115 found

Year:

  1. Multidisciplinary Analysis of Hydraulic Stimulation and Production Effects Within the Niobrara and Codell Reservoirs, Wattenberg Field, Colorado — Part 1: Baseline Reservoir Conditions.Matthew Bray, Jacquelyn Daves, Daniel Brugioni, Asm Kamruzzaman, Tom Bratton, Sheila Harryandi, Alena Grechishnikova, Ali Tura, Thomas Davis & James Simmons - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (4):SG1-SG12.
    In the Wattenberg Field, the Reservoir Characterization Project at the Colorado School of Mines and Occidental Petroleum Corporation collected time-lapse seismic data for characterization of changes in the reservoir caused by hydraulic fracturing and production in the Niobrara Formation and Codell Sandstone member of the Carlile Formation. We have acquired three multicomponent seismic surveys to understand the dynamic reservoir changes caused by hydraulic fracturing and production of 11 horizontal wells within a 1 mi2 section. The time-lapse seismic survey acquisition occurred (...)
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  2.  1
    Multidisciplinary Analysis of Hydraulic Stimulation and Production Effects Within the Niobrara and Codell Reservoirs, Wattenberg Field, Colorado — Part 2: Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing and Production.Matthew Bray, Jacob Utley, Yanuri Ning, Angela Dang, Jacquelyn Daves, Isabel White, Ahmed Alfataierge, Erdinc Eker, Tom Davis, Ali Tura & Jim Simmons - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (4):SG13-SG29.
    Enhanced hydrocarbon recovery is essential for continued economic development of unconventional reservoirs. We have focused on dynamic characterization of the Niobrara and Codell Formations in Wattenberg Field through the development and analysis of a full integrated reservoir model. We determine the effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing and production with two seismic monitor surveys, surface microseismic, completion data, and production data. The two monitor surveys were recorded after stimulation and again after two years of production. Identification of reservoir deformation due to (...)
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  3. Stochastic Discrete Fracture Network Modeling in Shale Reservoirs Via Integration of Seismic Attributes and Petrophysical Data.Yongchae Cho - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (4):SG47-SG58.
    The prediction of natural fracture networks and their geomechanical properties remains a challenge for unconventional reservoir characterization. Because natural fractures are highly heterogeneous and of subseismic scale, integrating petrophysical data with seismic data is important for building a reliable natural fracture model. Therefore, I have developed an integrated and stochastic approach for discrete fracture network modeling with field data experimentation. In the method, I first perform a seismic attribute analysis to highlight the discontinuity in the seismic data. Then, I extrapolate (...)
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  4.  1
    Evaluating Proxies for the Drivers of Natural Gas Productivity Using Machine-Learning Models.William Harbert, Richard Hammack, Erich Zorn, Alexander Bear, Timothy Carr & Abhash Kumar - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (4):SG31-SG46.
    The extensive development of unconventional reservoirs using horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing has generated large volumes of reservoir characterization and production data. The analysis of this abundant data using statistical methods and advanced machine-learning techniques can provide data-driven insights into well performance. Most predictive modeling studies have focused on the impact that different well completion and stimulation strategies have on well production but have not fully exploited the available in situ rock property data to determine its role in reservoir (...)
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  5.  3
    A Case Study of Vertical Hydraulic Fracture Growth, Stress Variations with Depth and Shear Stimulation in the Niobrara Shale and Codell Sand, Denver-Julesburg Basin, Colorado.Kevin L. McCormack, Mark D. Zoback & Wenhuan Kuang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (4):SG59-SG69.
    We have carried out a geomechanical study of three wells, one each in the Niobrara A, Niobrara C, and Codell Sandstone to investigate how the state of stress and stress variations with depth affect vertical hydraulic fracture growth and shear stimulation of preexisting fractures. We determine that the higher magnitudes of measured least principal stress values in the Niobrara A and C shales are the result of viscoplastic stress relaxation. Using a density log and a vertical transverse isotropy velocity model (...)
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  6. Structural Initiation Along the Frontal Fold-Thrust System in the Western Indo-Burman Range: Implications for the Tectonostratigraphic Evolution of the Hatia Trough.Rashed Abdullah, Md Shahadat Hossain, Md Soyeb Aktar, Mohammad Moinul Hossain & Farida Khanam - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):SF1-SF10.
    The Bengal Basin accommodates an extremely thick Cenozoic sedimentary succession that derived from the uplifted Himalayan and Indo-Burman Orogenic Belts in response to the subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Eurasian and Burmese Plates. The Hatia Trough is a proven petroleum province that occupies much of the southern Bengal Basin. However, the style of deformation, kinematics, and possible timing of structural initiation in the Hatia Trough and the relationship of this deformation to the frontal fold-thrust system in the outer (...)
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  7.  1
    Mississippian Chat and Tripolite Zones in Osage County, Oklahoma: Paleokarst Interpretation Based on 3D Seismic and Well Logs.Olanrewaju Aboaba & Christopher Liner - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T711-T726.
    Mississippian paleokarst chat and tripolitic chert zones associated with the Mississippian Lime have been hydrocarbon exploration targets in Osage County for many decades. Chat is residual chert, either in place or transported, weathered out of chert-bearing Mississippian Limestone that was eroded at the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. Thus, the formation of chat is an epigene paleokarst process. Tripolite occurs as a highly porous, silica-rich interval within the Mississippi Lime. It is formed by in-place alteration of limestone by silica-rich surface waters or deep-seated (...)
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  8. Seismic Characterization of CO2 Storage Driven by Time-Lapse Images of a Prior Injection Using the Artificial Neural Network.Mohammed Aldakheel, Roman Pevzner, Boris Gurevich & Stanislav Glubokovskikh - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T911-T925.
    To optimize geologic CO2 storage and ensure its safety, it is necessary to demonstrate conformance between the reservoir simulations and geophysical monitoring such as time-lapse seismic. This process, known as history matching, often relies on subjective judgment and intuition of a reservoir modeling team because a direct examination of the multitude of plausible geologic scenarios is prohibitively expensive. The artificial neural network aims to reconstruct the observed plume based on a set of seismic attribute maps. Via a randomized test, the (...)
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  9. Identification of Thermally Mature Total Organic Carbon-Rich Layers in Shale Formations Using an Effective Machine-Learning Approach.Adewale Amosu & Yuefeng Sun - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T735-T745.
    We have developed a support vector machine method that relies on core-measured data as well as gamma-ray, deep resistivity, sonic, and density wireline well-log data in identifying thermally mature total organic carbon -rich layers at depth intervals with missing geochemical data in unconventional resource plays. We first test the SVM method using the Duvernay Shale Formation data. The SVM method successfully classifies the TOC data set into TOC-rich and TOC-poor classes and the [Formula: see text] data set into thermally mature (...)
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  10.  1
    Source and Reservoir Characteristics of the Upper Triassic Lacustrine Chang 6 Tight Oil Play in the Zhangjiagou Area, Ordos Basin, China.Yan Cao, Hui Han, Shijia Chen, Rui Liu, Jingyue Zhang, Chen Guo & Peng Pang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T727-T734.
    To explore the source and reservoir characteristics of Chang 6 tight oil in the Zhangjiagou area, we have extracted a suite of Chang 6 tight sandstones and the source rocks from the seventh to ninth members of the Upper Cretaceous Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin, China, respectively, using chloroform. We examined group components by fractionations of extracted organic matter. Using low-pressure gas adsorptions and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively, we analyzed the pore structure of the studied samples before and after (...)
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  11. Origin and Formation Model of Eocene Dolomite in the Upper Niubao Formation of the Lunpola Basin, Tibetan Plateau.Xiaoquan Chen, Fengcun Xing, Shu Jiang, Yongchao Lu, Zhongrong Liu, Lei Pan & Huarui Hu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):SF11-SF22.
    Using fresh core samples, we have determined the origin and formation process of Eocene lacustrine dolomites in the Tibetan Plateau through petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses. Dolomitic rocks were collected from the upper member of the Eocene Niubao Formation in the Lunpola Basin, consisting of dolomitic mudstone, argillaceous dolomite, dolomite-bearing mudstone, and mud-bearing dolomite. These dolomites are dominated by aphanotopic and microcrystalline dolomites, with minor amounts of euhedral or subhedral powder- and fine-crystalline dolomites. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, combined with (...)
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  12.  1
    Reservoir Characterization Over the Lille Prinsen and Ivar Aasen Fields in the Norwegian North Sea Using Ocean-Bottom-Node Seismic Data — A Case Study.Satinder Chopra, Ritesh Kumar Sharma, Mikal Trulsvik, Adriana Citlali Ramirez, David Went & Bent Erlend Kjølhamar - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T969-T985.
    We have developed an integrated workflow for estimating elastic parameters within the Late Triassic Skagerrak Formation, the Middle Jurassic Sleipner and Hugin Formations, the Paleocene Heimdal Formation, and the Eocene Grid Formation in the Utsira High area of the Norwegian North Sea. Our workflow begins with petrophysical analysis carried out at the available wells. Then, model-based prestack simultaneous impedance inversion outputs were derived, and attempts were made to estimate the petrophysical parameters from seismic data using extended elastic impedance. On not (...)
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  13.  1
    A Review of Seismic Attribute Taxonomies, Discussion of Their Historical Use, and Presentation of a Seismic Attribute Communication Framework Using Data Analysis Concepts. [REVIEW]Dustin T. Dewett, John D. Pigott & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):B39-B64.
    Beginning in the 1970s, seismic attributes have grown from a few simple measurements of wavelet amplitude, frequency, and phase to an expanded attribute toolbox that measures not only wavelet properties but also their context within the 3D seismic volume. When using multiple seismic attributes, the interpreter must understand not only each individual attribute but also the relationships between them. Researchers communicate these relationships via seismic attribute taxonomies, which group attributes by their signal property, mathematical formulation, or their interpretive value. The (...)
