64 found

Year:

  1.  17
    Empathic responses and moral status for social robots: an argument in favor of robot patienthood based on K. E. Løgstrup.Simon N. Balle - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):535-548.
    Empirical research on human–robot interaction has demonstrated how humans tend to react to social robots with empathic responses and moral behavior. How should we ethically evaluate such responses to robots? Are people wrong to treat non-sentient artefacts as moral patients since this rests on anthropomorphism and ‘over-identification’ —or correct since spontaneous moral intuition and behavior toward nonhumans is indicative for moral patienthood, such that social robots become our ‘Others’?. In this research paper, I weave extant HRI studies that demonstrate empathic (...)
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  2.  11
    Drone culture: perspectives on autonomy and anonymity.Garfield Benjamin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):635-645.
    This article addresses the problematic perspectives of drone culture. In critiquing focus on the drone’s apparent ‘autonomy’, it argues that such devices function as part of a socio-technical network. They are relational parts of human–machine interaction that, in our changing geopolitical realities, have a powerful influence on politics, reputation and warfare. Drawing on Žižek’s conception of parallax, the article stresses the importance of culture and perception in forming the role of the drone in widening power asymmetries. It examines how perceptions (...)
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  3.  9
    A Critical Analysis of the Representations of Older Adults in the Field of Human–Robot Interaction.Dafna Burema - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):455-465.
    This paper argues that there is a need to critically assess bias in the representations of older adults in the field of Human–Robot Interaction. This need stems from the recognition that technology development is a socially constructed process that has the potential to reinforce problematic understandings of older adults. Based on a qualitative content analysis of 96 academic publications, this paper indicates that older adults are represented as; frail by default, independent by effort; silent and technologically illiterate; burdensome; and problematic (...)
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  4.  11
    Drones, Robots and Perceived Autonomy: Implications for Living Human Beings.Stephen J. Cowley & Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):591-594.
  5.  8
    Service Robots for Affective Labor: A Sociology of Labor Perspective.Anna Dobrosovestnova, Glenda Hannibal & Tim Reinboth - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):487-499.
    Profit-oriented service sectors such as tourism, hospitality, and entertainment are increasingly looking at how professional service robots can be integrated into the workplace to perform socio-cognitive tasks that were previously reserved for humans. This is a work in which social and labor sciences recognize the principle role of emotions. However, the models and narratives of emotions that drive research, design, and deployment of service robots in human–robot interaction differ considerably from how emotions are framed in the sociology of labor and (...)
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  6.  10
    Attribution of Autonomy and its Role in Robotic Language Acquisition.Frank Förster & Kaspar Althoefer - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):605-617.
    The false attribution of autonomy and related concepts to artificial agents that lack the attributed levels of the respective characteristic is problematic in many ways. In this article, we contrast this view with a positive viewpoint that emphasizes the potential role of such false attributions in the context of robotic language acquisition. By adding emotional displays and congruent body behaviors to a child-like humanoid robot’s behavioral repertoire, we were able to bring naïve human tutors to engage in so called intent (...)
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  7.  15
    Should My Robot Know What's Best for Me? Human–Robot Interaction Between User Experience and Ethical Design.Nora Fronemann, Kathrin Pollmann & Wulf Loh - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):517-533.
    To integrate social robots in real-life contexts, it is crucial that they are accepted by the users. Acceptance is not only related to the functionality of the robot but also strongly depends on how the user experiences the interaction. Established design principles from usability and user experience research can be applied to the realm of human–robot interaction, to design robot behavior for the comfort and well-being of the user. Focusing the design on these aspects alone, however, comes with certain ethical (...)
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  8.  9
    Seeming Autonomy, Technology and the Uncanny Valley.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):595-603.
    This paper extends Mori’s uncanny valley-hypothesis to include technologies that fail its basic criterion that uncanniness arises when the subject experiences a discrepancy in a machine’s human likeness. In so doing, the paper considers Mori’s hypothesis about the uncanny valley as an instance of what Heidegger calls the ‘challenging revealing’ nature of modern technology. It introduces seeming autonomy and heteronomy as phenomenological categories that ground human being-in-the-world including our experience of things and people. It is suggested that this categorical distinction (...)
