply intertwined in the colonial context. Psychologically, the colonizers perceive the colonized as inferior and the colonized internalize this in an inferiority complex. This psychological reality is co-constitutive of and by material relations of power—the imaginary of inferiority both creates and is created by colonial relations of power. It is also in this context that violence takes on significant political import: violence deployed by the colonized to rebel against these colonial relations (...)
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  69.  1
    Žižek’s Hegel, Feminist Theory, and Care Ethics.Sacha Ghandeharian - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):59.
    This article presents conceptual bridges that exist between the philosophy of G.W.F Hegel and a feminist ethics of care. To do so, it engages with Slavoj Žižek’s contemporary reading of Hegel in concert with existing feminist interpretations of Hegel’s thought. The goal of doing so is to demonstrate how both Žižek and a selection of critical feminist thinkers interpret Hegel’s perspective on the nature of subjectivity, intersubjective relations and the relationship between the subject and the world it inhabits, in a (...)
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  70.  2
    Scarcity, Justice, and Health Crisis Leadership.Matti Häyry - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):48.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has created or revealed scarcities in many domains: medical, civic, economic, and ideological. Responses to these are analyzed in the framework of a map of justice and an imperative of openness. The main argument is that whatever the view of justice chosen by public health authorities, they should be able and willing to disclose it to the citizens. Objections are considered and qualifications added, but the general conclusion is that in liberal democracies, truth-telling by those in power, (...)
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  71.  2
    Rossian Intuitionism Without Self-Evidence?David Kaspar - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):68.
    The first phase of the recent intuitionist revival left untouched Ross’s claim that fundamental moral truths are self-evident. In a recent article, Robert Cowan attempts to explain, in a plausible way, how we know moral truths. The result is that, while the broad framework of Ross’s theory appears to remain in place, the self-evidence of moral truths is thrown into doubt. In this paper, I examine Cowan’s Conceptual Intuitionism. I use his own proposal to show how he arrives at a (...)
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  72.  2
    Creating New “Enclosures”: Violently Mimicking the Primitive Accumulation Through Degradation of Women, Lockdowns, Looting Finance, War, Plunder.Lorenzo Magnani & Anna Maria Marchini - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):58.
    Starting from the analysis of Marx’s Chapter 26 of the first volume of Capital, this article describes Marxian emphasis on the extremely violent aspects—a list of the main cases is also provided—of the so-called “enclosures” as fundamental procedures that favored the “primitive accumulation”, that is, the first social and economic step that led to capitalism. The “enclosures” that characterized the primitive accumulation process, violently expropriating peasants, razing their cottages and dwellings, are illustrated in detail. At the same time, we will (...)
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  73. Positive Psychology and Philosophy-as-Usual: An Unhappy Match?Josef Mattes - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):52.
    The present article critiques standard attempts to make philosophy appear relevant to the scientific study of well-being, drawing examples in particular from works that argue for fundamental differences between different forms of wellbeing, and claims concerning the supposedly inherent normativity of wellbeing research. Specifically, it is argued that philosophers in at least some relevant cases fail to apply what is often claimed to be among their core competences: conceptual rigor—not only in dealing with the psychological construct of flow, but also (...)
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  74.  3
    Turing’s Conceptual Engineering.Marcin Miłkowski - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):69.
    Alan Turing’s influence on subsequent research in artificial intelligence is undeniable. His proposed test for intelligence remains influential. In this paper, I propose to analyze his conception of intelligence by relying on traditional close reading and language technology. The Turing test is interpreted as an instance of conceptual engineering that rejects the role of the previous linguistic usage, but appeals to intuition pumps instead. Even though many conceive his proposal as a prime case of operationalism, it is more plausibly viewed (...)
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  75. Agreeing and Moving Across Traces: On Why Lower Copies May Be Transparent or Opaque.Jairo Nunes - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):3.
    Within Minimalism, traces are often taken to be transparent for agreement and movement across them, which raises the question of how this could be properly accounted for within the copy theory of movement. This paper examines _wh_-traces in multiple _wh_-questions and argues that traces may or may not induce intervention effects depending on whether or not they are fully specified.
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  76.  2
    How to Make AlphaGo’s Children Explainable.Woosuk Park - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):55.
    Under the rubric of understanding the problem of explainability of AI in terms of abductive cognition, I propose to review the lessons from AlphaGo and her more powerful successors. As AI players in Baduk have arrived at superhuman level, there seems to be no hope for understanding the secret of their breathtakingly brilliant moves. Without making AI players explainable in some ways, both human and AI players would be less-than omniscient, if not ignorant, epistemic agents. Are we bound to have (...)
