166 found

Year:

  1. Seismic Response to Paleo-Sand Dunes in the Nugget Sandstone Formation, Southwestern Wyoming.Dhruv Agrawal, Brady Lujan, Sumit Verma, Shuvajit Bhattacharya & Subhashis Mallick - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SR23-SR26.
    We have analyzed a 3D seismic survey acquired for a carbon sequestration project on top of the Moxa Arch in southwestern Wyoming. We observed a zone of discontinuous reflectors on vertical slices of seismic amplitude volume, whereas, the northwest–southeast lineations were observed on the time slices. We performed a seismic to well tie that suggested that the lineations occur within the Nugget Sandstone. The Nugget Sandstone is an eolian sandstone deposit of Early Jurassic age, deposited as a subtropical dune field, (...)
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  2.  2
    Joint Inversion of Potential-Fields Data Over the DO-27 Kimberlite Pipe Using a Gaussian Mixture Model Prior.Thibaut Astic, Dominique Fournier & Douglas W. Oldenburg - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SS47-SS62.
    We have carried out petrophysically and geologically guided inversions to jointly invert airborne and ground-based gravity data and airborne magnetic data to recover a quasi-geology model of the DO-27 kimberlite pipe in the Tli Kwi Cho cluster. DO-27 is composed of three main kimberlite rock types in contact with each other and embedded in a granitic host rock covered by a thin layer of glacial till. The pyroclastic kimberlite, which is diamondiferous, and the volcanoclastic kimberlite have anomalously low density, due (...)
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  3. Experience on Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Performance for Exploration in Norway.Lodve Berre, Jan Petter Morten, Graeme Baillie & Elias Nerland - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SQ25-SQ37.
    We have analyzed the predictive performance of the controlled-source electromagnetic method using a large statistical database. The prediction strength is quantified by comparing the CSEM interpretation to exploration drilling results for more than 100 wells in Norway. The comparison has been done by correlating inversion results for all of the surveys covering these wells with the well outcome, using a statistically driven anomaly detection workflow to avoid confirmation bias. The comparison is summarized by classifying the interpretations as true positives, true (...)
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  4. 3D Seismic Imaging of the Submarine Slide Blocks on the North Slope, Alaska.Shuvajit Bhattacharya, Sumit Verma & Jonathan R. Rotzien - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SR37-SR44.
    Submarine landslides are mass movements that transport sediment across the continental shelf to the deep ocean. This phenomenon happens when the shear stress exceeds the frictional resistance of the slope. We analyze a variety of seismic attributes to interpret large submarine slide blocks on the North Slope, Alaska. Results show that the slide blocks appear as mounds with scarps associated with them on the seismic section. The slide blocks vary in size, depending on their distance away from the shelf. The (...)
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  5.  2
    Target-Oriented Model-Based Seismic Footprint Analysis and Mitigation.Payson Todd C., James Simmons & Ali Tura - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SR1-SR15.
    Compensating for the effects of an acquisition footprint can be one of the most daunting problems when using seismic attributes for quantitative interpretation. This is especially true for unconventional plays because they are on land with accompanying irregular acquisition geometries. Additionally, in such plays, the physical property changes are often small, making the seismic amplitude fidelity critical. We have developed a methodology that integrates a 1D elastic prestack synthetic model with 3D acquisition geometry to accurately model the seismic footprint produced (...)
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  6.  1
    Effect of Main Frequencies on Characterizing Fault Damage Zones Using Forward Modeling and Attribute of Variance.Yangpu Chen, Zonghu Liao, Li-Yun Fu, Gang Zhou, Liang Xu, Kurt J. Marfurt, Xinru Mu & Huayao Zou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP157-SP165.
    Faulting processes have created large damage zones with complex structures in the field; however, estimating the width and geometry of such fault structures in the subsurface is challenging due to a lack of data. Seismic attributes from seismic surveys have been used for the characterization of faults, but most cases do not detail the effectiveness of this approach. By using forward modeling and the associated seismic attributes of variance, four fault models of idealized damage zones are characterized and the frequency (...)
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  7.  1
    Evaluation of the Matrix Influence on the Microscopic Pore-Throat Structures of Deep-Water Tight Sandstone: A Case Study From the Upper Triassic Chang 6 Oil Group of the Yanchang Formation in the Huaqing Area, Ordos Basin, China.Zhaobing Chen, Chuangfei Zhou, Xinjing Chen, Yujie Zhu & Yushuang Zhu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T763-T776.
    Former studies have suggested that the matrix of clastic rocks is unfavorable for the storage-percolation of reservoirs. However, the contribution of the matrix to the microscopic pore-throat structures in deep-water tight sandstone cannot be ignored. Aiming at the deep-water tight sandstone of the Chang 6 reservoir in the Ordos Basin, we have evaluated the characteristics of the matrix and the secondary pores in the matrix based on a multiscale microscopic identification and testing method, to reveal the influence of the matrix (...)
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  8.  2
    Seismic Reservoir Characterization of Bone Spring and Wolfcamp Formations in the Delaware Basin — A Case Study: Part 1.Satinder Chopra, Ritesh Kumar Sharma & James Keay - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T927-T940.
    The Delaware and Midland Basins are multistacked plays with production being drawn from different zones. Of the various prospective zones in the Delaware Basin, the Bone Spring and Wolfcamp Formations are the most productive and thus are the most drilled zones. To understand the reservoirs of interest and identify the hydrocarbon sweet spots, a 3D seismic inversion project was undertaken in the northern part of the Delaware Basin in 2018. We have examined the reservoir characterization exercise for this dataset in (...)
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  9.  2
    Reliability Analysis of Seismic Attribute in the Detection of Fault-Karst.Yan Ding, Qizhen Du, Liyun Fu & Shikai Jian - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP61-SP70.
    In the Tarim Basin, various irregular fractured-vuggy reservoirs have developed along with the main faults. These reservoirs are geologically defined as carbonate fault karst. In the past few years, seismic attributes have been widely used for the identification and evaluation of fault karst. However, there has been less reliability analysis regarding their usage. Imaging using the theoretical fault-karst velocity model can reflect the shapes and distributions of fractures and vugs, whereas imaging using the background velocity can simulate seismic data in (...)
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  10. Architectural Characterization of Ordovician Fault-Controlled Paleokarst Carbonate Reservoirs, Tahe Oilfield, China.Taizhong Duan, Wenbiao Zhang, Xinbian Lu, Meng Li, Huawei Zhao & Xiaofei Shang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T953-T965.