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  9.  9
    Autonomous Technologies in Human Ecologies: Enlanguaged Cognition, Practices and Technology.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Stephen J. Cowley - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):687-699.
    Advanced technologies such as drones, intelligent algorithms and androids have grave implications for human existence. With the purpose of exploring their basis for doing so, the paper proposes a framework for investigating the complex relationship between such devices and human practices and language-mediated cognition. Specifically, it centers on the importance of the typically neglected intermediate layer of culture which not only drives both technophobia and philia but also, more fundamentally, connects pre-reflective experience and socio-material practices by placing advanced technologies in (...)
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  10.  14
    Moving Beyond the Mirror: Relational and Performative Meaning Making in Human–Robot Communication.Petra Gemeinboeck & Rob Saunders - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):549-563.
    Current research in human–robot interaction often focuses on rendering communication between humans and robots more ‘natural’ by designing machines that appear and behave humanlike. Communication, in this human-centric approach, is often understood as a process of successfully transmitting information in the form of predefined messages and gestures. This article introduces an alternative arts-led, movement-centric approach, which embraces the differences of machinelike robotic artefacts and, instead, investigates how meaning is dynamically enacted in the encounter of humans and machines. Our design approach (...)
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  11.  8
    Autonomous Reciprocity: Context Matters.Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):415-416.
  12.  5
    Alienation in a digitalized world.Trond Haga - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):801-814.
    In this paper, the aim is to study how the work organization in one specific company for one specific trade has changed over time and with these changes, the presence and absence of alienation of employees in this trade. Blauner’s U-shaped alienation development trend has been a reference in discussions on alienation. It displays a connection between the degree of alienation and technological development. The findings from this study verify the trend and the connection in the case company. However, although (...)
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  13.  8
    “Magic through many minor measures”: How introducing a flowline production mode in six steps enables journalist team autonomy in local news organizations.Aina Landsverk Hagen, Ingrid M. Tolstad & Arne Lindseth Bygdås - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):745-759.
    While facing cuts, downsizing and revenue losses, media organizations experience paradoxical demands in being organized for print or linear production with daily deadlines and simultaneously striving to be ‘digital first’ and produce and publish stories online on a continuous basis throughout the day. In this paper, we describe efforts applied when introducing the metaphor flowline in a medium-sized newspaper organization in Norway with the aim of aligning their production and publishing processes to readers’ consumption of online news. Both the production (...)
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  14.  7
    What is the message of the robot medium? Considering media ecology and mobilities in critical robotics research.Julia M. Hildebrand - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):443-453.
    This article makes the case for including frameworks of media ecology and mobilities research in the shaping of critical robotics research for a human-centered and holistic lens onto robot technologies. The two meta-disciplines, which align in their attention to relational processes of communication and movement, provide useful tools for critically exploring emerging human–robot dimensions and dynamics. Media ecology approaches human-made technologies as media that can shape the way we think, feel, and act. Relatedly, mobilities research highlights various kinds of influential (...)
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  15.  13
    Could a Robot Flirt? 4E Cognition, Reactive Attitudes, and Robot Autonomy.Charles Lassiter - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):675-686.
    In this paper, I develop a view about machine autonomy grounded in the theoretical frameworks of 4E cognition and PF Strawson’s reactive attitudes. I begin with critical discussion of White, and conclude that his view is strongly committed to functionalism as it has developed in mainstream analytic philosophy since the 1950s. After suggesting that there is good reason to resist this view by appeal to developments in 4E cognition, I propose an alternative view of machine autonomy. Namely, machines count as (...)
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  16.  11
    A critique of robotics in health care.Arne Maibaum, Andreas Bischof, Jannis Hergesell & Benjamin Lipp - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):467-477.