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  14. Improved Imaging of Gas Hydrate Reservoirs and Their Plumbing System Using 2D Elastic Full-Waveform Inversion.Adnan Djeffal, Ingo A. Pecher, Satish C. Singh, Gareth J. Crutchley & Jari Kaipio - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T955-T968.
    Gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline materials that form under submarine environments of moderate pressure and low temperature. Another key factor to their formation is the abundance in gas supply from depth in addition to local biogenic gas. Detailed imaging and velocity analysis of the plumbing system of gas hydrates can provide confidence that amplitude anomalies in seismic data are related to gas hydrate accumulations. We have conducted 2D elastic full-waveform inversion along a 14 km long segment of a 2D multichannel (...)
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  15.  1
    Mimicking the Process of Manual Sequence Stratigraphy Well Correlation.Huijing Fang, Yihuai Lou, Bo Zhang, Huaimin Xu & Man Lu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T667-T684.
    Stratigraphic correlation of well logs is based on interactive interpreter-based pattern recognition. A skilled interpreter identifies similar patterns in user-defined well sections and links them using either a conscious or subconscious stratigraphic model. This manual stratigraphic correlation of numerous wells in mature fields can be time-consuming and error-prone. To expedite the process of stratigraphic correlation, we have performed semiautomatic stratigraphic correlation of wireline logs from multiple wells using improved dynamic time warping. IDTW uses semblance, which compares the shape of the (...)
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  16. Imaging the Internal Structure of Trunks Via Multiscale Phase Inversion of Ground-Penetrating Radar Data.Lei Fu & Lanbo Liu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T869-T880.
    Ground-penetrating radar is a geophysical technique widely used in near-surface noninvasive detecting. It has the ability to obtain a high-resolution internal structure of living tree trunks. Full-waveform inversion has been widely used to reconstruct the dielectric constant and conductivity distribution for crosswell applications. However, in some cases, the amplitude information is not reliable due to the antenna coupling, radiation pattern, and other effects. We have developed a multiscale phase inversion method, which largely matches the phase information by normalizing the magnitude (...)
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  17.  3
    Inherited Morphobathymetric Controls Over Contourite Drift Deposition: A Case Study From the Late Cenozoic Mentelle Basin, Australia.Tagliaro G., Wainman C. C. & C. S. Fulthorpe - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T637-T652.
    Deep-sea sedimentary deposits are important archives of the geologic past that preserve the records of past environmental changes in earth’s ocean. The detailed analysis of deep-sea sedimentary archives, in particular of contourite drifts, can help elucidate past changes in ocean circulation and the stratigraphic evolution of continental margins. However, the bathymetric profile of an oceanic basin can shape and modify the architecture of contourite drifts via the interaction between down-slope and along-slope processes. The identification of local bathymetric influence on depositional (...)
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  18. An in-Depth Analysis of Logarithmic Data Transformation and Per-Class Normalization in Machine Learning: Application to Unsupervised Classification of a Turbidite System in the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand, and Supervised Classification of Salt in the Eugene Island Minibasin, Gulf of Mexico.Thang N. Ha, David Lubo-Robles, Kurt J. Marfurt & Bradley C. Wallet - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T685-T710.
    In a machine-learning workflow, data normalization is a crucial step that compensates for the large variation in data ranges and averages associated with different types of input measured with different units. However, most machine-learning implementations do not provide data normalization beyond the z-score algorithm, which subtracts the mean from the distribution and then scales the result by dividing by the standard deviation. Although the z-score converts data with Gaussian behavior to have the same shape and size, many of our seismic (...)
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  19.  2
    Geochemical Characteristics and Geologic Significance of Rare Earth Elements in Oil Shale of the Yan’an Formation in the Tanshan Area, in the Liupanshan Basin, China.Lianfu Hai, Qinghai Xu, Caixia Mu, Rui Tao, Lei Wang, Bai Jinhe & Yang Song - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T843-T854.
    In the Tanshan area, in the Liupanshui Basin, abundant oil shale resources are associated with coals. We analyzed the cores, geochemistry of rare earth elements, and trace element of oil shale with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technology to define the paleo-sedimentary environment, material source, and geologic significance of oil shale in this area. The results of the summed compositions of REE, and the total REE contents, in the Yan’an Formation oil shale are slightly higher than the global average of (...)
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  20. Stress Analysis Using Direct-S Wavelets Produced by a Vertical Vibrator.Bob A. Hardage, Richard Van Dok & Mark Kelley - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T781-T790.
    We have determined how to extract the azimuth of maximum horizontal stress in deep rocks by doing a simple 360° mathematical rotation of a downgoing direct-S wavelet generated at the baseplate of a surface-based vertical vibrator. We worked with direct-S wavelets that travel through stressed rocks to a deep horizontal vertical seismic profile geophone. We find that the azimuth where a polarity reversal occurs in mathematical rotations of this downgoing direct-S wavelet defines the azimuth of the SHmax in the overlying (...)
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  21. Stratigraphic Variability of Mississippian Meramec Chemofacies and Petrophysical Properties Using Machine Learning and Geostatistical Modeling, STACK Trend, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma.Laynie Hardisty, Matthew J. Pranter, Deepak Devegowda, Kurt J. Marfurt, Carl Sondergeld, Chandra Rai, Ishank Gupta, Heyleem Han, Son Dang, Chris T. McLain & Richard E. Larese - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T987-T1007.
    Mississippian Meramec deposits and reservoirs in the Sooner Trend in the Anadarko in Canadian and Kingfisher counties play of Oklahoma are comprised of silty limestones, calcareous sandstones, argillaceous-calcareous siltstones, argillaceous siltstones, and mudstones. We used core-derived X-ray fluorescence data and established environmental proxies to evaluate the occurrence of specific elements and to illustrate their stratigraphic variability. For the Mississippian Meramec, six indicator elements or element ratios serve as proxies for clay, detrital sediment, carbonate deposits, calcite cement, and quartz. We used (...)
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  22. Unsupervised Machine Learning for Time-Lapse Seismic Studies and Reservoir Monitoring.Marwa Hussein, Robert R. Stewart, Deborah Sacrey, David H. Johnston & Jonny Wu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T791-T807.
    Time-lapse seismic analysis plays a vital role in reservoir management and reservoir simulation model updates. However, 4D seismic data are subject to interference and tuning effects. Being able to resolve and monitor thin reservoirs of different quality can aid in optimizing infill drilling or in locating bypassed hydrocarbons. Using 4D seismic data from the Maui field in the offshore Taranaki Basin of New Zealand, we generate typical seismic attributes sensitive to reservoir thickness and rock properties. We find that spectral instantaneous (...)
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  23. Introduction to Special Section: The Uplift of Himalaya-Tibet Plateau and its Impacts on Basin Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Asia.Shu Jiang, Dengfa He, Xiumian Hu & Xiangyang Xie - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):SFi.
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  24.  2
    Synthetic Transfer Zone Characterization Using Seismic Attributes: An Example From the Parihaka Fault System in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand.Pierre Karam, Shankar Mitra, Kurt Marfurt & Brett M. Carpenter - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T653-T665.
    Synthetic transfer zones develop between fault segments that dip in the same direction, with relay ramps connecting the fault blocks separated by the different fault segments. The characteristics of the transfer zones are controlled by the lithology, deformation conditions, and strain magnitude. The Parihaka fault is a northeast–southwest-trending set of three major en echelon faults connected by relay ramps in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The structure in the basin is defined by extension during two episodes of deformation between the (...)
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  25.  2
    Identification of Polygonal Faulting From Legacy 3D Seismic Data in Vintage Gulf of Mexico Data Using Seismic Attributes.Karen M. Leopoldino Oliveira, Heather Bedle & Karelia La Marca Molina - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):C23-C28.
    Geological feature: Polygonal faults Seismic appearance: Variable-amplitude plane-parallel horizons without clear discontinuities Features with similar appearance: Seismic noise in stratigraphic sequences without brittle deformation Age: Cenozoic Location: Northern Gulf of Mexico Seismic data: Survey B-01-91-MS obtained by the U.S. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys Analysis tools: Geometric seismic attributes.
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  26.  1
    Revisit Seismic Attenuation Attributes: Influences of the Spectral Balancing Operation on Seismic Attenuation Analysis.Fangyu Li, Rongchang Liu, Yihuai Lou & Naihao Liu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T767-T779.
    Seismic attenuation analysis is important for seismic processing and quantitative interpretation. Nevertheless, classic quality factor estimation methods make certain assumptions that may be invalid for a given geologic target and seismic volume. For this reason, seismic attenuation attribute analysis, which reduces some of the theoretical assumptions, can serve as a practical alternative in apparent attenuation characterization. Unfortunately, most of the published literature defines seismic attenuation attributes based on a specific source wavelet assumption, such as the Ricker wavelet, rather than wavelets (...)
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  27. Geohazard Characterization Using Remote Sensing to Model Flash Floods of the Southeast Sinai, Egypt.Okechukwu Livinus Obiegbu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T821-T831.
    Flash floods have led to disruptions of human activities and the destruction of properties particularly in the Nuweiba region of southeast Sinai. Despite the arid nature of Sinai, flash floods still pose a great hazard to the region. Using remote sensing characterization, geohazard models were developed to identify flash flood areas; delineate and discriminate morphological features, active channels areas, and soil physiography with a view to categorize risk areas exposed to flash floods hazards in a hazard map; and proffer measures (...)
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  28. High-Resolution Fixed-Point Seismic Inversion.Song Pei, Xingyao Yin, Zhaoyun Zong & Kun Li - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):B25-B37.