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  77.  2
    A Care Ethical Engagement with John Locke on Toleration.Thomas Randall - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):49.
    Care theorists have yet to outline an account of how the concept of toleration should function in their normative framework. This lack of outline is a notable gap in the literature, particularly for demonstrating whether care ethics can appropriately address cases of moral disagreement within contemporary pluralistic societies; in other words, does care ethics have the conceptual resources to recognize the disapproval that is inherent in an act of toleration while simultaneously upholding the positive values of care without contradiction? By (...)
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  78.  2
    Ethics in Emergency Times: The Case of COVID-19.Stefano Semplici - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):70.
    A disaster is an occurrence disrupting a community’s normal functioning and existence. The disruption may render it impossible to comply with principles and to respect, protect, and fulfill rights as it happens in ordinary times; it may induce an overwhelming shortage of resources and make tragic decisions unavoidable. From its very beginning, the COVID-19 pandemic evoked the scenario of disaster medicine, where triage is likely to imply not simply postponing a treatment but letting someone die. However, it is not only (...)
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  79.  2
    Desire, Delirium, and Revolutionary Love: Deleuzian Feminist Possibilities.Janae Sholtz - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):61.
    In Deleuze and Guattari’s Anti-Oedipus volumes, revolution, social transformation, and the possibility of a new future are all linked to desire: minimally, to the freeing of desire from the false refuges of Oedipalization and its constructs of molar sexuality. Everywhere, they seek to uncover the potential of desire, sexuality, and love, asking us to consider that what we take to be the most personal is impersonal, how the most intimate is the collective and social. Thus, it calls us to rethink (...)
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  80.  3
    A Hobbesian Argument for World Government.Henrik Skaug Sætra - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):66.
    The legitimacy of government is often linked to its ability to maintain order and secure peace. Thomas Hobbes’ political philosophy provides a clear description of why government is necessary, as human nature and the structures emerging out of human social interaction are such that order and peace will not naturally emerge to a sufficient degree. Hobbes’ general argument is often accepted at the national level, but in this article, I explore why a Hobbesian argument for the international level—an argument for (...)
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  81.  2
    Vectors of Thought: François Delaporte, the Cholera of 1832 and the Problem of Error.Samuel Talcott - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):56.
    This paper resists the virality of contemporary paranoia by turning to “French epistemology”, a philosophical ethos that embraces uncertainty and complexity by registering the transformative impact of scientific knowledge on thought. Despite its popular uses describing phenomena of communication today, the idea of virality comes from biomedicine. This paper, therefore, investigates the extent to which an epidemiological concept of viral transmission—the disease vector—can comprehend and encourage new possibilities of thought beyond paranoia. Briefly, I attempt to analyze thought as a vector. (...)
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  82. Uncharted Aspects of Human Intelligence in Knowledge-Based “Intelligent” Systems.Ronaldo Vigo, Derek E. Zeigler & Jay Wimsatt - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):46.
    This paper briefly surveys several prominent modeling approaches to knowledge-based intelligent systems design and, especially, expert systems and the breakthroughs that have most broadened and improved their applications. We argue that the implementation of technology that aims to emulate rudimentary aspects of human intelligence has enhanced KBIS design, but that weaknesses remain that could be addressed with existing research in cognitive science. For example, we propose that systems based on representational plasticity, functional dynamism, domain specificity, creativity, and concept learning, with (...)
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  83.  7
    A Relational Perspective on Collective Agency.Yiyan Wang & Martin Stokhof - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):63.
    The discussion of collective agency involves the reduction problem of the concept of a collective. Individualism and Cartesian internalism have long restricted orthodox theories and made them face the tension between an irreducible concept of a collective and ontological reductionism. Heterodox theories as functionalism and interpretationism reinterpret the concept of agency and accept it as realized on the level of a collective. In order to adequately explain social phenomena that have relations as their essence, in this paper we propose a (...)
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  84.  14
    Natural Philosophy, Abstraction, and Mathematics Among Materialists: Thomas Hobbes and Margaret Cavendish on Light.Marcus P. Adams - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):44.
    The nature of light is a focus of Thomas Hobbes’s natural philosophical project. Hobbes’s explanation of the light of lucid bodies differs across his works, from dilation and contraction in Elements of Law to simple circular motions in De corpore. However, Hobbes consistently explains perceived light by positing that bodily resistance generates the phantasm of light. In Letters I.XIX–XX of Philosophical Letters, fellow materialist Margaret Cavendish attacks the Hobbesian understanding of both lux and lumen by claiming that Hobbes has illicitly (...)