    Fault-controlled karst carbonate reservoirs are one of the most important reservoir types in the Tahe oilfield of the Tarim Basin. These reservoirs have a large oil reserve and belong to a strongly reconstructed reservoir type with a highly heterogeneous distribution of pores and fractures. This study characterizes a fault-controlled karst reservoir by using integrated methods, including outcrops, well logging, structure interpretation, seismic inversion, and statistical geomodeling. We have established a fault-/fracture-controlling karstic geologic model and classified the internal architectural elements so (...)
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  11.  2
    On the Impact of Alternative Seismic Time Imaging Methods on Subsurface Fault Mapping in the Northernmost Molasse Basin, Switzerland.Christoph G. Eichkitz, Sarah Schneider, Andreas B. Hölker, Philip Birkhäuser & Herfried Madritsch - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SQ1-SQ13.
    The identification and characterization of tectonic faults in the subsurface represent key aspects of geologic exploration activities across the world. We have evaluated the impact of alternative seismic time imaging methods on initial subsurface fault mapping in three dimensions in the form of a case study situated in the most external foreland of the European Central Alps. Four different seismic amplitude volumes of one and the same 3D seismic data set, differing in imaging technologies and parameterizations applied, were considered for (...)
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  12.  1
    Comprehensive Identification of CO2 Nonhydrocarbon Gas Layers by Relative CO2 Content and Apparent Porosity Calculated From Well Logs: A Case Study in the Baiyun Deep-Water Area in the Eastern South China Sea. [REVIEW]Jin Feng, Bin Zhao, Chuqiao Gao, Lei Shi, Yao Guan, Zhaoping Li & Shunchao Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T715-T725.
    The accurate identification of [Formula: see text] nonhydrocarbon gas layers plays an important role in the exploration and development of natural gas reservoirs. The logging response characteristics of layers containing nonhydrocarbon gas and hydrocarbon gas are very similar because there are gas fluids in both kinds of layers, which leads to the uncertainty in the interpretation results of gas types. We have developed a comprehensive method for the identification of [Formula: see text] nonhydrocarbon gas layers by using [Formula: see text]-relative (...)
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  13.  1
    Attribute-Assisted Characterization of Basement Faulting and the Associated Sedimentary Sequence Deformation in North-Central Oklahoma.Max Firkins, Folarin Kolawole, Kurt J. Marfurt & Brett M. Carpenter - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP175-SP189.
    Patterns of recent seismogenic fault reactivation in the granitic basement of north-central Oklahoma necessitate an understanding of the structural characteristics of the inherited basement-rooted faults. Here, we focus on the Nemaha Uplift & Fault Zone and the surrounding areas, within which we analyze the top-basement and intrabasement structures in eight poststack time-migrated 3D seismic reflection data sets. Overall, our results reveal 115 fault traces at the top of the Precambrian basement with sub-vertical dips, and dominant trends of west-northwest–east-southeast, northeast–southwest, and (...)
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  14.  4
    Petrography and Geochemical Characteristics of Chang 7 Sandstone in Yanhe Profile, Ordos Basin: Implication for Paleoenvironment and Tectonic Background.Haijun Gao, Delu Li, Dingming Dong, Hongjun Jing & Hao Tang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T981-T990.
    The Chang 7 oil layer from the upper Triassic Yanchang Formation is an important layer for hydrocarbon exploration. Most studies on the Chang 7 oil layer have focused on the source rocks, while research on the sandstone is still inadequate, especially on the petrography and geochemical characteristics. Using seven sandstone samples of the Chang 7 oil layer in the Yanhe profile, the grain-size analysis, major elements, trace elements, and rare earth elements were tested. The results find that the sandstone of (...)
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  15.  3
    Tracking 3D Seismic Horizons with a New Hybrid Tracking Algorithm.Rahul Gogia, Raman Singh, Paul de Groot, Harshit Gupta, Seshan Srirangarajan, Jyoti Phirani & Sayan Ranu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SQ39-SQ45.
    We have developed a new algorithm for tracking 3D seismic horizons. The algorithm combines an inversion-based, seismic-dip flattening technique with conventional, similarity-based autotracking. The inversion part of the algorithm aims to minimize the error between horizon dips and computed seismic dips. After each cycle in the inversion loop, more seeds are added to the horizon by the similarity-based autotracker. In the example data set, the algorithm is first used to quickly track a set of framework horizons, each guided by a (...)
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  16.  1
    Integrated Geophysical Analysis Provides an Alternate Interpretation of the Northern Margin of the North American Midcontinent Rift System, Central Lake Superior.V. J. S. Grauch, Eric D. Anderson, Samuel J. Heller, Esther K. Stewart & Laurel G. Woodruff - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SS63-SS85.
    The Midcontinent Rift System is a 1.1 Ga sequence of voluminous basaltic eruptions and multiple intrusions followed by widespread sedimentation that extends across the Midcontinent and northern Great Lakes region of North America. Previous workers have commonly used seismic-reflection data to demonstrate that the northern rift margin in central Lake Superior developed as a normal growth fault that was structurally inverted to a reverse fault during a compressional event after rifting had ended. A prominent, curvilinear aeromagnetic anomaly that extends from (...)
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  17.  1
    Seismic Prediction of Soil Distribution for the Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in the Taiwan Strait.Wei-Chung Han, Yi-Wei Lu & Sheng-Chung Lo - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T727-T737.
    Direct soil measurements are limited to borehole locations and are therefore sparse in the oceans. To effectively characterize the soil distributions for the Chang-Bin offshore wind farm, which is an area with the greatest wind energy potential in the Taiwan Strait, we have developed a workflow to predict the soil distribution in the subsurface based on integrated analysis of seismic data and borehole data. First, we characterize the key seismic units and their seismic response in order to understand the regional (...)
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  18. Subsalt Imaging in Northern Germany Using Multiphysics.Christian H. Henke, Markus H. Krieger, Kurt Strack & Andrea Zerilli - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SQ15-SQ24.
    Imaging subsalt is still a challenging task in oil and gas exploration. We have used magnetotellurics to improve the integration of seismic and gravity data to image the Wedehof salt dome, located in the Northern German Basin. High-density natural field source broadband MT data were acquired and enhanced the definition of the top and overhanging salt structures in addition to imaging the salt dome root. Salt boundaries show strong resistivity contrasts with the surrounding sediments and thus represent a good target (...)