    Resolution improvement always presents as the crucial task in geologic inversion. Band-limited characteristics of seismic data and noise make seismic inversion complicated. Specifically, geologic inversion suffers from the deficiency of low- and high-frequency components. We have developed the fixed-point seismic inversion method to alleviate these issues. The problem of solving the objective function is transformed into the problem of finding the fixed point of the objective function. Concretely, a recursive formula between seismic signal and reflection coefficient is established, which is (...)
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  29. Sedimentary System and Sand Bodies Distribution of the Second Member of the Xujiahe Formation in the Xinchang Area, Western Sichuan Depression, China.Xiaofei Shang, Meng Li & Taizhong Duan - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T927-T944.
    The Xujiahe Formation of the Late Triassic in the Western Sichuan Depression contains abundant gas reservoirs. Influenced by the thrust tectonic movement of the foreland basin, the fluvial-delta sedimentary system supplied by multiple provenances formed the Xu2 Formation of the Xinchang area. We used detailed description of drilling wells and cores to define the sequence stratigraphic framework and sand body types. We used stratal slices through the seismic texture model regression attribute volume to map the evolution of the sedimentary system (...)
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  30. A Good Figure is Worth a Thousand Words — Part 2: A Quick Guide to Quality Illustrations.Lisa Stright, Balazs Nemeth, Robert Merrill & Vsevolod Egorov - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):1A-2A.
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  31.  1
    High-Resolution Seismic Processing Technique with Broadband, Wide-Azimuth, and High-Density Seismic Data — A Case Study of Thin-Sand Reservoirs in Eastern China.Qin Su, Huahui Zeng, Yancan Tian, Hailiang Li, Lei Lyu & Xiaomei Zhang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T833-T842.
    Seismic processing and interpretation techniques provide important tools for oil and gas exploration in the Songliao Basin in eastern China, which is dominated by terrestrial facies. In the Songliao Basin, a large number of thin-sand reservoirs are widely distributed and they are the primary targets of potential oil and gas exploration and exploitation. An important part of exploration in the Songliao Basin is to accurately describe the distribution of these thin-sand belts and the sand-body shapes. However, the thickness of these (...)
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  32.  2
    3D Spatial Characterization of Sand Body for Uranium Reservoirs Based on Geostatistical Resistivity Inversion.Zhangqing Sun, Xingguo Huang, Hongliang Li, Anguai Lei, Nuno Vieira da Silva, Fuxing Han, Minqiang Cao & Wei Da - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T809-T819.
    The concern over climate change and a transition away from fossil fuels has reinvigorated interest in using nuclear energy in producing electricity. Uranium is the principal fuel used in nuclear power plants, and mineral deposits containing this element are of strategic importance. The successful development of sandstone uranium deposits benefits from 3D geophysical characterization of sand bodies in uranium reservoirs. In view of this, we have evaluated a method based on 3D geostatistical resistivity inversion. First, we analyze the application of (...)
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  33. Lithofacies, Depositional, and Diagenetic Controls on the Reservoir Quality of the Mississippian Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate System, Eastern Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma, USA.Fnu Suriamin & Matthew J. Pranter - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T881-T910.
    In the eastern Anadarko Basin of central Oklahoma, the variability of Mississippian lithofacies, diagenetic products, and reservoir quality is critical for reservoir development. We have investigated lithofacies variability based on sedimentological characteristics and diagenetic alteration through integration of core and thin sections by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscope, and electron probe microanalyzer-cathodoluminescence analyses. Based on detailed descriptions of five cores and analysis of 34 thin sections, we concluded that the Mississippian strata consists of eight (...)
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  34. To: “Echofacies Interpretation of Pleistocene to Holocene Contourites on the Demerara Plateau and Abyssal Plain,” Cédric Tallobre, Lies Loncke, Laurence Droz, Tania Marsset, Mirjam Uusõue, Walter R. Roest, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Maria-Angela Bassetti, Pierre Giresse, and Germain Bayon, Interpretation, 9, No. 2, SB48–SB65, Doi: 10.1190/INT-2020-0159.1. [REVIEW]Cédric Tallobre, Lies Loncke, Laurence Droz, Tania Marsset, Mirjam Uusõue, Walter R. Roest, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Maria-Angela Bassetti, Pierre Giresse & Germain Bayon - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):Y3-Y3.
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  35.  1
    A Deep-Learning Method for Latent Space Analysis of Multiple Seismic Attributes.Bradley C. Wallet & Thang N. Ha - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T945-T954.
    Seismic attributes are a well-established method for highlighting subtle features in seismic data to improve interpretability and suitability for quantitative analysis. Seismic attributes are an enabling technology in such areas as thin-bed analysis, geobody extraction, and seismic geomorphology. Seismic attributes are mathematical functions of the data that are designed to exploit geologic and/or geophysical principles to provide meaningful information about underlying processes. Seismic attributes often suffer from an “abundance of riches” because the high dimensionality of seismic attributes may cause great (...)
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  36.  2
    Quantitative Characterization of Siliceous Contents of Different Origins by Use of Logging Analysis.Jianguo Wang, Daihong Gu, Wei Guo, Haijie Zhang & Daoyong Yang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T855-T867.
    We have developed a new and pragmatic technique to quantitatively characterize the silica content of shale of various origins. By comparing the genesis of silica in shale, the corresponding silica content per unit volume is determined as a function of the total silica content, each of which is determined from core samples. Subsequently, we have developed a new inverse framework and successfully applied it to quantify different types of silica in the Silurian Longmaxi Formation shale in the Zhaotong area. The (...)
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  37.  5
    Seismic Attributes for Characterization and Prediction of Carbonate Faulted Karst Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China.Zhiwei Xiao, Li Wang, Ruizhao Yang, Dewei Li & Lingbin Meng - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T611-T622.
    An ultradeep, faulted karst reservoir of Ordovician carbonate was discovered in the Shunbei area of the Tarim Basin. Fractured-cavity reservoirs buried beneath the large thickness of upper Ordovician mudstone were formed along the fault-karst belts. The hydrocarbon accumulation in these reservoirs is controlled by the fault system, and the oil-gas accumulation was affected by karstification and hydrothermal reformation. Previous studies and 2D modeling revealed that the reservoirs had “bright spot” amplitude responses like “string beads,” and they have developed along the (...)
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  38. Impact of Sedimentary Facies on Machine Learning of Acoustic Impedance From Seismic Data: Lessons From a Geologically Realistic 3D Model.Hongliu Zeng, Yawen He & Leo Zeng - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T1009-T1024.
    We have developed a new machine-learning workflow that uses random forest regression to predict sedimentary-rock properties from stacked and migrated 3D seismic data. The training, validation, and testing are performed with 40 features extracted from a geologically realistic 46 × 66-trace model built in the Miocene Powderhorn Field in South Texas. We focus on the responses of the RF model to sedimentary facies and the strategies adopted to achieve better prediction with various data conditions. We apply explained variation and root-mean-square (...)
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  39.  1
    Fluvial Reservoir Architecture Interpretation Below the Seismic Resolution in an Offshore Oilfield.Dong Zhang, Xuri Huang, Ting’en Fan, Haifeng Wang, Feng Ding & Cheng Yin - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T623-T635.
    Reservoir discontinuity is a practical representation of reservoir heterogeneity, which leads to the nonuniform flow of hydrocarbons during production and increases the difficulties of producing the remaining oil in clastic reservoirs. For offshore oilfields, reservoir discontinuity analysis will have to rely on seismic data due to their sparse well distribution. However, traditional discontinuity detection methods are restricted to large-scale discontinuities. It is difficult to detect small-scale discontinuities in seismic data such as interfaces of sands. To interpret small-scale discontinuities below the (...)
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  40. Pore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Ultralow-Permeability Sandstone Reservoirs in the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin.Quanpei Zhang, Tao Jiao, Hao Huang, Zhao Qi, Tao Jiang, Gang Chen, Yushuang Zhu & Na Jia - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T747-T765.
    The complex pore structure and high heterogeneity of ultralow-permeability sandstone reservoirs have a significant effect on reservoir quality evaluation and hydrocarbon resource assessment. We collected 10 reservoir samples from the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation Chang 8 in the Zhenbei area of the Ordos Basin. We measured the pore size distribution and fluid occurrence characteristics of the reservoir by pressure-controlled porosimetry, rate-controlled porosimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and then we analyzed the results via the fractal theory to determine the pore space (...)
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  41.  1
    Water-Rock Interactions and Origin of Formation Water in the Bohai Bay Basin: A Case Study of the Cenozoic Formation in Bonan Sag.Tianxia An, Bingsong Yu, Yongshi Wang, Zhuang Ruan, Wei Meng & Yuelin Feng - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T475-T493.
    The faulted lacustrine Bohai Basin in eastern China contains abundant hydrocarbon resources. In these reservoirs, understanding the sandstone diagenesis and the resulting formation water provides a means to unravel the evolution processes in the basin. In most cases, the lack of isotopic and trace element analysis tests in this type of basin limits the research on the origin and evolution of formation water in this area. We have used multivariate statistical methods to classify the geochemical characteristics of the formation water (...)
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  42. Introduction to Special Section: Gas Hydrates.Heather Bedle, Camelia Knapp, Priyank Jaiswal & Jess Hillman - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SDi-SDi.
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  43. A System for Monitoring a Marine Well for Shallow Water Flow: Development of Early Detection.William J. Berger, Zachary I. Metz, Shams Ul-Hadi, James Thomson, James Keenan, Daniel Wedding & Thien Nguyen - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T395-T405.