    When the social relevance of robotic applications is addressed today, the use of assistive technology in care settings is almost always the first example. So-called care robots are presented as a solution to the nursing crisis, despite doubts about their technological readiness and the lack of concrete usage scenarios in everyday nursing practice. We inquire into this interconnection of social robotics and care. We show how both are made available for each other in three arenas: innovation policy, care organization, and (...)
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  17.  7
    Social implications of autonomous vehicles: a focus on time.Cian McCarroll & Federico Cugurullo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):791-800.
    The urban environment is increasingly engaging with artificial intelligence, a focus on the automation of urban processes, whether it be singular artefacts or city-wide systems. The impact of such technological innovation on the social dynamics of the urban environment is an ever changing and multi-faceted field of research. In this paper, the space and time defined by the autonomous vehicle is used as a window to view the way in which a shift in urban transport dynamics can impact the temporal (...)
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  18.  5
    Robotification & Ethical Cleansing.Marco Nørskov - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):425-441.
    Robotics is currently not only a cutting-edge research area, but is potentially disruptive to all domains of our lives—for better and worse. While legislation is struggling to keep pace with the development of these new artifacts, our intellectual limitations and physical laws seem to present the only hard demarcation lines, when it comes to state-of-the-art R&D. To better understand the possible implications, the paper at hand critically investigates underlying processes and structures of robotics in the context of Heidegger’s and Nishitani’s (...)
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  19.  16
    Can Communication with Social Robots Influence How Children Develop Empathy? Best-Evidence Synthesis.Ekaterina Pashevich - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):579-589.
    Social robots are gradually entering children’s lives in a period when children learn about social relationships and exercise prosocial behaviors with parents, peers, and teachers. Designed for long-term emotional engagement and to take the roles of friends, teachers, and babysitters, such robots have the potential to influence how children develop empathy. This article presents a review of the literature in the fields of human–robot interaction, psychology, neuropsychology, and roboethics, discussing the potential impact of communication with social robots on children’s social (...)
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  20.  1
    Team Autonomy and Digital Transformation.Johan E. Ravn, Nils Brede Moe, Viktoria Stray & Eva Amdahl Seim - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):701-710.
    The organizational theory literature is reasonably unanimous that team autonomy is a key factor for employee well-being and motivation as well as organizational performance. However, team autonomy is challenged when its processes and outputs need to be aligned with actors and factors external to a team. There are likely challenges and conflicts between team autonomy and the need for coherence in the wider system. Team autonomy has a range of implications and is challenged by a number of factors, such as (...)
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  21.  11
    An Architecture Governance Approach for Agile Development by Tailoring the Spotify Model.Abdallah Salameh & Julian M. Bass - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):761-780.
    The role of software architecture in large-scale Agile development is important because several teams need to work together to release a single software product while helping to maximise teams’ autonomy. Governing and aligning Agile architecture across autonomous squads, when using the Spotify model, is a challenge because the Spotify model lacks practices for addressing Agile architecture governance. To explore how software architecture can be governed and aligned by scaling the Spotify model, we conducted a longitudinal embedded case study in a (...)
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  22.  9
    Introduction: Special Issue—Critical Robotics Research.Sofia Serholt, Sara Ljungblad & Niamh Ní Bhroin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):417-423.
  23.  16
    Microdecisions and Autonomy in Self-Driving Cars: Virtual Probabilities.Florian Sprenger - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):619-634.
    To operate in an unpredictable environment, a vehicle with advanced driving assistance systems, such as a robot or a drone, not only needs to register its surroundings but also to combine data from different sensors into a world model, for which it employs filter algorithms. Such world models, as this article argues with reference to the SLAM problem in robotics, consist of nothing other than probabilities about states and events arising in the environment. The model, thus, contains a virtuality of (...)
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  24.  4
    Development and Implementation Processes of Digitalization in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing: Enablers and Barriers.Sylvi Thun, Ottar Bakås & Tore Christian Bjørsvik Storholmen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):725-743.