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  19.  1
    Analysis of Vertical Position Relationships Between Igneous Sills and an Unconformity Surface — Interpretation of Seismic Profiles From the Northern Tarim Basin, NW China.Tianyu Ji, Wei Yang, Renhai Pu, Xueqiong Wu & Xiaochuan Wu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T739-T752.
    Sill emplacement mechanisms are very complex, diverse, and regional, and insights from sill reflections are helpful for understanding the emplacement process of magma in the Tarim Basin. This study takes advantage of high-quality 2D seismic data, which are rarely used to study sills in the Tarim Basin, to analyze the sills’ geometric characteristics, plan-view distributions, emplacement timing, and emplacement mechanisms with unconformity surfaces. In the seismic-reflection profiles of the middle-upper Ordovician in the North depression and the southern part of the (...)
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  20. Creating Probabilistic 3D Models of Lithofluid Facies Using Machine-Learning Algorithms.Saba Keynejad, Marc L. Sbar & Roy A. Johnson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T701-T714.
    Mapping facies variations is a fundamental element in the study of reservoir characteristics. From identifying a pay zone to estimating the reservoir capacity, a hydrocarbon field’s development plan depends to a great extent on a reliable model of lithofacies and fluid content variations throughout the reservoir. The starting point usually is creating 1D facies models based on core samples and drilling reports at each well location. Sparse well locations and the inherent heterogeneity in the reservoir properties make it essential to (...)
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  21.  1
    Seismic Attributes and Analogs to Characterize a Large Fold in the Taranaki Basin.Karelia La Marca Molina, Heather Bedle & Jerson Tellez - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SR27-SR31.
    The Taranaki Basin lies in the western portion of New Zealand, onshore and offshore. It is a Cretaceous rift basin that is filled with up to approximately 10 km thick deposits from marine to deepwater depositional environments from the Cretaceous to the Neogene. This basin underwent important tectonic events that resulted in large-scale features such as faults and folds and the deposition of turbidites such as channels and channel belts. These features easily are recognizable in seismic data. When analyzing the (...)
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  22.  3
    The Importance of Recognizing Multiples in Legacy Data: A Case Study From the Brazilian Equatorial Margin.Karen M. Leopoldino Oliveira, Heather Bedle, Gabriel de A. Araujo & Mariano Castelo Branco - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SR17-SR21.
    Summary The Ceará Basin is a deepwater exploration frontier basin that comprises part of the Brazilian equatorial margin. This basin has been receiving renewed attention from the petroleum industry since the discovery of important deepwater oil fields in its African counterpart. However, detailed seismic stratigraphic, depositional, and structural frameworks for the Ceará Basin are still lacking in the literature. We have analyzed a series of 2D seismic data sets and stumbled into the pitfalls of migration artifacts ultimately realizing that reprocessing (...)
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  23.  1
    A Fast Inversion Method of 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based on the Novel Hybrid Algorithm.Hai-Tao Li & Shao-Gui Deng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T823-T833.
    To make up for the limitations and improve the accuracy of 1D nuclear-magnetic-resonance logging in the evaluation of formation fluid properties, 2D NMR logging has become the focus of research. Increasing the sequence and inversion parameters of the 2D NMR can effectively improve the antinoise properties and resolution of the inversion, but at the same time, the reduced inversion speed and increased memory occupied will put forward higher requirements on the computer configuration and add to the cost of calculation, which (...)
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  24.  2
    Engineering-Oriented “Sweet Spot” Prediction for Tight Sandstone Gas Reservoirs: A Case Study From Sulige Gas Field in Western China.Hailiang Li, Liping Zhang, Jinyong Gui, Hailong Wang & Shengjun Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T813-T821.
    Tight sandstone gas reservoirs have the characteristics of low porosity and permeability, deep burial, and low production of vertical wells, which are difficult to predict and exploit. Usually, finding a “sweet spot” requires finding zones with well-developed fractures or easy stimulation by hydraulic fracturing in the later stage. For some tight sandstone gas reservoirs where natural fractures are not developed, directional hydraulic fracturing is a good choice to improve single well production. However, not all reservoirs can achieve the desired productivity (...)
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  25.  4
    A Numerical Study on the Regional in Situ Stress Field of the Keshen Section and Interface Dislocation in the Composite Salt-Gypsum Layer.Shiyuan Li, Fuyao Li, Yufan Qiu & Yu Yan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T803-T811.
    Salt rock found in the stratum of the sedimentary basin is considered to be exemplary in terms of quality among the class of cap rocks, and it engulfs a certain proportion of the world’s hydrocarbon resources. In recent years, approximately 40% of newly discovered hydrocarbon resources in China have been detected under deep salt layers. Statistics suggest that nearly 40% of drilling accidents and 50% of casing damage incidents occur near the layer interfaces within a composite salt-gypsum formation. For the (...)
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  26.  1
    Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging in the Low-Resistivity Reservoir — Taking the XP Area as an Example.Zhaoping Li, Chuqiao Gao, Bin Zhao, Yao Guan & Junyi Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T885-T893.
    With the deepening of exploration and development, many low-resistivity reservoirs have been found in the XP area. We have found that the genesis of these low-resistivity reservoirs is that they contain a lot of very fine sand, which leads to the high content of bound water in the reservoirs and reduces resistivity. Compared with normal oil reservoirs, these reservoirs show low resistivity and high natural gamma, which makes it difficult to identify reservoirs qualitatively and calculate parameters quantitatively. Using conventional logging (...)
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  27.  2
    Multiscale Fracture and Damage Zone Characterization in a Tight Sandstone Reservoir, Sichuan Basin, China.Zonghu Liao, Weilun Chen, Xiaofeng Chen, Huayao Zou & Fang Hao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP1-SP11.
    Fractures within fault damage zones are crucial for the migration of subsurface fluids, which is challenging the characterization of the fractures and damage zones in the subsurface due to the lack of subsurface data. We have investigated the fractures and fault damage zones in the tight sandstone gas-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the northeast Sichuan Basin, China, based on a comprehensive study of seismic data, well log, core, as well as field observations. We have demonstrated the structure and distribution of damage (...)