    Deepwater basins around the world contain shallow sequences of overpressured, sand-prone sediments that can result in shallow water flow events. These events have frequently resulted in wellbore instability and increased man-hour exposure to potential health, safety, security, and environment risks, as well as nonproductive time, and they have sometimes been the cause of the loss of a well while drilling the shallow section for oil and gas exploration or development projects. Methods previously established to classify the magnitude of an SWF (...)
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  44. Introduction to Special Section: The STACK Play in Oklahoma.Richard Brito, Oswaldo Davogustto, Obren Djordjevic, Andrea Miceli, Jorge Quintero & John Sinclair - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SEi-SEii.
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  45. Dolomitization Geometry and Reservoir Quality From Supervised Bayesian Classification and Probabilistic Neural Networks: Midland Basin Leonardian Wichita and Clear Fork Formations.Abidin B. Caf & John D. Pigott - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T585-T598.
    Extensive dolomitization is prevalent in the platform and periplatform carbonates in the Lower-Middle Permian strata in the Midland and greater Permian Basin. Early workers have found that the platform and shelf-top carbonates were dolomitized, whereas slope and basinal carbonates remained calcitic, proposing a reflux dolomitization model as the possible diagenetic mechanism. More importantly, they underline that this dolomitization pattern controls the porosity and forms an updip seal. These studies are predominately conducted using well logs, cores, and outcrop analogs, and although (...)
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  46. Introduction to Special Section: Seismic Interpretation of Contourites and Deep-Water Sediment Waves.Dallas B. Dunlap, Piotr Krzywiec, Christian Hübscher, Gabriel Tagliaro & F. Javier Hernandez Molina - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SBi-SBii.
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  47.  1
    Multistage Unidirectionally Migrating Canyons and the Evolution of Their Trajectories in the Canyon Zone in the Baiyun Sag, Northern South China Sea: Insights Into Canyon Genesis.Chao Fu, Xinghe Yu, Shunli Li, Shan Xin, Yulin He & Lina Jin - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SB17-SB32.
    In deep-sea slope areas, canyons provide an ideal space to preserve sediments and provide a window to explore the deepwater deposition process, such as turbidity flow and contourite currents. We have evaluated results of the study of the northern continental slope of the South China Sea characterized by the presence of mostly straight canyons. After evaluating core samples and interpreting the corresponding seismic data, we static the sedimentary parameter and identified two types of canyons with different migrating trajectories: “convex downward (...)
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  48. Brittleness Evaluation of the Lower Silurian Marine Shale Reservoirs: A Case Study of Longmaxi Shale in Fenggang Block, Southern China.Yang Gu, Sheng Xu, Chao Fang, Wei Zhang, Bairen Zhang, Xiangkuan Zhao & Chongxin Jiang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T463-T474.
    The brittleness of shale determines the fracturability of the shale reservoir and has a great influence on the exploration and development of shale gas. Therefore, prediction of brittleness and evaluation of fracturability of shale are very important in finding favorable areas for shale gas. We have used the mineral composition, rock-mechanics experiment, logging evaluation, 2D seismic data inversion, and fracture development degree to evaluate and analyze the vertical and plane brittleness characteristics and the main controlling factors of Longmaxi shale. In (...)
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  49. Determining Fast-S and Slow-S Propagation Directions with SV-P Data Produced by Buried Explosives and Recorded with Vertical Geophones.Bob Hardage, Mike Graul, Tim Hall, Chris Hall, Mark Kelley, Valerie Smith & Allen Modroo - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T599-T609.
    We have evaluated the concept of practicing S-wave reflection seismology with legacy 3D seismic data generated by a P-wave source and recorded with only vertical geophones. This type of S-wave imaging is based on the principle that seismic P-wave sources not only produce a downgoing illuminating P wavefield, but they also simultaneously produce a downgoing illuminating SV wavefield that, in almost all cases, is suitable for S-wave reflection imaging. The S-mode used in this study is the SV-P, or converted-P, mode. (...)
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  50.  3
    Improved Spectral Clustering Approach — A New Tool for Unsupervised Seismic Facies Analysis of Variable Window Length.Zhong Hong, Kunhong Li, Mingjun Su & Guangmin Hu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T407-T420.
    The traditional constant time window-based waveform classification method is a robust tool for seismic facies analysis. However, when the interval thickness is seismically variable, the fixed time window is not able to contain the complete geologic information of interest. Therefore, the constant time window-based waveform classification method is inapplicable to conduct seismic facies analysis. To expand the application scope of seismic waveform classification in the strata with varying thickness, we have proposed a novel scheme for unsupervised seismic facies analysis of (...)
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  51.  4
    Unsupervised Machine Learning Using 3D Seismic Data Applied to Reservoir Evaluation and Rock Type Identification.Marwa Hussein, Robert R. Stewart, Deborah Sacrey, Jonny Wu & Rajas Athale - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T549-T568.
    Net reservoir discrimination and rock type identification play vital roles in determining reservoir quality, distribution, and identification of stratigraphic baffles for optimizing drilling plans and economic petroleum recovery. Although it is challenging to discriminate small changes in reservoir properties or identify thin stratigraphic barriers below seismic resolution from conventional seismic amplitude data, we have found that seismic attributes aid in defining the reservoir architecture, properties, and stratigraphic baffles. However, analyzing numerous individual attributes is a time-consuming process and may have limitations (...)
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  52.  5
    Which Seismic Attributes Are Best for Subtle Fault Detection?Marwa Hussein, Robert R. Stewart & Jonny Wu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T299-T314.
    Subtle fault detection plays a vital role in reservoir development studies because faults may form baffles or conduits that significantly control how a petroleum reservoir is swept. Small-throw faults are often overlooked in interpreting seismic amplitude data. However, seismic attributes can aid in mapping small faults. Over the years, dozens of seismic attributes have been developed that offer additional features for interpreters with associated caveats. Using the Maui 3D seismic data acquired in the Offshore Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, we have (...)
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  53.  2
    Paleokarst Reservoirs: Efficient and Flexible Characterization Using Point-Spread-Function-Based Convolution Modeling.Kristian Jensen, Martin Kyrkjebø Johansen, Isabelle Lecomte, Xavier Janson, Jan Tveranger & Tina Kaschwich - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T331-T347.
    Paleokarst originates from the collapse, degradation, and infill of karstified rock, and it typically features spatially heterogeneous elements such as breakdown products, sediment infills, and preserved open cavities on all scales. Paleokarst may further contain aquifer or hydrocarbon reservoirs and may pose a drilling hazard during exploration. Seismic characterization of paleokarst reservoirs therefore remains a challenging and important task. We have determined how the application of 2D spatial convolution operators, referred to as point-spread functions, allows for seismic modeling of complex (...)
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  54.  2
    How Gas-Hydrate Saturation and Morphology Control Seismic Attenuation: A Case Study From the South Hydrate Ridge.Aoshuang Ji, Tieyuan Zhu, Héctor Marín-Moreno & Xiong Lei - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SD27-SD39.
    Prior studies have shown an ambiguous relationship between gas-hydrate saturation and seismic attenuation in different regions, but the effect of gas-hydrate morphology on seismic attenuation of hydrate-bearing sediments was often overlooked. We have combined seismic data with rock-physics modeling to elucidate how gas-hydrate saturation and morphology may control seismic attenuation. To extract P-wave attenuation, we process the vertical seismic profile data within a frequency range of 30–150 Hz and the sonic logging data within 10–15 kHz from three wells in the (...)
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  55.  2
    Integration of Gravity, Magnetic, and Seismic Data for Subsalt Modeling in the Northern Red Sea.Camille Le Magoarou, Katja Hirsch, Clement Fleury, Remy Martin, Ramirez-Bernal Johana & Philip Ball - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T507-T521.
    Rifts and rifted passive margins are often associated with thick evaporite layers, which challenge seismic reflection imaging in the subsalt domain. This makes understanding the basin evolution and crustal architecture difficult. An integrative, multidisciplinary workflow has been developed using the exploration well, gravity and magnetics data, together with seismic reflection and refraction data sets to build a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of the Egyptian Red Sea. Using a 2D iterative workflow first, we have constructed cross sections using the available well (...)
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  56. A Seismic Structural Overview of Liard Basin, Northeast British Columbia, Canada.Jennifer Leslie-Panek & Margot McMechan - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T523-T532.
    The Liard Basin is an important subbasin of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin located in Northeast British Columbia along the eastern margin of the Canadian Cordillera. It contains significant potential unconventional gas resources but is largely underrepresented in public literature. Using available-for-purchase 2D seismic data, a regional structural interpretation of the basin was completed providing the first seismically controlled, high-level overview of the structural features of the basin and its surrounding area. The shape of the Liard Basin largely reflects the (...)
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  57. Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate Deposition and Cyclical Evolution of the Upper Shahejie Formation and its Impact on Reservoir Development in the Eocene Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China.Sen Li, Hongtao Zhu, Jie Liang, Xiaofeng Du, Qingbin Wang, Tingting Yao & Hongliu Zeng - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SC17-SC30.
    We have systematically investigated a typical lacustrine mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary system in this study, which primarily deposited in the Eocene Upper Shahejie Formation of the Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin. Using synthetic lithologic data sets, we summarized eight lithofacies from mixed siliciclastic-carbonate rocks and classified them into siliciclastic- and carbonate-dominated groups, indicating the variation of relative intensity between fluvial/deltaic process and carbonate productivity. Combining petrological and mineral component analysis, most lithofacies are compositionally replaced by micrite dolomite and show vertically different (...)
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  58.  2
    Lacustrine Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in the Paleogene Funing Formation of the Subei Basin, Eastern China: Characteristics and Origin.Wei Li, Xiaomin Zhu, Qidong Liu, Shifa Zhu & Heyong Li - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SC1-SC16.