    This study seeks to gain knowledge about key conditions in the process of digitalization using a socio-technical systems design as a theoretical framework and a case-study approach. Semi-structured interviews with 15 relevant stakeholders are conducted to learn about barriers to and enablers of the development and implementation process in a manufacturing company. After conducting a thematic analysis, eight higher-ranked themes relevant to the digitalization process are identified. These are grouped to describe the overarching phenomena, resulting in four enablers and four (...)
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  25.  14
    Social Robots and the Risks to Reciprocity.Aimee van Wynsberghe - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):479-485.
    A growing body of research can be found in which roboticists are designing for reciprocity as a key construct for successful human–robot interaction. Given the centrality of reciprocity as a component for our moral lives, this paper confronts the possibility of what things would look like if the benchmark to achieve perceived reciprocity were accomplished. Through an analysis of the value of reciprocity from the care ethics tradition the richness of reciprocity as an inherent value is revealed: on the micro-level, (...)
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  26.  8
    Robots Beyond Science Fiction: Mutual Learning in Human–Robot Interaction on the Way to Participatory Approaches.Astrid Weiss & Katta Spiel - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):501-515.
    Putting laypeople in an active role as direct expert contributors in the design of service robots becomes more and more prominent in the research fields of human–robot interaction and social robotics. Currently, though, HRI is caught in a dilemma of how to create meaningful service robots for human social environments, combining expectations shaped by popular media with technology readiness. We recapitulate traditional stakeholder involvement, including two cases in which new intelligent robots were conceptualized and realized for close interaction with humans. (...)
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  27.  31
    Autonomous Reboot: Kant, the Categorical Imperative, and Contemporary Challenges for Machine Ethicists.Jeffrey White - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):661-673.
    Ryan Tonkens has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe—"rational" and "free"—while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of machine ethicists to facilitate the creation of AMAs that are perfectly and not merely reliably ethical. This series of papers meets this challenge by landscaping traditional moral theory in resolution of a comprehensive account of moral agency. The first paper established the challenge and set out autonomy in Aristotelian terms. (...)
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  28.  24
    Autonomous Reboot: Aristotle, Autonomy and the Ends of Machine Ethics.Jeffrey White - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):647-659.
    Tonkens has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe—"rational" and "free"—while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of machine ethicists to facilitate the creation of AMAs that are perfectly and not merely reliably ethical. Challenges for machine ethicists have also been presented by Anthony Beavers and Wendell Wallach. Beavers pushes for the reinvention of traditional ethics to avoid "ethical nihilism" due to the reduction of morality to mechanical causation. (...)
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  29.  7
    Initiated and received task interdependence and distributed team performance: the mediating roles of different forms of role clarity.Sut I. Wong & Suzanne van Gils - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):781-790.
    Distributed agile teams are increasingly employed in organizations, partly due to the increased focus on digital transformation. However, research findings about the performance of such teams appear to be inconsistent, calling for more research to investigate the conditions under which distributed agile teams may thrive. Given that task coordination is particularly challenging when team members are not co-located, the present study investigates the roles of the two types of task interdependence, i.e., initiated versus received task interdependence. Survey results from 191 (...)
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  30.  5
    It is like taking a ball for a walk: on boundary work in software development.Kristin Wulff & Hanne Finnestrand - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):711-724.
    In this paper, we explore how the choices of boundary work in software development influence the team autonomy enacted by team members. Boundary work is when people protect their professional individual autonomy, when they downplay that autonomy to collaborate over professional boundaries, and when they create new boundaries. Team autonomy is here defined as a team using their autonomy to collaborate in deciding their own output. We use an action research design, with varied methodologies carried out through three action cycles. (...)
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  31.  7
    Socially robotic: making useless machines.Ceyda Yolgormez & Joseph Thibodeau - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):565-578.
    As robots increasingly become part of our everyday lives, questions arise with regards to how to approach them and how to understand them in social contexts. The Western history of human–robot relations revolves around competition and control, which restricts our ability to relate to machines in other ways. In this study, we take a relational approach to explore different manners of socializing with robots, especially those that exceed an instrumental approach. The nonhuman subjects of this study are built to explore (...)