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  28.  2
    Characterizing Damage Zones of Normal Faults Using Seismic Variance in the Wangxuzhuang Oilfield, China.Zonghu Liao, Luyao Hu, Xiaodi Huang, Brett M. Carpenter, Kurt J. Marfurt, Saiyyna Vasileva & Yun Zhou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP53-SP60.
    We have investigated the distribution and thickness of damage zones for a system of secondary normal faults in the subsurface of the Wangxuzhuang oilfield, China. Based on seismic variance analysis, we find four isolated faults with approximately 2 km length and approximately 200 m damage-zone thickness. The damage zones of these isolated faults reveal a decaying intensity of deformation from the fault core to the protolith, which fits a power-law form [Formula: see text] similar to that observed in the field. (...)
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  29. Collapse Columns in Permian and Carboniferous Formations of Coal, Qinshui Basin, China.Zonghu Liao, Lin Zhang, Long Wen & Lianbo Zeng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SR33-SR35.
    Seismic survey data collected for coal gas exploration show that there are many collapse columns distributed in the subsurface of Qinshui Basin, China. The interesting features of the collapse columns are observed by the seismic attributes, including the circular discontinuous patches on the horizon of the Shanxi Formation and multiple parallel discontinuities in vertical profiles of amplitudes. We speculate that the wide presence of these collapse columns are point constraints for the migration and accumulation of coal gas on a large (...)
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  30.  5
    Natural Fractures in Deep Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs in the Thrust Belt of the Southern Junggar Basin, Northwestern China.Guoping Liu, Lianbo Zeng, Xiaojun Wang, Ostadhassan Mehdi, Zhenlin Wang, Zhe Mao & Qi Tie - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP81-SP93.
    The development of natural fractures is a significant characteristic of the Jurassic deep tight sandstone reservoirs in the thrust belt of the southern Junggar Basin, and these reservoirs have a great potential for natural gas resources. Based on the analyses of outcrops, cores, thin sections, and other laboratory data, natural fractures in these reservoirs are mainly tectonic ones, which appear in groups and vary in scale, dip angle, and density. We have classified fractures in thin sections into intragranular, grain boundary, (...)
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  31.  2
    Stress-Orientation Effects on the Effective Elastic Anisotropy of Complex Fractured Media Using the Lattice Spring Models Coupled with Discrete Fracture Networks Model.Ning Liu & Li-Yun Fu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP31-SP42.
    Stresses oriented differently often cause azimuthal anisotropy in the effective elastic properties of sedimentary rocks. A quantitative analysis of stress-orientation effects is important to interpret the anisotropic characteristics of mechanical and sonic responses. Brazilian tests are conducted to numerically investigate the stress orientation dependence in complex fractured media. We have developed a consistent workflow of lattice spring models coupled with discrete fracture networks. This LSM-DFN model could enable a highly accurate modeling by properly choosing reasonable meshing resolutions, damping values, and (...)
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  32.  3
    Methodology and Application of Shale-Reservoir Natural Fracture Modeling Based on Microseismic Monitoring Data.Ziwei Liu, Jiapeng Wu, Wenzhong Han, Yonggui Zhang, Zhenyong Li, Yuehua Ma, Kecong Ma, Yao Zhang & Hu Wang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP167-SP174.
    Fracturing is a key factor for shale oil and gas enrichment and high production. An accurate fracture model can effectively guide shale oil and gas exploration and development. The establishment of a natural fracture model must address the challenges of difficult data acquisition and poor representativeness of data points. To solve these problems, we have developed a method of shale-reservoir natural fracture modeling based on microseismic monitoring data. This method includes three steps. First, we establish an initial natural fracture model (...)
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  33.  2
    High-Dimensional Co-Occurrence Matrix: A New Tool for 3D Seismic Target Visualization and Interpretation.Qiang Luo, Yibo Wang, Yikang Zheng, Xu Chang, Baodeng Wang & Rongshu Zeng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T967-T979.
    The interpretation of seismic attributes has been developed for more than 40 years, but it still cannot be fully matched with the study of geologic sedimentology. There are two main bottlenecks. One is that almost no attributes can completely characterize amplitudes from a 3D perspective. Another is the influence of wavelets. Accordingly, a new volumetric attribute extraction technique is presented for solving these two problems as much as possible. A high-dimensional co-occurrence matrix, as a statistical representation of the spatial structural (...)
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  34.  3
    Seismic Field Data Displaying Azimuthal Anisotropy, 1986–2020.Heloise Lynn - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP135-SP156.
    The azimuthal processing of 3D full-azimuth full-offset P-P reflection seismic data can enable better imaging, thus yielding improved estimates of structure, lithology, porosity, pore fluids, in situ stress, and aligned porosity that flows fluids. In the past 34 years, the oil and gas industry has significantly advanced in the use of seismic azimuthal anisotropy, in particular, to gain information concerning unequal horizontal stresses and/or vertically aligned fractures, and possibly more importantly, to improve the prestack imaging especially in complex structure. The (...)
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  35. Azimuthal P-P Prestack Amplitudes in the Presence of Oil-Filled Aligned Porosity.Heloise Bloxsom Lynn & Bill Goodway - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP109-SP133.
    A 3D P-P high-fold full-azimuth full-offset reflection survey was acquired and processed to characterize a naturally fractured carbonate reservoir. The reservoir is a thick carbonate, which will flow commercial oil with a sufficient fracture network. Extensive calibration data include a horizontal borehole’s resistivity image log, the first 24 months cumulative oil produced, by stage, as known from chemical frac tracer data, pre- and postfrac job instantaneous shut-in pressures, microseismic, and wireline log data. We used the cumulative oil production to document (...)
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  36.  3
    Improving Fault Delineation Using Maximum Entropy Multispectral Coherence.Bin Lyu, Jie Qi, Saurabh Sinha, Jianjun Li & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T835-T850.
    Knowledge of fault geometry plays an important role in reservoir modeling and characterization. Seismic attributes, such as volumetric dip, coherence, and curvature, provide an efficient and objective tool to extract fault geometry attributes. Traditionally, we use noise-attenuated full-bandwidth seismic data to compute coherence followed by smoothing, sharpening, and skeletonization. However, different stratigraphic reflectors with relatively similar waveforms and amplitudes juxtaposing across a fault will algorithmically appear to be continuous, with the resulting fault image being broken. This leads to pseudo fault (...)
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  37. Seismic Image-Guided 3D Inversion of Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic and Magnetotelluric Data.Randall L. Mackie, Max A. Meju, Federico Miorelli, Roger V. Miller, Carsten Scholl & Ahmad Shahir Saleh - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SS1-SS13.