    The study of sedimentary characteristics and genetic mechanism of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments is not only the focus of sedimentary geology, but it is also an important issue in petroleum exploration and development. We have discovered the lacustrine MSCSs, the interstratified siliciclastic-carbonate sediments and the textural mixture of siliciclastic and carbonate materials in the second member of the Paleogene Funing Formation in the Gaoyou and Jinhu sags, Subei Basin, eastern China. We use core, mud-log and thin-section data to clarify the [Formula: (...)
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  59.  2
    Determining 3D Seismic Characteristics of the Conduit System of the Changchang Sag, Qiongdongnan Basin.Yufeng Li, Renhai Pu, Gongcheng Zhang, Qiang Han, Chao Yuan & Xueqin Zhao - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T283-T297.
    Although some giant gas fields found in the deepwater area of the Qiongdongnan Basin, China, are often associated with mud diapirs and/or gas chimneys, no comprehensive 3D work has been undertaken to characterize them. We have conducted a 3D seismic investigation using the root-mean square, coherence, and instantaneous frequency attributes to provide a better understanding of the conduit systems in the QDNB. The results show that the conduit system that we investigated can be separated vertically into four zones in the (...)
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  60. Characteristics and Origins of Ridges and Troughs on the Top of the Middle Miocene Strata in the Beijiao Sag of the Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea.Yufeng Li, Renhai Pu, Gongcheng Zhang & Hongjun Qu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SB1-SB15.
    Sedimentary structures generated by bottom currents are of interest to geologists. Based on the root mean square, coherence attribute, and 3D representations, ridges and troughs are imaged for the first time using 3D high-resolution seismic data and confirmed by a well, YL19-1-1, in the Beijiao Sag of the Qiongdongnan Basin. Combined with 2D seismic profiles, we define the flow direction of bottom currents resulting in ridges and troughs. The results indicate that ridges and troughs occur on the top of the (...)
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  61.  7
    Reflectivity Decomposition: Theory and Application.Chen Liang, John Castagna & Marcelo Benabentos - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):B7-B23.
    Sparse reflectivity inversion of processed reflection seismic data is intended to produce reflection coefficients that represent boundaries between geologic layers. However, the objective function for sparse inversion is usually dominated by large reflection coefficients, which may result in unstable inversion for weak events, especially those interfering with strong reflections. We have determined that any seismogram can be decomposed according to the characteristics of the inverted reflection coefficients that can be sorted and subset by magnitude, sign, and sequence, and new seismic (...)
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  62. Characterization of Gas Accumulation at a Venting Gas Hydrate System in the Shenhu Area, South China Sea.Jinqiang Liang, Zijian Zhang, Jingan Lu, Yiqun Guo, Zhibin Sha, Pibo Su & Wei Zhang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SD1-SD14.
    Bottom-simulating reflections in seismic data have been widely accepted to indicate the base of the methane gas hydrate stability zone, and free gas was thought to exist only below it. However, real geologic systems are far more complex. We have evaluated the results of 3D seismic, logging while drilling, in situ, and coring measurements at a venting gas hydrate system in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea. Our studies reveal that free gas has migrated upward through the thermogenic (...)
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  63. Turbidite Lobe Deposits in a Canyon-Fill System.Yani Lin, Tianze Zhang & Kelly H. Liu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):C17-C21.
    Geological feature: Turbidite lobe deposits in a canyon-fill system Seismic appearance: Isolated and irregularly shaped sandstone pods Alternative interpretations: Mid-channel bars in a braided channel system Features with similar appearance: Alluvial fans Formation: Lower Wilcox Group Age: Late Paleocene to Early Eocene Location: Shelf edge at the Central Gulf Coast Region of Texas Seismic data: Donated by a petroleum exploration company in Houston, Texas Analysis tools: Seismic attributes such as instantaneous phase, root-mean-square amplitude, and spectral decomposition.
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  64.  1
    1D Mechanical Earth Modeling in the Permian Lucaogou Shale of the Santanghu Basin, Northwest China, From a Complete Set of Laboratory Data.Bo Liu, Kouqi Liu, Arash Abarghani, Seyedalireza Khatibi, Lingyun Kong, Saeed Rafieepour, Xinning Li & Ostadhassan Mehdi - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T357-T372.
    Understanding various properties of unconventional shale plays is important for successful field operations and development. We have comprehensively examined a total of 11 core plugs from the productive unit of the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Santanghu Basin with various experimental tools. Mineral assemblages were detected, and we found that samples are in the oil window with a combination of type I and II kerogens. After static and dynamic geomechanical analysis, we established a correlation between ultrasonic and static geomechanical (...)
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  65. Field Measurements of Fracture Characteristics on a Wave-Cut Platform.Thomas Loriaux, James Verdon, J. -Michael Kendall, Alan Baird & James Wookey - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T453-T462.
    We have used seismic refraction surveys of a wave-cut platform from a field site in South West England to characterize the impact of natural fracture networks on seismic velocities and anisotropy. Time-lapse surveys were performed as the high tide ebbed to investigate the seismic effects of the water draining from the rock. We also deployed a drone to map the fracture sets from the air. Azimuthal variations in the P- and S-wave velocities reflect the orientation of the main east–west-oriented joint (...)
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  66.  3
    Exhaustive Probabilistic Neural Network for Attribute Selection and Supervised Seismic Facies Classification.David Lubo-Robles, Thang Ha, Sivaramakrishnan Lakshmivarahan, Kurt J. Marfurt & Matthew J. Pranter - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T421-T441.
    Machine learning algorithms, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, self-organizing maps, and artificial neural networks, have been used by geoscientists to not only accelerate the interpretation of their data, but also to provide a more quantitative estimate of the likelihood that any voxel belongs to a given facies. Identifying the best combination of attributes needed to perform either supervised or unsupervised ML tasks continues to be the most-asked question by interpreters. In the past decades, stepwise regression and genetic (...)
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  67.  1
    High-Resolution Acoustic Data Revealing Periplatform Sedimentary Characteristics in the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea.Benjun Ma, Zhiliang Qin, Shiguo Wu, Guanqiang Cai, Xiangbo Li, Bin Wang, Xueqin Liu, Yongpeng Qin & Xiaoxia Huang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T533-T547.
    Newly collected high-resolution acoustic data are used to describe the morphologies and sedimentary characteristics along the slopes of isolated carbonate platforms in the Xisha Archipelago. Based on multibeam bathymetric and seismic data, we have identified seven types of morphological and depositional features around the platforms, including erosive grooves, mass transport deposits, gullies, confined channels, canyons, mounded sediments, and marginal contourite depressions. The occurrence of erosive channelized features around the platforms indicates that gravity flow is a major sediment-export mechanism for the (...)
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  68. Mississippian Meramec Lithologies and Petrophysical Property Variability, Stack Trend, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma.Michael J. Miller, Matthew J. Pranter, Ishank Gupta, Deepak Devegowda, Kurt J. Marfurt, Carl Sondergeld, Chandra Rai, Chris T. McLain, James Larese & Richard E. Packwood - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SE1-SE21.
    Mississippian Meramec reservoirs of the Sooner Trend in the Anadarko in Canadian and Kingfisher Counties play are comprised of silty limestones, calcareous siltstones, argillaceous calcareous siltstones, argillaceous siltstones, and mudstones. We found that core-defined reservoir lithologies are related to petrophysics-based rock types derived from porosity-permeability relationships using a flow-zone indicator approach. We classified lithologies and rock types in noncored wells using an artificial neural network with overall accuracies of 93% and 70%, respectively. We observed that mudstone-rich rock type 1 exhibits (...)
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  69.  3
    Diffraction Imaging for the Fault-Karst Structure by Least-Squares Reverse Time Migration.Xinru Mu, Jianping Huang, Liyun Fu, Shikai Jian, Bing Hu & Ziying Wang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T385-T394.
    The fault-karst reservoir, which evolved from the deformation and karstification of carbonate rock, is one of the most important reservoir types in Western China. Along the deep-seated fault zones, there are a lot of widely spread and densely distributed fractures and vugs. The energy of the diffractions generated by heterogeneous structures, such as faults, fractures, and vugs, is much weaker than that of the reflections produced by continuous formation interface. When using the conventional full-wavefield imaging method, the imaging results of (...)
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  70. Potentially Large Subsurface Gas Hydrate Bodies in the Mexican Ridges, Southwestern Gulf of Mexico.Papia Nandi, Patrick Fulton & James Dale - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SD41-SD51.
    Because rising ocean temperatures can destabilize gas hydrate, identifying and characterizing large shallow hydrate bodies is increasingly important to understanding their hazard potential. In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, reanalysis of 3D seismic reflection data reveals evidence for the presence of six potentially large gas hydrate bodies located at shallow depths below the seafloor. We originally interpreted these bodies as salt because they share common visual characteristics on seismic data with shallow allochthonous salt bodies, including high-impedance boundaries and homogeneous interiors (...)
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  71.  1
    A Good Figure is Worth a Thousand Words — Part 1: A Quick Guide to Quality Illustrations.Balazs Nemeth, Robert Merrill, Vsevolod Egorov, Kurt Marfurt, Bradley Wallet, Sunday Amoyedo & Jennifer Cobb - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):1M-2M.
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  72.  2
    Assessment of Gas Hydrate Using Prestack Seismic Inversion in the Mahanadi Basin, Offshore Eastern India.Maheswar Ojha & Ranjana Ghosh - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SD15-SD26.