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  32.  9
    The effect of visual and informational complexity of news website designs on comprehension and memorization among undergraduate students.Nidal Al Said & Khaleel M. Al-Said - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):401-409.
    The importance of web designs for commercial and informational use has been a focus of research for over a decade and a half. At present, findings concerning the influence of news website designs on the perception and recall of information are rather contradictory. This study aims to identify how the basic web designs aesthetically affect users. A total of 214 students from Arab universities were shown three news sites with different designs and asked to complete two tests to determine their (...)
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  33.  84
    From the Ground Truth Up: Doing AI Ethics From Practice to Principles.James Brusseau - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):1-7.
    Recent AI ethics has focused on applying abstract principles downward to practice. This paper moves in the other direction. Ethical insights are generated from the lived experiences of AI-designers working on tangible human problems, and then cycled upward to influence theoretical debates surrounding these questions: 1) Should AI as trustworthy be sought through explainability, or accurate performance? 2) Should AI be considered trustworthy at all, or is reliability a preferable aim? 3) Should AI ethics be oriented toward establishing protections for (...)
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  34.  15
    The AI doctor will see you now: assessing the framing of AI in news coverage.Mercedes Bunz & Marco Braghieri - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):9-22.
    One of the sectors for which Artificial Intelligence applications have been considered as exceptionally promising is the healthcare sector. As a public-facing sector, the introduction of AI applications has been subject to extended news coverage. This article conducts a quantitative and qualitative data analysis of English news media articles covering AI systems that allow the automation of tasks that so far needed to be done by a medical expert such as a doctor or a nurse thereby redistributing their agency. We (...)
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  35.  23
    Algorithmic Augmentation of Democracy: Considering Whether Technology Can Enhance the Concepts of Democracy and the Rule of Law Through Four Hypotheticals.Paul Burgess - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):97-112.
    The potential use, relevance, and application of AI and other technologies in the democratic process may be obvious to some. However, technological innovation and, even, its consideration may face an intuitive push-back in the form of algorithm aversion :114–126, 2015). In this paper, I confront this intuition and suggest that a more ‘extreme’ form of technological change in the democratic process does not necessarily result in a worse outcome in terms of the fundamental concepts of democracy and the Rule of (...)
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  36.  15
    Human Autonomy, Technological Automation.Simona Chiodo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):39-48.
    We continuously talk about autonomous technologies. But how can words qualifying technologies be the very same words chosen by Kant to define what is essentially human, i.e. being autonomous? The article focuses on a possible answer by reflecting upon both etymological and philosophical issues, as well as upon the case of autonomous vehicles. Most interestingly, on the one hand, we have the notion of “autonomy”, meaning that there is a “law” that is “self-given”, and, on the other hand, we have (...)
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  37.  23
    Is Explainable Artificial Intelligence Intrinsically Valuable?Nathan Colaner - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):231-238.
    There is general consensus that explainable artificial intelligence is valuable, but there is significant divergence when we try to articulate why, exactly, it is desirable. This question must be distinguished from two other kinds of questions asked in the XAI literature that are sometimes asked and addressed simultaneously. The first and most obvious is the ‘how’ question—some version of: ‘how do we develop technical strategies to achieve XAI?’ Another question is specifying what kind of explanation is worth having in the (...)
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  38.  7
    Categorization and challenges of utilitarianisms in the context of artificial intelligence.Štěpán Cvik - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):291-297.
    The debates about ethics in the context of artificial intelligence have been recently focusing primarily on various types of utilitarianisms. This article suggests a categorization of the various presented utilitarianisms into static utilitarianisms and dynamic utilitarianisms. It explains the main features of both. Then, it presents the challenges the utilitarianisms in each group need to be able to deal with. Since it appears that those cannot be overcome in the context of each group alone, the article suggests a possibility of (...)