    Geologic interpretation of resistivity models from marine controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data for hydrocarbon exploration and reservoir monitoring can be problematic due to structural complexity and low-resistivity contrasts in sedimentary units typically found in new frontier areas. It is desirable to reconstruct 3D resistivity structures that are consistent with seismic images and geologic expectations of the subsurface to reduce uncertainty in the evaluation of petroleum ventures. Structural similarity is achieved by promoting a cross-gradient constraint between external seismically derived gradient fields (...)
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  38.  2
    A Fresh Look at Gulf of Mexico Tectonics: Testing Rotations and Breakup Mechanisms From the Perspective of Seismically Constrained Potential-Fields Modeling and Plate Kinematics.Daniel Minguez, E. Gerald Hensel & Elizabeth A. E. Johnson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SS31-SS45.
    Interpretation of recent, high-quality seismic data in the Gulf of Mexico has led to competing hypotheses regarding the basin’s rift to drift transition. Some studies suggest a fault-controlled mechanism that ultimately results in mantle exhumation prior to seafloor spreading. Others suggest voluminous magmatic intrusion accommodates the terminal extension phase and results in the extrusion of volcanic seaward dipping reflectors. Whereas it has been generally accepted that the plate motions between the rift and drift phases of the GOM are nearly perpendicular (...)
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  39.  4
    Estimation of Microfracture Porosity in Deep Carbonate Reservoirs Based on 3D Rock-Physics Templates.Mengqiang Pang, Jing Ba, Li-Yun Fu, José M. Carcione, Uti I. Markus & Lin Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP43-SP52.
    Carbonate reservoirs in the S area of the Tarim Basin are ultradeep hydrocarbon resources, with low porosity, complex fracture systems, and dissolved pores. Microfracturing is a key factor of reservoir connectivity and storage space. We have performed measurements on limestone samples, under different confining pressures, and we used the self-consistent approximation model and the Biot-Rayleigh theory of double porosity to study the microfractures. We have computed the fluid properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Using the dependence of seismic (...)
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  40.  1
    Predicting Reservoir Quality in the Bakken Formation, North Dakota, Using Petrophysics and 3C Seismic Data.Andrea G. Paris & Robert R. Stewart - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T851-T868.
    Combining rock-property analysis with multicomponent seismic imaging can be an effective approach for reservoir quality prediction in the Bakken Formation, North Dakota. The hydrocarbon potential of shale is indicated on well logs by low density, high gamma-ray response, low compressional-wave and shear-wave velocities, and high neutron porosity. We have recognized the shale intervals by cross plotting sonic velocities versus density. Intervals with total organic carbon content higher than 10 wt% deviate from lower TOC regions in the density domain and exhibit (...)
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  41.  2
    A Method to Compensate for Migration Stretch to Improve the Resolution of Amplitude Variation with Offset, S-Impedance (ZS), and Density.Swetal Patel, Francis Oyebanji & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T687-T699.
    Because of their improved leverage against ground roll and multiples, as well as the ability to estimate azimuthal anisotropy, wide-azimuth 3D seismic surveys routinely now are acquired over most resource plays. For a relatively shallow target, most of these surveys can be considered to be long offset as well, containing incident angles up to 45°. Unfortunately, effective use of the far-offset data often is compromised by noise and normal moveout stretch. The conventional NMO correction is well-known to decrease the frequency (...)
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  42.  2
    Seismic Reservoir Characterization of Bentheimer Sandstone, Emlichheim Oil Field, Lower Saxony, Germany.Uwe Strecker, Steffen Hagedorn, Matthias Zeug, Paul Veeken, Wulf Weist, Dominik Weiel, Paul de Groot, Tobias Fuhren & Sven Frehers - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SQ47-SQ71.
    Even in mature oil and gas provinces, unexpected subsurface complexity may challenge budgeted seismic reservoir characterization workflows to become adapted to a higher degree of customization during data preconditioning. In the process of providing a trend cube of sandstone porosity and automatic fault extraction to populate the property distribution and structural framework of a static model over the mature Emlichheim oil field, northwest Germany, many unforeseen data quality issues are encountered that necessitate rigorous well log and seismic data conditioning prior (...)
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  43.  2
    Unveiling the 3D Undercover Structure of a Precambrian Intrusive Complex by Integrating Airborne Magnetic and Gravity Gradient Data Into 3D Quasi-Geology Model Building. [REVIEW]Jiajia Sun, Aline Tavares Melo, Jae Deok Kim & Xiaolong Wei - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SS15-SS29.
    Mineral exploration under a thick sedimentary cover naturally relies on geophysical methods. We have used high-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity gradient data over northeast Iowa to characterize the geology of the concealed Precambrian rocks and evaluate the prospectivity of mineral deposits. Previous researchers have interpreted the magnetic and gravity gradient data in the form of a 2D geologic map of the Precambrian basement rocks, which provides important geophysical constraints on the geologic history and mineral potentials over the Decorah area located (...)
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  44. Thin Section and X-Ray Computed Tomography for Characterizing Volcanic Reservoirs in Chagan Sag, Yin-E Basin, China.Xiaoming Sun, Siyuan Cao & Zicheng Niu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T777-T791.
    We have synthesized macroscopic data and microscopic data to characterize volcanic oil and gas reservoir spaces in the Chagan Sag, Yin-E Basin, China. We also have assessed the controlling factors affecting the formation of these reservoirs. Primary pores significantly improve the reservoir quality because they enable the formation of secondary pores by allowing migration, alteration, and filling by inorganic and organic fluids. Consequently, the development of secondary pores modifies the permeability of the volcanic rocks. The formation of volcanic reservoirs is (...)
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  45.  2
    Interpretation of Vintage 2D Seismic Reflection Data Along the Austrian-Hungarian Border: Subsurface Expression of the Rechnitz Metamorphic Core Complex.Gabor C. Tari, Ingrid Gjerazi & Bernhard Grasemann - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SQ73-SQ91.
    In the border zone between Austria and Hungary, the Miocene extension of the Pannonian Basin was characterized by extreme, large-magnitude upper crustal extension accommodated along low-angle detachment faults. Although some of these prominent normal faults have already been described using 2D seismic data sets and well data on the Hungarian side, we offer the first systematic interpretation using the Austrian and Hungarian vintage seismic data sets acquired in the 1970s and 1980s. The refinement of the previously proposed metamorphic core complex (...)