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  85.  42
    Naturalistic Moral Realism and Evolutionary Biology.Paul Bloomfield - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):2.
    Perhaps the most familiar understanding of “naturalism” derives from Quine, understanding it as a continuity of empirical theories of the world as described through the scientific method. So, it might be surprising that one of the most important naturalistic moral realists, Philippa Foot, rejects standard evolutionary biology in her justly lauded _Natural Goodness_. One of her main reasons for this is the true claim that humans can flourish without reproducing, which she claims cannot be squared with evolutionary theory and biology (...)
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  86.  3
    Intuition and Ingenuity: Gödel on Turing’s “Philosophical Error”.Long Chen - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):33.
    Despite his unreserved appreciation of Turing’s analysis for being a “precise and unquestionably adequate definition” of formal system or mechanical computability, Gödel nevertheless published a short note in 1972 claiming to have found a “philosophical error” in Turing’s argument with regard to the finite nature of mental states and memory. A natural question arises: how could Gödel enjoy the generality conferred on his results by Turing’s work, despite the error of its ways? Previous interpretative strategies by Feferman, Shagrir and others (...)
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  87.  9
    Virtual Reality and Aesthetic Experience.Roberto Diodato - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):29.
    The problem of aesthetic experience in a virtual environment could be reformulated as: what can we learn about aesthetics from the perspective of ‘aesthetic experience in virtual environments’, given the specific nature of such an environment? The discourse goes in circles, because it is always from theories elaborated in the field of the so-called ‘real’ that we develop the difference, but it is a process typically philosophical, that, on the other hand, can make sense only if it can be shown (...)
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  88.  4
    Causal Emergence: When Distortions in a Map Obscure the Territory.Frederick Eberhardt & Lin Lin Lee - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):30.
    We provide a critical assessment of the account of causal emergence presented in Erik Hoel’s 2017 article “When the map is better than the territory”. The account integrates causal and information theoretic concepts to explain under what circumstances there can be causal descriptions of a system at multiple scales of analysis. We show that the causal macro variables implied by this account result in interventions with significant ambiguity, and that the operations of marginalization and abstraction do not commute. Both of (...)
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  89.  2
    Wellbeing Competence.Søren Engelsen - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):42.
    This article presents and analyzes the basic features of wellbeing competence. Following a procedural approach to wellbeing, I propose wellbeing competence as a significant object of focus in the philosophical debate on wellbeing. Instead of being concerned one-sidedly with abstract ideals and explicit, theoretical knowledge about what constitutes wellbeing, wellbeing competence is the ability to handle the concrete process of living well and helping others live well in a generally qualified way. This article presents a theory that considers wellbeing competence (...)
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  90.  11
    Back to the Present: How Not to Use Counterfactuals to Explain Causal Asymmetry.Alison Fernandes - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):43.
    A plausible thought is that we should evaluate counterfactuals in the actual world by holding the present ‘fixed’; the state of the counterfactual world at the time of the antecedent, outside the area of the antecedent, is required to match that of the actual world. When used to evaluate counterfactuals in the actual world, this requirement may produce reasonable results. However, the requirement is deeply problematic when used in the context of explaining causal asymmetry. The requirement plays a crucial role (...)
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  91.  4
    Care Ethics, Bruno Latour, and the Anthropocene.Michael Flower & Maurice Hamington - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):31.
    Bruno Latour is one of the founding figures in social network theory and a broadly influential systems thinker. Although his work has always been relational, little scholarship has engaged the relational morality, ontology, and epistemology of feminist care ethics with Latour’s actor–network theory. This article is intended as a translation and a prompt to spur further interactions. Latour’s recent publications, in particular, have focused on the new climate regime of the Anthropocene. Care theorists are just beginning to address posthuman approaches (...)
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  92.  11
    Information in Explaining Cognition: How to Evaluate It?Nir Fresco - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):28.
    The claims that “The brain processes information” or “Cognition is information processing” are accepted as truisms in cognitive science. However, it is unclear how to evaluate such claims absent a specification of “information” as it is used by neurocognitive theories. The aim of this article is, thus, to identify the key features of information that information-based neurocognitive theories posit. A systematic identification of these features can reveal the explanatory role that information plays in specific neurocognitive theories, and can, therefore, be (...)
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  93.  6
    Scientific Observation Is Socio-Materially Augmented Perception: Toward a Participatory Realism.Tom Froese - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):37.