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  39.  6
    Automated news recommendation in front of adversarial examples and the technical limits of transparency in algorithmic accountability.Antonin Descampe, Clément Massart, Simon Poelman, François-Xavier Standaert & Olivier Standaert - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):67-80.
    Algorithmic decision making is used in an increasing number of fields. Letting automated processes take decisions raises the question of their accountability. In the field of computational journalism, the algorithmic accountability framework proposed by Diakopoulos formalizes this challenge by considering algorithms as objects of human creation, with the goal of revealing the intent embedded into their implementation. A consequence of this definition is that ensuring accountability essentially boils down to a transparency question: given the appropriate reverse-engineering tools, it should be (...)
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  40.  14
    Educational technology: what it is and how it works.Jon Dron - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):155-166.
    This theoretical paper elucidates the nature of educational technology and, in the process, sheds light on a number of phenomena in educational systems, from the no-significant-difference phenomenon to the singular lack of replication in studies of educational technologies. Its central thesis is that we are not just users of technologies but coparticipants in them. Our participant roles may range from pressing power switches to designing digital learning systems to performing calculations in our heads. Some technologies may demand our participation only (...)
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  41.  7
    Data Objects for Knowing.Fred Fonseca - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):195-204.
    Although true in some aspects, the suggested characterization of today’s science as a dichotomy between traditional science and data-driven science misses some of the nuance, complexity, and possibility that exists between the two positions. Part of the problem is the claim that Data Science works without theories. There are many theories behind the data that are used in science. However, for data science, the only theories that matter are those in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. In this conceptual paper, we (...)
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  42.  10
    Attitude of College Students Towards Ethical Issues of Artificial Intelligence in an International University in Japan.Nader Ghotbi, Manh Tung Ho & Peter Mantello - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):283-290.
    We have examined the attitude and moral perception of 228 college students towards artificial intelligence in an international university in Japan. The students were asked to select a single most significant ethical issue associated with AI in the future from a list of nine ethical issues suggested by the World Economic Forum, and to explain why they believed that their chosen issues were most important. The majority of students chose unemployment as the major ethical issue related to AI. The second (...)
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  43.  5
    In Search of the Moral Status of AI: Why Sentience is a Strong Argument.Martin Gibert & Dominic Martin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):319-330.
  44.  4
    Actionable ethics.Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):1-7.
  45.  14
    Nowotny, Helga (2021). In AI we trust: power, illusion and control of predictive algorithms, Polity, Cambridge, UK, ISBN-13: 978-1509548811. [REVIEW]Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):411-414.
  46.  65
    Algorithmic and Human Decision Making: For a Double Standard of Transparency.Mario Günther & Atoosa Kasirzadeh - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):375-381.
    Should decision-making algorithms be held to higher standards of transparency than human beings? The way we answer this question directly impacts what we demand from explainable algorithms, how we govern them via regulatory proposals, and how explainable algorithms may help resolve the social problems associated with decision making supported by artificial intelligence. Some argue that algorithms and humans should be held to the same standards of transparency and that a double standard of transparency is hardly justified. We give two arguments (...)
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  47.  23
    Discrimination in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.Bert Heinrichs - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):143-154.
    In this paper, I examine whether the use of artificial intelligence and automated decision-making aggravates issues of discrimination as has been argued by several authors. For this purpose, I first take up the lively philosophical debate on discrimination and present my own definition of the concept. Equipped with this account, I subsequently review some of the recent literature on the use AI/ADM and discrimination. I explain how my account of discrimination helps to understand that the general claim in view of (...)
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  48.  1
    Word vector embeddings hold social ontological relations capable of reflecting meaningful fairness assessments.Ahmed Izzidien - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):299-318.
    Programming artificial intelligence to make fairness assessments of texts through top-down rules, bottom-up training, or hybrid approaches, has presented the challenge of defining cross-cultural fairness. In this paper a simple method is presented which uses vectors to discover if a verb is unfair or fair. It uses already existing relational social ontologies inherent in Word Embeddings and thus requires no training. The plausibility of the approach rests on two premises. That individuals consider fair acts those that they would be willing (...)