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  46.  2
    Natural Fractures in the Triassic Tight Sandstones of the Dongpu Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China: The Key to Production.Zhaosheng Wang, Lianbo Zeng, Zhouliang Luo, Kewei Zu, Haigang Lao & Ningning Meng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP71-SP80.
    Natural fractures are identified as high-quality storage space and seepage channels for the Triassic tight sandstone reservoirs in the Dongpu Depression, playing an important role in tight sandstone oil production. We have evaluated natural fracture growth at different scales using outcrops, cores, thin sections, and imaging logs and analyzed the correlation between fractures and crude oil production capacity with production data. Results show that natural fractures primarily are distributed in fine sandstones and siltstones, which mostly are shear fractures of near (...)
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  47. Halokinetic Analysis of the Frade Field Area, Campos Basin, Brazil: Salt Tectonics Within an Offshore Strike-Slip Setting.Stephanie Wischer & Webster Mohriak - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T869-T883.
    The Frade field, located within the Campos Basin in the southeastern Brazilian margin, is a key oil field that produces from Oligo-Miocene turbidite reservoirs that derived their structural positioning due to the presence of an underlying salt diapir. The evolution of the Frade salt structure was examined using well data, selected 2D lines, and a 3D volume that were interpreted in detail focusing on the Aptian evaporite interval and its influence on the overburden. Analysis of the salt-sediment interaction indicated a (...)
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  48.  1
    Multichannel Synchrosqueezing Generalized S-Transform for Time-Frequency Analysis of Seismic Traces.Nanke Wu, Huailai Zhou, Yuanjun Wang, Bo Zhang, Haitao Yan & Niu Cong - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T793-T801.
    The synchrosqueezing generalized S-transform is commonly used to generate an isofrequency component of a signal by squeezing the decomposed frequency components of the signal. However, for seismic signals, the single-trace process can have a lack of lateral information in the squeezed results and lead to some discontinuous geologic information that will mislead the interpreter. Thus, to improve the stability of SSGST, we have developed a multichannel seismic trace squeezing method. Multichannel SSGST considers the decomposed frequency components of neighboring traces of (...)
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  49.  3
    Quantitative Identification of Coal Texture Using the Support Vector Machine with Geophysical Logging Data: A Case Study Using Medium-Rank Coal From the Panjiang, Guizhou, China.Zhenghui Xiao, Wei Jiang, Bin Sun, Yunjiang Cao, Lei Jiang, Taotao Cao, Qing Yang, Cailun Huang, Xiansheng Yang & Xiangkuan Huang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T753-T762.
    Coal texture is important for predicting coal seam permeability and selecting favorable blocks for coalbed methane exploration. Drilled cores and mining seam observations are the most direct and effective methods of identifying coal texture; however, they are expensive and cannot be used in unexplored coal seams. Geophysical logging has become a common method of coal texture identification, particularly during the CBM mining stage. However, quantitative methods for identifying coal texture based on geophysical logging data require further study. The support vector (...)
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  50. Recognizing Fracture Pattern Signatures Contributed by Seismic Loadings.Shiqing Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP95-SP108.
    The impacts of seismic loadings to fault zone rocks still are not well understood. Although field and experimental studies have suggested several markers, such as pseudotachylytes and pulverized rocks, for indicating seismic loadings, the corresponding markers of other types or at larger scales still are lacking. Drawing from the results of dynamic ruptures with off-fault damage, we have recognized several additional fracture features that may be used to reflect the involvement of seismic loadings. For strike-slip faults stressed at moderate to (...)
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  51. Integrating Multigeophysical Data to Improve Structural Imaging in the Dayangshu Basin.Bo Yang, Zhan Liu & Kaijun Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SS87-SS96.
    We have used the integrated interpretation of gravity, magnetotelluric data, and seismic data to improve the structural imaging of the Dayangshu Basin. The Dayangshu Basin is mainly composed of clastic and volcanic rocks. The logging data in the basin show different degrees of direct hydrocarbon indication, suggesting that the Dayangshu Basin has good potential for exploration. However, the widely distributed volcanic rocks attenuate seismic waves and lead to poor seismic imaging. Thus, the seismic signal is weak in the Ganhe Formation (...)
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  52. Fracture Identification of Ordovician Carbonate Reservoir Based on R/S Analysis in the North of the Shunbei No. 5 Fault Zone, Tarim Basin.Ruiqiang Yang, Wenlong Ding, Jingtao Liu, Zhan Zhao, Shuanggui Li & Zikang Xiao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T907-T916.
    Fractures are widely developed in various reservoirs, where they provide not only migration pathways but also additional storage space for oil and gas. With the improvement of exploration and development in recent years, the study of fractures has become one of the key factors for high production in reservoirs, and the accurate identification of fracture distribution is of great significance for the exploration and development of many reservoirs. Outcrop, core observation, well logging, and imaging analysis all show that various types (...)
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  53. Attenuation of Seismic Swell Noise Using Convolutional Neural Networks in Frequency Domain and Transfer Learning.Jiachun You, Yajuan Xue, Junxing Cao & Canping Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T941-T952.
    Because swell noises are very common in marine seismic data, it is extremely important to attenuate them to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Compared to process noises in the time domain, we have built a frequency-domain convolutional neural network based on the short-time Fourier transform to address swell noises. In the numerical experiments, we quantitatively evaluate the denoising performances of the time- and frequency-domain CNNs, compare the impacts of network structures on attenuating swell noises, and study how network parameter choices impact (...)
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  54.  1
    Seismic Well Tie by Aligning Impedance Log with Inverted Impedance From Seismic Data.Bo Zhang, Yahua Yang, Yong Pan, Hao Wu & Danping Cao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T917-T925.
    The accuracy of seismic inversion is affected by the seismic wavelet and time-depth relationship generated by the process of the seismic well tie. The seismic well tie is implemented by comparing the synthetic seismogram computed from well logs and the poststack seismogram at or nearby the borehole location. However, precise waveform matching between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic trace does not guarantee an accurate tie between the elastic properties contained represented by the seismic data and well logs. We have (...)
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  55.  2
    Azimuthal Anisotropy Analysis Applied to Naturally Fractured Unconventional Reservoirs: A Barnett Shale Example.Jing Zhang, Jie Qi, Yijin Zeng, Kurt Marfurt & Roger Slatt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):SP13-SP29.