    There is an overlooked similarity between three classic accounts of the conditions of object experience from three distinct disciplines. Sociology: the “inversion” that accompanies discovery in the natural sciences, as local causes of effects are reattributed to an observed object. Psychology: the “externalization” that accompanies mastery of a visual–tactile sensory substitution interface, as tactile sensations of the proximal interface are transformed into vision-like experience of a distal object. Biology: the “projection” that brings forth an animal’s Umwelt, as impressions on its (...)
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  94.  1
    Backpropagation of Spirit: Hegelian Recollection and Human-A.I. Abductive Communities.Rocco Gangle - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):36.
    This article examines types of abductive inference in Hegelian philosophy and machine learning from a formal comparative perspective and argues that Robert Brandom’s recent reconstruction of the logic of recollection in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit may be fruitful for anticipating modes of collaborative abductive inference in human/A.I. interactions. Firstly, the argument consists of showing how Brandom’s reading of Hegelian recollection may be understood as a specific type of abductive inference, one in which the past interpretive failures and errors of a (...)
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  95.  4
    On Falsifiable Statistical Hypotheses.Konstantin Genin - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):40.
    Popper argued that a statistical falsification required a prior methodological decision to regard sufficiently improbable events as ruled out. That suggestion has generated a number of fruitful approaches, but also a number of apparent paradoxes and ultimately, no clear consensus. It is still commonly claimed that, since random samples are logically consistent with all the statistical hypotheses on the table, falsification simply does not apply in realistic statistical settings. We claim that the situation is considerably improved if we ask a (...)
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  96.  1
    Inconsistent, Vague, and…Just? An Analysis of the National Football League’s 2021 COVID-19 Policy.Steven Gimbel & Joseph Radzevick - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):27.
    The National Football League, the premier professional organization for American football, developed a policy concerning the protocol in cases where players contract COVID-19. This policy includes elements such as collective punishment that appear, at first glance, to be morally problematic. To the contrary, the policy is indeed morally acceptable as we should not think of organizations such as the NFL in the same way we think of governments in stable nations, but rather in the same way that we think of (...)
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  97.  1
    Finding Oneself Well Together with Others: A Phenomenological Study of the Ontology of Human Well-Being.Jonas Holst - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):41.
    Based on critical readings of Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, the paper offers a phenomenological study of the ontology of well-being that transcends the opposition between subjective and objective being. By interpreting the Heideggerian notion of Befindlichkeit as the fundamental way in which humans find themselves in the world, being affected by and faced with their own existence, the paper opens a way to understanding well-being that locates the possibility of elevating one’s own being not inside (...)
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  98.  29
    Biopolitics and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Foucauldian Interpretation of the Danish Government’s Response to the Pandemic.Philip Højme - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):34.
    With the coronavirus pandemic and the Omicron variant once again forcing countries into lockdown, this essay seeks to outline a Foucauldian critique of various legal measures taken by the Danish government to cope with COVID-19 during the first year and a half of the pandemic. The essay takes a critical look at the extra-legal measures employed by the Danish government, as the Danish politicians attempted to halt the spread of the, now almost forgotten, Cluster 5 COVID-19 variant. This situation will (...)
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  99.  2
    From Prolepsis to Hyperraising.Magdalena Lohninger, Iva Kovač & Susanne Wurmbrand - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):32.
    Case, agreement, and A-movement dependencies across finite clause boundaries, such as Hyperraising or Long-Distance Case or Agreement [LDA], are available in many typologically diverse languages. The research on such dependencies typically distinguishes between cross-linguistically restricted true A-dependencies across finite clauses, and generally available binding-like A′-dependencies as found in Prolepsis. In this paper, we investigate both types of configurations in parallel and refer to this as the A-domain. Since the diagnostics to distinguish A-configurations vary across languages and often cannot be compared (...)
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  100. SHE (Sustainability, Health, Ethics)—A Grid for an Embodied Ethic.Brian Macallan - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):23.
    Our current planetary emergency is one in which we are facing significant global warming as a result of human-driven climate change. This is having and will continue to have catastrophic results for the earth’s ecosystems and for life as we know it. The Christian tradition often works actively against the seriousness of these challenges due to its eschatological outlook. Process theology, as one stream within the Christian tradition, embraces a different vision of the future that fosters engagement in current concerns (...)
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  101.  1
    Naturalizing Morality to Unveil the Status of Violence: Coalition Enforcement, Cognitive Moral Niches, and Moral Bubbles in an Evolutionary Perspective.Lorenzo Magnani - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):39.