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  49.  8
    A Computational Approach for Creativity Assessment of Culinary Products: The Case of elBulli.Antonio Jimenez-Mavillard & Juan Luis Suarez - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):331-353.
    In recent years, the gastronomy industry has increased the demand for rigorous and reliable tools to evaluate culinary creativity; but conceptually, creativity is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose an AI-based method for assessing culinary product creativity by using the renowned high cuisine restaurant elBulli as a case study to understand the proliferation and scale of an entity’s creativity and innovation. To achieve so, we trained a Random Forest Classifier to assess the (...)
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  50.  8
    The Making of AI Society: AI Futures Frames in German Political and Media Discourses.Lea Köstler & Ringo Ossewaarde - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):249-263.
    In this article, we shed light on the emergence, diffusion, and use of socio-technological future visions. The artificial intelligence future vision of the German federal government is examined and juxtaposed with the respective news media coverage of the German media. By means of a content analysis of frames, it is demonstrated how the German government strategically uses its AI future vision to uphold the status quo. The German media largely adapt the government´s frames and do not integrate alternative future narratives (...)
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  51.  12
    The Future of Artificial Intelligence, Posthumanism and the Inflection of Pixley Isaka Seme’s African Humanism.Malesela John Lamola - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):131-141.
    Increasingly, innovation in artificial intelligence technologies portends the re-conceptualization of human existentiality along the paradigm of posthumanism. An exposition of this through a critical culturo-historical methodology uncloaks the Eurocentric genitive basis of the philosophical anthropology that underpins this technological posthumanism, as well as its dystopian possibilities. As a contribution to obviating the latter, an Africanist civilizational humanism proclaimed by Pixley ka Isaka Seme is proffered as a plausible alternative paradigm for humanity’s technological advancement. Seme, a pan-Africanist thinker of the early (...)
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  52.  9
    The Future of Urban Models in the Big Data and AI Era: A Bibliometric Analysis.Marion Maisonobe - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):177-194.
    This article questions the effects on urban research dynamics of the Big Data and AI turn in urban management. Increasing access to large datasets collected in real time could make certain mathematical models developed in research fields related to the management of urban systems obsolete. These ongoing evolutions are the subject of numerous works whose main angle of reflection is the future of cities rather than the transformations at work in the academic field. Our article proposes grasp the scientific dynamics (...)
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  53.  5
    Protecting Victim and Witness Statement: Examining the Effectiveness of a Chatbot That Uses Artificial Intelligence and a Cognitive Interview.Rashid Minhas, Camilla Elphick & Julia Shaw - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):265-281.
    Information of high evidentiary quality plays a crucial role in forensic investigations. Research shows that information provided by witnesses and victims often provide major leads to an inquiry. As such, statements should be obtained in the shortest possible time following an incident. However, this is not achieved in many incidents due to demands on resources. This intersectional study examined the effectiveness of a chatbot, that uses artificial intelligence and a cognitive interview to help record statements following an incident. After viewing (...)
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  54.  12
    Experiences, Knowledge of Functions, and Social Acceptance of Robots: An Exploratory Case Study Focusing on Japan.Tatsuya Nomura & Motoharu Tanaka - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):367-374.
    Although Japanese society has become aware of some types of robots, social acceptance of robots is still not widespread. This study conducted an online questionnaire survey to investigate the relationships between experiences with and knowledge of vacuum, pet-type, and communication robots and acceptance of these robots, including the intention to use and trust. The results suggested that experiences with, knowledge of functions, and acceptance of the robots differed depending on the type of robot, and the influence of these factors on (...)
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  55.  13
    Political machines: a framework for studying politics in social machines.Orestis Papakyriakopoulos - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):113-130.
    In the age of ubiquitous computing and artificially intelligent applications, social machines serves as a powerful framework for understanding and interpreting interactions in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. Although researchers have largely used it to analyze the interactions of individuals and algorithms, limited attempts have been made to investigate the politics in social machines. In this study, I claim that social machines are per se political machines, and introduce a five-point framework for classifying influence processes in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. By drawing from scholars from (...)