    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition-01 in 2006 has discovered gas hydrate in the Mahanadi offshore basin along the eastern Indian margin. However, well-log analysis, pressure core measurements, and infrared anomalies reveal that gas hydrates are distributed as disseminated within the fine-grained sediment, unlike massive gas hydrate deposits in the Krishna-Godavari Basin. The 2D multichannel seismic section, which crosses holes NGHP-01-9A and 19B located at approximately 24 km apart, indicates a continuous bottom-simulating reflector along it. We aim to investigate (...)
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  73. Geomorphometric Analysis of Seabed Pockmarks, Offshore Western Niger Delta: A Case Study of the Freeman Field.Tuviere Omeru, Divine Ayerume, Samson Bankole, Ovie B. Ogbe, Jolly A. Byami, Seyi Obafemi, Williams Ifarajimi & Okwudili C. Pat-Nebe - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T569-T584.
    The morphometry and spatial distribution of seabed pockmarks have been used as proxies for subsurface conditions and local hydrodynamics. We have characterized and analyzed the distribution of seabed pockmarks in the Freeman Field, offshore western Niger Delta using a high-resolution 3D seismic data to understand the relationships between pockmarks and their controlling factors. We identified a total of 684 pockmarks in the Freeman Field at water depths between 1461 and 2395 m. The pockmarks are circular, elliptical, and elongated in plan (...)
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  74.  1
    Spatial Delineation of Rock Types in the Meramec Formation by Integrating Core and Seismic Measurements, Loyal Area, Kingfisher County, Anadarko Basin.Swetal Patel, Ishank Gupta, Jing Fu, Ali Tinni, Kurt J. Marfurt, Carl Sondergeld & Chandra Rai - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SE23-SE34.
    The Mississippian-age Sooner Trend Anadarko Canadian Kingfisher area of Oklahoma is one of the more important new resource plays in North America. It consists of multilevel drilling targets, including mudrock, siltstone, and carbonate reservoirs, some of which are self-sourced and all of which require hydraulic fracturing to produce commercial quantities of oil. The efficacy of the fracturing relies on whether the created fracture network drains from producible rock types. We have integrated data at core and seismic resolution scales to map (...)
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  75. Seismic Illumination of Small-Throw Seismogenic Faults, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma.Swetal Patel, Folarin Kolawole, Jacob I. Walter, Xiaowei Chen & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SE35-SE51.
    Substantial increase in the occurrence of injection-induced seismicity across Central and Eastern United States in the past decade, has highlighted a need for novel approaches to geophysical subsurface imaging of potentially seismogenic faults. Active clusters of seismicity illuminate linear fault segments within the sedimentary cover and crystalline basement that were unknown until seismicity began. Such surprises are due to the limited availability of 3D seismic reflection surveys and the difficulty of imaging relatively shallow earthquake events from sparse seismic monitoring arrays. (...)
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  76. Deepwater Sedimentary Bedforms in a Mobile Substrate Terrain: Examples From the Central Gulf of Mexico Basin.Maria I. Prieto, Lorena Moscardelli & Lesli Wood - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SB33-SB48.
    We have used high-resolution geophysical data to investigate depositional and erosional bedforms in two geomorphologic provinces of the deepwater central Gulf of Mexico Basin: the Mad Dog and Atlantis areas in the Sigsbee Escarpment region and the Holstein minibasin within the salt canopy in the slope. Multibeam bathymetry indicates that the seafloor relief in the study areas is highly irregular because it is influenced by the dynamic behavior of underlying salt bodies resulting in the development of diverse bathymetric features. Side-scan (...)
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  77.  1
    Gas Hydrate Identification and Distribution in the Mexican Ridges, Mexico.Jorge Reverón, Marius Tilita, Toby Harrold, Wilber Hermoza, Caryn Sodden & Massimo Bonora - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SD71-SD82.
    We have mapped gas hydrates, free gas, and bottom-simulating-reflector distributions in an area of the Mexican Ridges, central Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, revealing the relationship between these three elements and the tectonostratigraphy. The three elements are more visible when the host rock is a high-porosity sandstone because there is a large seismic impedance contrast between the solid gas hydrates above and the free gas below, which manifests itself on the seismic as a BSR. Gas hydrates are identified in the well (...)
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  78. Echofacies Interpretation of Pleistocene to Holocene Contourites on the Demerara Plateau and Abyssal Plain.Cédric Tallobre, Lies Loncke, Laurence Droz, Tania Marsset, Mirjam Uusõue, Walter R. Roest, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Maria-Angela Bassetti, Pierre Giresse & Germain Bayon - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SB49-SB65.
    Off French Guiana and Suriname, North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water oceanic currents contour the Demerara marginal plateau, which promotes the formation of contourites. We have studied these contourites thanks to a new compilation of high-resolution subbottom profiles calibrated by sedimentary cores. The echofacies and isopach maps that we constructed highlight a sedimentary distribution parallel to the isobaths. The presence of moats along the slope is confirmed by the observation of parallel, elongated, sedimentary depleted zones and echofacies strongly (...)
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  79. Mechanical Stratigraphy of Mississippian Strata Using Machine Learning and Seismic-Based Reservoir Characterization and Modeling, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma.Javier Tellez, Matthew J. Pranter, Carl Sondergeld, Chandra Rai, Jing Fu, Heyleem Han, Son Dang & Chris McLain - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SE53-SE71.
    The Sooner Trend in the Anadarko in Canadian and Kingfisher counties play primarily produces oil and gas from Mississippian strata. The interval consists of interbedded argillaceous mudstones and calcareous siltstones. Such a contrast in rock composition is linked directly to the mechanical stratigraphy of the strata. Brittle and ductile beds are related to the sequence-stratigraphic framework at different scales. We have used seismic and well-log data to estimate and map the geomechanical properties’ distribution and interpret the mechanical stratigraphy of rocks (...)
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  80. Identification of Gas Hydrates and Bottom-Simulating Reflectors in Far-Offset Seismic Images.Darrell A. Terry & Camelia C. Knapp - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SD53-SD69.
    The presence of marine gas hydrates is routinely inferred based on the identification of bottom simulating reflectors in common-depth-point seismic images. Additional seismic studies such as amplitude variation with offset analysis can be applied for corroboration. Although confirmation is needed by drilling and sampling, seismic analysis has proven to be a cost-effective approach to identify the presence of marine gas hydrates. Single-channel far-offset seismic images are investigated for what appears to be a more reliable and cost-effective indicator for the presence (...)
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  81.  2
    Submarine Landslide Origin of a Tsunami at the Black Sea Coast: Evidence Based on Swath Bathymetry and 3D Seismic Reflection Data.Ilya Tishchenko, Gabor Tari, Mohammad Fallah & Jonathan Floodpage - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SB67-SB78.
    Tsunami waves were observed along the Bulgarian Black Sea coastline on 7 May 2007. The maximum rise and fall of the sea level were 1.2 and 2.0 m, respectively, with wave oscillations between 4 and 8 min. At first, submarine landsliding and then later on atmospheric disturbance were suggested as the cause of the tsunami. Numerical modeling, assuming a landslide displacing 30–60 million m3 material on the slope with a thickness range of more than 20–40 m, could reproduce the main (...)
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  82.  1
    Quantitative Analysis of Coal-Bed Methane Components by Downhole Laser Raman Spectroscopy.Heng Wang, Lifa Zhou & Wang Yuxia - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):B1-B6.
    Laser Raman spectroscopy can be used to acquire the unique fingerprint of a specific molecule, and it is widely used to identify substances and to study the spectral line characteristics of molecular structures. The measurement of coalbed methane content is essential in the exploration and development of CBM fields for optimizing the fracture design. For this purpose, laser Raman spectroscopy can be extremely beneficial because it detects the gas content rapidly and accurately. Moreover, conventional gas content testing methods are laborious, (...)
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  83.  1
    Impact of Coexisting Clay Minerals and Organic Matter on Pore Growth in the Lower Jurassic Da’Anzhai Lacustrine Shale Reservoir in the Northeast Sichuan Basin, West China.Pengwei Wang, Zhongbao Liu, Xiao Chen, Dongjun Feng, Ruyue Wang & Zeyang Peng - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T373-T384.
    Understanding pore growth is of great significance to investigating reservoir performance in shale-gas systems. However, different from the marine shale reservoir, the lacustrine shale reservoir is commonly rich in clay minerals, resulting in a complicated and poorly understood pore system. We have investigated the impact of coexisting clay mineral and organic matter on pore growth in the Lower Jurassic Da’anzhai Shale in the Northeast Sichuan Basin, West China, through performing total organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, focused (...)
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  84. Geochemical Characteristics and Source of Chang 8 Crude Oil in the East Part of the Shanbei Slope, Ordos Basin, China.Zhenglu Xiao, Shijia Chen, Xiangdong Yin, Pan Wang, Jiang Zhu & Meimei Han - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T349-T356.
    There are three sets of potential source rocks in the Yanchang Formation in the east part of the Shanbei Slope in the Ordos Basin. Based on the experimental results of total organic carbon, vitrinite reflectance, rock organic matter extraction, and saturated hydrocarbon chromatography, we have analyzed the geochemical and biomarker characteristics of the Chang 7, Chang 8, and Chang 9 source rocks, and the Chang 8 reservoir extracts and find that the Chang 7, Chang 8, and Chang 9 source rocks (...)
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  85. The Relationship Between Source Supply and Mixed Deposition of Siliciclastic and Carbonate: First to Second Member of the Shahejie Formation, Paleogene, Bohai Sea Area, China.Wei Xu, Zhengyu Li, Huiyong Li, Can Zhang, Meng Zhao, Hongliu Zeng & Yiran Ding - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SC45-SC52.
    There are various types of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments developed in the Bohai Sea area during the period of the first to second member of the Shahejie Formation of the Paleocene. We have concluded that the period of E2s1-2 was very suitable for the development of carbonate minerals and organisms because of the stable tectonic background, the weak siliciclastic influence of large source systems outside the basin, and the high salinity of the water. There were many local uplifts inside the basin (...)