    I propose that the relationship between moral and violent behavior is overlooked in current philosophical, epistemological, and cognitive studies. To the aim of clarifying the complex dynamics of this interplay, I will describe, adopting an evolutionary perspective, the concepts of coalition enforcement, cognitive moral niche, and of what I call moral bubbles. Showing the interesting relationships between these three basic concepts, I will explain the role of morality in causing and justifying violence. The main theoretical merit of the concept of (...)
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  102.  8
    On Explainable AI and Abductive Inference.Kyrylo Medianovskyi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):35.
    Modern explainable AI methods remain far from providing human-like answers to ‘why’ questions, let alone those that satisfactorily agree with human-level understanding. Instead, the results that such methods provide boil down to sets of causal attributions. Currently, the choice of accepted attributions rests largely, if not solely, on the explainee’s understanding of the quality of explanations. The paper argues that such decisions may be transferred from a human to an XAI agent, provided that its machine-learning algorithms perform genuinely abductive inferences. (...)
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  103.  44
    How Much Punishment Is Deserved? Two Alternatives to Proportionality.Thaddeus Metz & Mika’il Metz - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):1-13.
    When it comes to the question of how much the state ought to punish a given offender, the standard understanding of the desert theory for centuries has been that it should give him a penalty proportionate to his offense, that is, an amount of punishment that fits the severity of his crime. In this article, part of a special issue on the geometry of desert, we maintain that a desert theorist is not conceptually or otherwise required to hold a proportionality (...)
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  104.  4
    Aesthetics as a Habit: Between Constraints and Freedom, Nudges and Creativity.Mariagrazia Portera - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):24.
    This paper is a preliminary attempt to bring to the fore some questions and issues regarding the role of habits in aesthetics. Indeed, much attention has recently been given to habits across a wide range of fields of inquiry: philosophers turn to the concept to investigate its significance to the historical development of Western thought; neuroscientists look into the role that habits play in the functioning of the human mind and identify the neural and psychological underpinnings of habitual behavior; anthropologists, (...)
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  105.  1
    Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Transdisciplinarity: The Tower of Babel in the Age of Two Cultures.Marcin J. Schroeder - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):26.
    Despite the continuous emphasis on globalization, we witness increasing divisions and divisiveness in all domains of human activities. One of the reasons, if not the main one, is the intellectual fragmentation of humanity, compared in the title to the failed attempt at building the Biblical Tower of Babel. The attempts to reintegrate worldview, fragmented by the specialization of education and expected to be achieved through reforms in curricula at all levels of education, were based on the assumption that the design (...)
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  106. Habit: A Rylean Conception.Cheng-Hung Tsai - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):45.
    Tennis champion Maria Sharapova has a habit of grunting when she plays on the court. Assume that she also has a habit of hitting the ball in a certain way in a certain situation. The habit of on-court grunting might be bad, but can the habit of hitting the ball in a certain way in a certain situation be classified as intelligent? The fundamental questions here are as follows: What is habit? What is the relation between habit and skill? Is (...)
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  107.  2
    Against Music? Heuristics and Sense-Making in Listening to Contemporary Popular Music.Vincenzo Zingaro - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (2):38.
    Is the ubiquity of contemporary popular music akin to a deliberate aggression to the hearing, making the listening experience devoid of any sense? If so, is there any strategy to morph this supposed confusion into meaningful stimuli? Relying on epistemology, we attempt at promoting the act of listening as a proper way of world-making and refer to Mark Reybrouck, Bruno Nettl, Steven Brown and Joseph Jordania—among others—to gather appropriate heuristic tools. In the last part of the essay, we advance the (...)
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  108. A Byzantine Metaphysics of Artefacts? The Case of Michael of Ephesus’ Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics.Marilù Papandreou - 2022 - Philosophies 4 (7).
    The ontology of artefacts in Byzantine philosophy is still a terra incognita. One way of mapping this unexplored territory is to delve into Michael of Ephesus’ commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Written around 1100, this commentary provides a detailed interpretation of the most important source for Aristotle’s ontological account of artefacts. By highlighting Michael’s main metaphysical tenets and his interpretation of key-passages of the Aristotelian work, this study aims to reconstruct Michael’s ontology of artefacts and present it as one instance, which (...)
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  109.  64
    Computability, Notation, and de Re Knowledge of Numbers.Stewart Shapiro, Eric Snyder & Richard Samuels - 2022 - Philosophies 1 (7).
    Saul Kripke once noted that there is a tight connection between computation and de re knowledge of whatever the computation acts upon. For example, the Euclidean algorithm can produce knowledge of which number is the greatest common divisor of two numbers. Arguably, algorithms operate directly on syntactic items, such as strings, and on numbers and the like only via how the numbers are represented. So we broach matters of notation. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between (...)
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