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  56.  8
    Sensorimotor debilities in digital cultures.Simon Penny - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):355-366.
    This paper reflects on the qualities of living and learning in digital cultures, the design of digital technologies and the philosophical history that has informed that design. It takes as its critical perspective the field of embodied cognition as it has developed over the last three decades, in concert with emerging neurophysiology and neurocognitive research. From this perspective the paper considers cognitive, neurological and physiological effects that are increasingly becoming noticed in user populations, especially young populations. I call this class (...)
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  57.  27
    The Hard Limit on Human Nonanthropocentrism.Michael R. Scheessele - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):49-65.
    There may be a limit on our capacity to suppress anthropocentric tendencies toward non-human others. Normally, we do not reach this limit in our dealings with animals, the environment, etc. Thus, continued striving to overcome anthropocentrism when confronted with these non-human others may be justified. Anticipation of super artificial intelligence may force us to face this limit, denying us the ability to free ourselves completely of anthropocentrism. This could be for our own good.
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  58.  12
    How Do People Judge the Credibility of Algorithmic Sources?Donghee Shin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):81-96.
    The exponential growth of algorithms has made establishing a trusted relationship between human and artificial intelligence increasingly important. Algorithm systems such as chatbots can play an important role in assessing a user’s credibility on algorithms. Unless users believe the chatbot’s information is credible, they are not likely to be willing to act on the recommendation. This study examines how literacy and user trust influence perceptions of chatbot information credibility. Results confirm that algorithmic literacy and users’ trust play a pivotal role (...)
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  59.  16
    The Ethical Application of Biometric Facial Recognition Technology.Marcus Smith & Seumas Miller - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):167-175.
    Biometric facial recognition is an artificial intelligence technology involving the automated comparison of facial features, used by law enforcement to identify unknown suspects from photographs and closed circuit television. Its capability is expanding rapidly in association with artificial intelligence and has great potential to solve crime. However, it also carries significant privacy and other ethical implications that require law and regulation. This article examines the rise of biometric facial recognition, current applications and legal developments, and conducts an ethical analysis of (...)
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  60.  8
    Organisational Responses to the Ethical Issues of Artificial Intelligence.Bernd Carsten Stahl, Josephina Antoniou, Mark Ryan, Kevin Macnish & Tilimbe Jiya - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):23-37.
    The ethics of artificial intelligence is a widely discussed topic. There are numerous initiatives that aim to develop the principles and guidance to ensure that the development, deployment and use of AI are ethically acceptable. What is generally unclear is how organisations that make use of AI understand and address these ethical issues in practice. While there is an abundance of conceptual work on AI ethics, empirical insights are rare and often anecdotal. This paper fills the gap in our current (...)
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  61.  4
    Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):239-248.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  62.  25
    The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):215-230.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  63.  13
    The wizard and I: How transparent teleoperation and self-description (do not) affect children’s robot perceptions and child-robot relationship formation.Caroline L. van Straten, Jochen Peter, Rinaldo Kühne & Alex Barco - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):383-399.
    It has been well documented that children perceive robots as social, mental, and moral others. Studies on child-robot interaction may encourage this perception of robots, first, by using a Wizard of Oz set-up and, second, by having robots engage in self-description. However, much remains unknown about the effects of transparent teleoperation and self-description on children’s perception of, and relationship formation with a robot. To address this research gap initially, we conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 between-subject design (...)
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  64.  11
    Endowing Artificial Intelligence with legal subjectivity.Sylwia Wojtczak - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):205-213.
    This paper reflects on the problem of endowing Artificial Intelligence with legal subjectivity, especially with regard to civil law. It is necessary to reject the myth that the criteria of legal subjectivity are sentience and reason. Arguing that AI may have potential legal subjectivity based on an analogy to animals or juristic persons suggests the existence of a single hierarchy or sequence of entities, organized according to their degree of similarity to human beings; also, that the place of an entity (...)
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