    Studying the seismic responses of velocity and amplitude on wide-/full-azimuth seismic data is now common for unconventional reservoir characterization. Velocity variation with azimuth and amplitude variation with azimuth are two of the most popular tools to map not only the relative intensity and orientation of natural fractures but also the strength and orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SH. We prestack time migrated a wide-azimuth Barnett Shale survey in North Texas into eight azimuths and reduced noise on the gathers using (...)
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  56.  1
    Prestack Simultaneous Inversion for Delineation of the Lower Wilcox Erosional Remnant Sandstone Beneath the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain: A Case Study.Tianze Zhang, Yani Lin, Kelly H. Liu & Stephen S. Gao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T991-T1005.
    The Lower Wilcox lowstand sand deposits encased between two sequence boundaries along the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain are of good reservoir quality and usually gas productive. However, the sedimentation is sparsely scattered within such a depositional environment and it is hard to predict by qualitative interpretation methods. Simultaneous inversion of elastic parameters such as P-impedance, S-impedance, and density by the integration of prestack data and well logs allows us to quantitatively characterize the reservoirs and to distinguish them from the surrounding (...)
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  57. Petrophysical Properties Difference of Organic-Rich and Organic-Poor Shale Reservoir Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment in the Sangzhi Block, South China.Gang Zhao, Wenlong Ding, Yaxiong Sun, Siyu Shi, Baocheng Jiao, Li Tian, Peng Chen, Zhan Zhao & Ning Sun - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T895-T905.
    The petrophysical properties of rocks have an important influence on shale quality. To characterize the difference of petrophysical properties between organic-rich and organic-poor shale reservoirs, we used the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technique and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis after argon-ion polishing or natural section to measure porosity and permeability from six core samples from well SY6 in the Sangzhi block, Northwest Hunan province. Some information about pore types, pore structure, residual porosity, movable porosity, and permeability based on the (...)
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  58.  1
    Pore Structure and Controlling Factors of Dolomite-Bearing High-Salinity Shale Reservoir in Qianjiang Formation, Jianghan Basin, China.Tong Zhou, Jianzheng Su, Shichao Fan, Zhaofeng Li, Xiaoxue Liu & Xianglu Tang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (4):T675-T686.
    High-salinity shale is a unique and promising shale-oil reservoir in continental basins. We have collected representative samples from different lithologies from wells in the Qianjiang Depression to test the pore structure and basic character from prospective high-salinity oil-bearing shales. We conducted field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses to study the high-salinity shale pore morphology and composition, respectively. We used mercury injection capillary pressure to understand the high-salinity shale macropore distribution, and we used low-pressure nitrogen adsorption to study (...)
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  59.  5
    Integrating Petroelastic Modeling, Stochastic Seismic Inversion, and Bayesian Probability Classification to Reduce Uncertainty of Hydrocarbon Prediction: Example From Malay Basin.Amir Abbas Babasafari, Deva P. Ghosh, Ahmed M. A. Salim & Masoumeh Kordi - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM65-SM82.
    Exploring hydrocarbon in structural-stratigraphical traps is challenging due to the high lateral variation of lithofluid facies. In addition, reservoir characterization is getting more obscure if the reservoir layers are thin and below the seismic vertical resolution. Our objectives are to reduce the uncertainty of reserve estimation and to predict hydrocarbon distribution more accurately in such reservoir layers by proposing a new workflow that works better than the conventional one. The approach was performed by integrating petroelastic modeling, stochastic elastic seismic inversion, (...)
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  60.  2
    Controls on Abnormally High Porosity in a Deep Burial Reservoir of the Lingshui Formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea.Guangxu Bi, Chengfu Lyu, Qianshan Zhou, Guojun Chen, Chao Li, Gongcheng Zhang, Yilin Zhao & Chengze Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM53-SM64.
    Based on information including porosity and permeability, petrography, the stable isotopic composition of carbonate cements, and homogenization temperatures of aqueous fluid inclusions, we have studied the main factors for the development of abnormally high porosity in the Lingshui Formation reservoir of the Yacheng area. We found the sandstones were mainly subarkose, arkose, and lithic arkose and were texturally and compositionally immature. The research suggested that the sandstones existing close beneath the regional unconformity were formed during the Late Oligocene. Early diagenetic (...)
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  61.  4
    3D Geophysical Modeling of the Alberton-Mathinna Section of the “Main Slide,” Northeast Tasmania.Daniel Bombardieri, Mark Duffett, Andrew McNeill, Mike Vicary & Rod Paterson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T525-T540.
    We have developed a high-resolution 3D model of the Alberton-Mathinna section of the “Main Slide,” northeast Tasmania. This geological model expresses a new synthesis based on mapping and structural interpretation on multiple cross sections. We have refined this model by 3D geophysical inversion constrained by gravity and magnetic survey data coupled with drilling and rock physical property databases. Our modeling incorporates statistically generated sensitivity characterization metrics into 3D model products that map confidence in the geometry of geological units at depth. (...)
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  62.  7
    Analysis of the Internal Architectural Elements of Tidal-Influenced Meandering Fluvial Deposits Using Well Logging and Seismic Data: The Study of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada.Lifang Cheng, Yanshu Yin, Hui Wang, Wenjie Feng, Lixin Wang, Zhenkun Liu, Pangen Wang & Jiong Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM103-SM114.
    A reservoir was dominated by inclined heterolithic stratification formed in large point bars of the McMurray Formation. We have used high-resolution seismic data and logging data to identify the internal architectural elements of the reservoir. From the core data, we defined four lithofacies and recognized the architectural element boundary. Then, we used stratum dip data across wells, combined with seismic reflectivity, isopach, and amplitude attributes, to understand the lateral continuity of the boundaries. Later, we established the sedimentary model and found (...)
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  63.  5
    The Effectiveness of Spectral Decomposition-Based Layer Thickness Estimation: A Seismic Physical Modeling Example.Tiago Filgueiras Pereira & Sérgio Adriano Moura Oliveira - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T625-T637.
    We have constructed a channel complex model at a scale of 1:10,000 by stacking 3D-printed polylactide layers with negative relief meandering channels. This model was subjected to an ultrasonic common-offset acquisition in a water tank, and the result was treated as a zero-offset 3D acoustic reflection seismogram, receiving a deterministic deconvolution and a poststack migration as data treatment. We then developed an algorithm to yield volumes of estimated two-way time layer thickness from multiple-frequency volumes obtained through the short-time Fourier transform. (...)