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  86.  2
    Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate Sedimentation on the Miocene Pearl River Continental Shelf, Northeastern South China Sea: Implications for Exploring Lithologic Traps.Xiangtao Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Jiayuan Du, Lin Ding, Xiaoyan Li, Xiao Li, Yuxiang Wu & Qiaowei Xiang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SC31-SC43.
    During the Miocene, when the Zhujiang Formation was deposited, the eastern part of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea, underwent intense mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation, particularly on the platform of the marginal ramp of the Dongsha Rise, northeastern margin of the South China Sea. Cores and well logs from industrial boreholes were collected and systematically investigated to reveal the sedimentary-petrographic characteristics of the mixed deposits and their formative processes. Four lithotypes were differentiated in the deposits, that (...)
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  87. Nonuniform Grid Upscaling Method for Geologic Model of Oil Reservoir: A Case Study of the W Block in the Northern Part of the Songliao Basin.Xuejuan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Dandan Wang, Kuo Lan, Xuesong Zhou, Hongyu Yu, Ruhao Liu & Xueying Lv - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T443-T452.
    At present, uniform upscaling division methods are routinely used to upscale geologic model grids, resulting in overly fine grids in some areas of the model. To improve computational efficiency, we have examined the effect of model upscaling with different upscaling parameters with the goal of producing a nonuniform grid with uniform accuracy. We based our nonuniform upscaling grid method on geologic characteristics including reservoir thickness, physical properties, reservoir spacing, and water flooding. Most of the logging curves of thin reservoirs are (...)
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  88.  3
    Evaluation Method for Low- to Ultralow-Permeability Reservoirs Based on Pore-Throat Structure: A Case Study in the Eastern Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Xiaodong Zhao, Shilin Wang, Jingxu Yang, Boming Zhang, Liang Li, Xiao Liu, Wen Wen & Yaxuan Zhang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):T315-T329.
    The pore-throat structure of low- to ultralow-permeability reservoirs is complex, causing the permeability to vary greatly under similar porosity conditions. Moreover, the pore-throat structures are the key factors that controled the physical properties of such kind of reservoirs. Therefore, conventional reservoir evaluation methods can hardly meet the research needs of low- to ultralow-permeability reservoir exploration and development. We have conducted our research on Paleogene Shahejie and Neogene Dongying low- to ultralow-permeability reservoirs in the eastern Nanpu Sag of the Bohai Bay (...)
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  89.  3
    Introduction to Special Section: Mapping Mixed Clastic and Carbonate Depositional Systems in Lacustrine Basins.Hongtao Zhu, Zhiwei Zeng, Xinong Xie, Xiaomin Zhu, Changgui Xu & Hongliu Zeng - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (2):SCi-SCi.
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  90.  1
    A Practical Approach for Self-Potential Data Acquisition, Processing, and Visualization.Stéphanie Barde-Cabusson, Anthony Finizola & Niels Grobbe - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T123-T143.
    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for the acquisition and processing of self-potential data, as well as some keys for the interpretation of the results. The wide applicability of the SP method and its low cost make it a popular method to use in a variety of natural environments. Despite its versatility and the fact that various published journal papers describe the method and its applications, we believe that there is an important need for a dedicated, peer-reviewed SP acquisition, processing, (...)
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  91.  3
    Seismic Geomorphology and Overpressure Variation in the Shallow-Water-Flow-Prone Sand Units in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico.William J. Berger, Shams Ul-Hadi, James Keenan, Zachary Metz & Thien Nguyen - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T9-T19.
    The north-central Gulf of Mexico area received rapid deposition of a basin-floor fan system consisting of interbedded muds, silts, and sandy turbidite deposits during the Pleistocene. Overpressure occurs at shallow depths when burial rates exceed the dewatering rates of sediment pore fluids. Two stratigraphic sequences in the region contain significant overpressure with elevated shallow-water flow risk within these units. We have used publicly available seismic and well data to identify the geomorphology and overpressure variation of these units. The previously described (...)
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  92.  1
    A Method for Modeling Multiscale Geomechanical Effects in the Stimulated Rock Volume.Seth Busetti - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T45-T61.
    I have developed a workflow to efficiently simulate geomechanical effects in the stimulated rock volume by including regional geologic structures such as faults and folds as well as high-resolution-oriented mechanical stratigraphy. The motivation is that the local model used for hydraulic fracture analysis should include macroscale 3D geomechanical effects derived from regional tectonic and seismic data. A practical computational strategy is developed to link multiple 3D geomechanical models derived at different scales and their associated stress effects. I apply the workflow (...)
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  93.  6
    To: “Evaluation of the Matrix Influence on the Microscopic Pore-Throat Structures of Deep-Water Tight Sandstone: A Case Study From the Upper Triassic Chang 6 Oil Group of the Yanchang Formation in the Huaqing Area, Ordos Basin, China,” Zhaobing Chen, Chuangfei Zhou, Xinjing Chen, Yujie Zhu, and Yushuang Zhu, Interpretation, 8, No. 4, T763–T776, Doi: 10.1190/INT-2020-0036.1. [REVIEW]Zhaobing Chen, Chuangfei Zhou, Xinjing Chen, Yujie Zhu & Yushuang Zhu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):Y1-Y1.
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  94.  2
    Seismic Geomorphology Anomalies Within a Pliocene Deepwater Channel Complex in the Taranaki Basin, Offshore New Zealand.Julian Chenin, Clayton Silver & Heather Bedle - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):C1-C10.
    The Taranaki Basin, located offshore New Zealand, is a Cretaceous rift basin that has well defined yet complex Miocene deepwater sedimentary systems. We analyze a pronounced anomalous seismic response in a Late Miocene to Early Pliocene deepwater channel within the 2005 Hector 3D survey located in the southern Taranaki Basin. Several seismic attributes were calculated to interpret the extent of these anomalous features. Analogues within both the Iron River reservoir in Albania, Canada and the East Breaks Basin Four, offshore Gulf (...)
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  95.  1
    Characterization of Organic Content, Brittleness Index, and Geomechanical Properties of the Eocene Cambay Shales — Insights From the Ankleshwar Oil Field in Western India.Shib Sankar Ganguli, Souvik Sen & Sumit Verma - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T235-T252.
    Shale resource assessment involves a detailed characterization of organic and geomechanical parameters for better insights on the reservoir properties and classifying areas of economic yield. To assess the Eocene Younger Cambay Shale Group of the Ankleshwar field, western India, for feasible shale resource play, we have applied a multistage screening methodology that combines an estimation of organic richness, brittleness index, and geomechanical analyses. The estimated thermal maturity and average total-organic-carbon contents are within the range of 0.8–1.0 and 1.8 wt%, respectively. (...)
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  96.  2
    Integrated Characterization and Failure Mechanism for a Mid-Pleistocene Mass Transport Complex-Dominant Interval in the Mars Ursa Basin, Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.Mario Andres Gutierrez & John W. Snedden - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T253-T274.
    The economic and operational risks associated with mass transport complexes in deepwater hydrocarbon exploration act as a principal motivation to investigate their depositional elements using industry data. There is a lack of extensive seismic and well data coverage that limits the understanding of the processes associated with the evolution of MTCs within deepwater sedimentary basins. This study leverages a unique integrated data set to evaluate the depositional character and potential failure mechanisms of seven identified MTCs preserved in a synkinematic mid-Pleistocene (...)
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  97. A Correction Method Based on Geometric Factor for Resistivity Log Response of Thinly Laminated Sand Reservoirs: A Case Study.Shuyong Hu, Wenhai Huang, Hengshen Yao & Kegang Ling - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T275-T281.
    The log response of thin oil layers is greatly subject to environmental factors such as shoulder beds, resulting in errors high enough to influence the appraisal of rock lithology and fluid properties and increasing the difficulty of interpretation of logging curves and the effective evaluation of thinly laminated sand. The development of high-resolution logging instruments and logging curve processing technology improves the resolution and accuracy of logs, but with some limitations. So far, the geometric factor theory has been an effective (...)
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  98.  6
    Genesis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Natural Gas Reservoirs in the Western Qaidam Basin.Tian Jixian, Jian Li, Hua Kong, Xu Zeng, Xiaobo Wang, Zeqing Guo & Li Dong - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T223-T233.
    In recent years, gas reservoirs containing high levels of hydrogen sulfide have been found in salinized lacustrine carbonate rocks in the upper member of the Lower Ganchaigou Formation in the Yingxiongling area of the western Qaidam Basin. This poses great safety risks to drilling and development. To clarify the genetic mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide, we have analyzed the geochemical characteristics and sulfur isotopes of natural gas and predicted the distribution of hydrogen sulfide. The results show that natural gas in the (...)
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  99.  6
    Application of Brittleness Index to Interpret Microseismic Event Distribution in a Hydraulically Fractured Shale Formation.Dewei Li, Ruizhao Yang, Lingbin Meng & Li Wang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T1-T7.
    Many factors can impact the location data of microseismic events, including natural fractures, rock lithology, in situ stress, and hydraulic-fracturing parameters. The distribution of microseismic events generally tends toward highly brittle areas or areas with brittle minerals. Moreover, location data of microseismic events lack effective evaluation methods. Therefore, we have developed a method to use lithologic information and prestack seismic data to explain the distribution of well Tian Xing microseismic events. We have analyzed the brittleness of the target formation through (...)
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  100.  7
    Joint Impedance Inversion and Spectral Decomposition for Deepwater Gas Reservoir Characterization: A Case Study in South China Sea.Yaneng Luo, Mengqi Jiang, Kun Xiang, Yadi Yang & Handong Huang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T63-T77.
    Gas reservoir characterization is one of the frontiers in seismic exploration. Acoustic impedance, one of the most effective seismic attributes, aims to describe the spatial distribution of rock properties. However, using acoustic impedance only is insufficient to describe gas-bearing layers accurately, in the case of rapid lithologic changes and complex geology in the deepwater area. The reflection seismograms indicate an absorption effect when seismic waves propagate through gas-bearing layers. The absorption effect can be used as an additional attribute to help (...)
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  101.  9
    Seismic-Based Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity Within the Meramec Interval of the STACK Play, Central Oklahoma.William Neely, Ahmed Ismail, Mohammed Ibrahim & James Puckette - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T79-T90.
    The Meramec interval within the Sooner Trend Anadarko Canadian Kingfisher play of the Anadarko Basin in central Oklahoma has recently been at the epicenter of increased exploration and production of oil and gas. It has become one of the top target intervals of the “mid-continent” aided by technological advancements in horizontal drilling and completion techniques. The Meramec interval, mainly composed of argillaceous siliciclastic sediments with varying amounts of carbonate cement, exhibits high porosity heterogeneity, which is theorized to be caused by (...)
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  102.  2
    New and Old Standing Special Sections in Interpretation.Balazs Nemeth, Kurt Marfurt, Jennifer Cobb & Saleh A. Dossary - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):1F-1F.
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  103.  6
    Sequential Distribution of Gas Reservoirs in the Hangjinqi Area, Ordos Basin, North China: Application of Continuous and Discontinuous Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mode.Haikuan Nie, Xiaoliang Wei, Jinchuan Zhang, Qian Chen, Guangxiang Liu & Guangrong Zhang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T91-T105.
    The gas accumulation mode can be divided into two types based on the migration and accumulation characteristics: discontinuous accumulation into the reservoir rocks and continuous accumulation within or adjacent to the source rocks. Correspondingly, there are three different gas reservoirs including conventional, unconventional, and those in a transitional state. To demonstrate the differences in the formation mechanisms and distribution features of the two accumulation types, we have scrutinized the continuous accumulation and discontinuous accumulation in the Hangjinqi area of the Ordos (...)
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  104.  3
    Cloud Computing in Geoscience: Mysteries, Miseries, and Benefits.Dimitrios Oikonomou, Ehsan Zabihi Naeini, Behzad Alaei & Eirik Larsen - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):SA17-SA22.
    Cloud computing has become an integral part of our daily life and work. In the oil and gas industry, cloud computing is becoming increasingly attractive to experts, operators, and software companies. However, we believe that there is still some level of mystery for many geoscientists in what cloud computing can actually offer, what the pros and cons are, and how it is different from the preceding technologies. We attempt to explain some of the mysteries around the concept of cloud computing (...)
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  105.  1
    Faster and Cheaper: How Graphics Processing Units on Spot-Market Instances Minimize Turnaround Time and Budget.Nicholas T. Okita & Tiago A. Coimbra - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):SA1-SA16.
    Cloud computing is enabling users to instantiate and access high-performance computing clusters quickly. However, without proper knowledge of the type of application and the nature of the instances, it can become quite expensive. Our objective is to indicate that adequately choosing the instances provides a fast execution, which, in turn, leads to a low execution price, using the pay-as-you-go model on cloud computing. We have used graphics processing unit instances on the spot market to execute a seismic-data set interpolation job (...)
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  106.  3
    Timing of Hydrocarbon Entrapment in the Eastern Foothills of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia.Nelson Sánchez, Jael Pacheco, Mario Alberto Guzman-Vega, Andrés Mora & Brian Horton - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T145-T159.
    The eastern foothills in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera have been an important oil-producing region since the discovery of the Cupiagua and Cusiana fields. Three organic-rich units are considered to be the main source rocks. The Aptian Fómeque and the Cenomanian-Coniacian Chipaque Formations comprise a siliciclastic to locally carbonate shallow marine shelf succession with type-II kerogen, whereas the Paleocene Los Cuervos Formation consists of marginal marine to nonmarine siliciclastic rocks with type-III kerogen. We modeled the petroleum systems of these three source (...)
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  107.  1
    Overbank Sediment Waves in the Southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand.Clayton Silver & Heather Bedle - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):C11-C15.
    In the southern Taranaki Basin, a thick stratigraphic sequence of late Miocene age is well imaged by modern 3D seismic data. Within this sediment package, the evolution of multiple deepwater channel systems are preserved and interpreted. Anomalous features located between channel complexes are identified in both map-view and vertical sections. Extracting selected seismic attributes along interpreted horizons and using in context geologic knowledge suggests these anomalous features are overbank sediment waves resulting from overbank sedimentation. Alternate interpretations are also presented, such (...)
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  108.  7
    Structural Analysis of the Wichita Uplift and Structures in the Anadarko Basin, Southern Oklahoma.Molly Turko & Shankar Mitra - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T107-T122.
    We have constructed regional structural transects across the Wichita Uplift and the adjacent Anadarko Basin to show the relationship between thick-skinned basement-involved structures and thin-skinned detached fold-thrust structures. Slip from the basement-involved structures in the Wichita Uplift is transferred along two major detachments into the Anadarko Basin. Our interpretation is that along the northwestern margin, the Wichita Uplift is marked by a zone of frontal imbricates forming a triangular wedge with most of the slip dissipated along the Wichita front. Paleozoic (...)
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  109.  4
    A Structural Analysis of the Washita Valley Fault in the Southeast Anadarko Basin.Molly Turko & Bryan Tapp - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T183-T200.
    We propose that the Washita Valley Fault in the southeast Anadarko Basin originated when Precambrian-Cambrian preexisting rift-related faults became reactivated as a rotational stress field reached a favorable orientation for strike-slip displacement. During the Early to Middle Pennsylvanian, contractional deformation dominated as a Precambrian-Cambrian failed rift underwent structural inversion along a northeast-directed stress field. Structures that developed in the basin consisted primarily of thin-skinned fold-thrust structures resulting from slip along two main detachment levels. By the Late Pennsylvanian, stress rotated toward (...)
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  110.  3
    Introduction to Special Section: Cloud Computing.Bradley Wallet, Konstantin Osypov, Victor Aarre, Sumit Verma, Oswaldo Davogustto, Bo Zhang, Vikram Jayaram & Shuang Zhang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):SAi-SAi.
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  111.  5
    Investigation of Fluid Effects on Seismic Responses Through a Physical Modeling Experiment.Chao Xu, Pinbo Ding, Bangrang Di & Jianxin Wei - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T213-T222.
    We have investigated fluid effects on seismic responses using seismic data from a physical modeling experiment. Eight cubic samples with cavities quantitatively filled with air, oil, and water and 16 nonfluid samples were set within a physical model. The pre- and poststack seismic responses of the samples were analyzed to quantitatively investigate the fluid effect on the seismic response. We determined that fluids could cause detectable changes in pre- and poststack seismic responses for tight rocks. At first, fluids filled within (...)
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  112.  5
    Identifying Gas Chimneys in Gas Fields of the West Siberian Petroleum Basin Via Geophysical and Drilling Data.Yuri Zagorovsky - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T35-T44.
    There are many push-down seismic anomalies in natural gas fields in the northern part of the West Siberian basin. This effect is common in gas-saturated sands. The amplitude of push-downs in West Siberian fields is approximately 300–400 ms from the horizontal surface. Using well data, we have measured how much the velocity of seismic waves decreases and study the hydrocarbon presence, fluid pressure, and other information to gain a better understanding of the cause of this effect. Several wells were drilled (...)
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  113.  10
    Pore Structure of the Cretaceous Lacustrine Shales and Shale-Oil Potential Assessment in the Songliao Basin, Northeast China.Weizhu Zeng, Guoyi Zhou, Taotao Cao & Zhiguang Song - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T21-T33.
    Aiming to study the pore structure and its impact on shale oil enrichment, a total of nine lacustrine shales from the Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin were subjected to low-pressure gas sorption of CO2 and N2 and mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements. The combination of the LPGS and MICP methods demonstrates that the pore volumes of these shales are mainly associated with mesopores, whereas the micropores and macropores are relatively undeveloped. The correlation between the shale compositions and pore volumes (...)
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  114.  4
    Integration of Regional Gravity Modeling, Subsidence Analysis, and Source Rock Maturity Data to Understand the Tectonic and Hydrocarbon Evolution of the Permian Basin, West Texas.Hualing Zhang, Paul Mann, Dale E. Bird & Kurt Rudolph - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T161-T181.
    The Permian Basin of West Texas and southeast New Mexico is currently the most prolific oil-producing basin in the United States. This region experienced deformation and extreme rates of subsidence, especially during the Late Paleozoic. To investigate the larger scale crustal geometry of the Permian Basin, its tectonic evolution, and the distribution of its most productive late Paleozoic source rocks, we have created regional 2D and 3D gravity models that incorporate density and lithologic controls from wireline logs, published seismic refractions, (...)
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  115.  2
    Inversion of Reservoir Fluid Mobility From Frequency-Dependent Seismic Data — A Case Study of Gas-Bearing Reservoirs.Yijiang Zhang, Xiaotao Wen, Dongyong Zhou, Wenhua Wang, Man Lu & Huijing Fang - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T201-T212.
    Reservoir fluid mobility is by definition the ratio of rock permeability to fluid viscosity. This attribute can be applied to reservoir physical property and permeability evaluation. Thus far, the only means of obtaining the reservoir fluid mobility over a large range of exploration areas is based on the extraction method. However, the location of high fluid mobility obtained by the extraction method is close to the reservoir interface. To obtain fluid mobility in the middle of the reservoir, an approximate inversion (...)
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