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  64. Polarity and Phase in Reflection Seismic Data: Stratton Field.Qiang Guo & Wayne D. Pennington - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T599-T609.
    Seismic interpretation is often based on the analysis of amplitude anomalies, which depend strongly on the seismic wavelet presented in the data. However, if the wavelet polarity or phase is unknown or fine-scale impedance variations are complex, interpretation of the anomaly can be ambiguous. The Stratton data volume contains a dome-like feature that may be interpreted as the top of a potential gas target, the top of a buried tight reef, or as a thin layer of either higher or lower (...)
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  65.  3
    A Multiple Filtering and Correlation Array Signal Processing Technique for Cased-Hole Acoustic Logging and Applications.Fan-Tong Kong, Can Jiang, Yuan-Da Su & Xiao-Ming Tang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL1-SL8.
    In cased-hole acoustic logging, estimating the formation velocity is often problematic when the casing is poorly bonded with the formation. The overwhelmingly large casing waves dominate the measured waveforms and overlap with the low-coherence, weak formation arrival, contributing to the failure of conventional semblance processing method. To tackle this problem, we have developed a filtered frequency semblance array waveform signal processing technique. The multiple filter technique is first used to filter the measured waveforms. We then apply the [Formula: see text]th (...)
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  66.  1
    Predicting Oil Saturation of Shale-Oil Reservoirs Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logs.Lichun Kuang, Zhenlin Wang, Cheng Feng, Peiqiang Zhao, Rui Mao & Jing Yu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL35-SL43.
    Oil saturation is an important parameter in shale-oil reservoir evaluation. However, due to complex wettability and pore construction, we find that conventional resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance methods do not perform well in calculating oil saturation in shale-oil reservoirs. Hence, we have developed a practical NMR-based method to calculate the oil saturation of the Lucaogou shale-oil Formation, Permian, in Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin, China. First, we analyze the relationships among the wettability, oil saturation, and [Formula: see text] distribution based on (...)
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  67.  3
    Northeast British Columbia Liard Basin: A Seismic Stratigraphy Study.Jennifer Leslie-Panek, Margot McMechan & Fil Ferri - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T579-T588.
    The Liard Basin is a highly prospective shale gas basin located in northeast British Columbia that is largely underrepresented in public literature. We used available-for-purchase 2D seismic data in the area to create a high-level, regional stratigraphic interpretation of the basin, providing the first seismically controlled overview of the basin structure and stratigraphy. The basin is characterized by two distinct, opposing wedges of sediment in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic sections: the Mesozoic with northeastward thinning and the Paleozoic with southwestward thinning. (...)
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  68.  2
    Vug and Fracture Characterization and Gas Production Prediction by Fractals: Carbonate Reservoir of the Longwangmiao Formation in the Moxi-Gaoshiti Area, Sichuan Basin.Chang Li, Liqiang Sima, Guoqiong Che, Wang Liang, Anjiang Shen, Qingxin Guo & Bing Xie - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL159-SL171.
    A comprehensive knowledge of the development and connectivity of fractures and vugs in carbonate reservoirs plays a key role in reservoir evaluation, ultimately affecting the gas prediction of this kind of heterogeneous reservoir. The carbonate reservoirs with fractures and vugs that are well developed in the Longwangmiao Formation, Sichuan Basin are selected as a research target, with the fractal dimension calculated from the full-bore formation microimager image proposed to characterize the fractures and vugs. For this purpose, the multipoint statistics algorithm (...)
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  69. On the Depth of Detection of Logging-While-Drilling Resistivity Measurements for Looking-Around and Looking-Ahead Applications.Hu Li, Jun Zhu, Yanchun Xiong, Gang Liu, Yuanshi Tian, Zunbo Geng & John Zhou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL151-SL158.
    The depth of detection, which is an important concept in logging data interpretation, describes the detection capability of the borehole measurements. We have extended the definition of DOD for azimuthal information, namely, the geosignal delivered by azimuthal resistivity tools, to resistivity logs in logging-while-drilling applications. Instead of using the radial geometric factor, the detection thresholds in predicting a geologic boundary are used to describe the DOD of a measurement. This definition unifies the criteria to evaluate the detectability of different borehole (...)
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  70.  4
    Novel Strategies for Complex Foothills Seismic Imaging — Part 1: Mega-Near-Surface Velocity Estimation.Yalin Li, Xianhuai Zhu, Gengxin Peng, Liansheng Liu & Wensheng Duan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T651-T665.
    Seismic imaging in foothills areas is challenging because of the complexity of the near-surface and subsurface structures. Single seismic surveys often are not adequate in a foothill-exploration area, and multiple phases with different acquisition designs within the same block are required over time to get desired sampling in space and azimuths for optimizing noise attenuation, velocity estimation, and migration. This is partly because of economic concerns, and it is partly because technology is progressing over time, creating the need for unified (...)
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  71.  2
    Petrophysical Characteristics and Log Identification of Lacustrine Shale Lithofacies: A Case Study of the First Member of Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin, Northeast China.Bo Liu, Xiaoqing Zhao, Xiaofei Fu, Baiyan Yuan, Longhui Bai, Yuwei Zhang & Mehdi Ostadhassan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL45-SL57.
    As an unconventional resource, shale reservoirs recently have attracted considerable attention in the petroleum industry. Shale plays are highly heterogenous vertically and laterally and are characterized by rapid changes in mineral composition. Thus, identification of dominant lithofacies is a key issue in the development of shale oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, various existing lithofacies in a shale section as a target unit in the Qingshankou Formation are divided based on organic matter content, sedimentary structure, and mineral composition. To (...)
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  72.  1
    Common-Azimuth Seismic Data Fault Analysis Using Residual UNet.Naihao Liu, Tao He, Yajun Tian, Bangyu Wu, Jinghuai Gao & Zongben Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM25-SM37.
    Seismic fault interpretation is one of the key steps for seismic structure interpretation, which is a time-consuming task and strongly depends on the experience of the interpreter. Aiming to automate fault interpretation, we have considered it as an image segmentation issue and adopt a solution using a residual UNet, which introduces residual units to UNet. Using the ResUNet model, we develop a fault-versus-azimuth analysis based on offset vector tile data, which, as common-azimuth seismic data, provide more detailed and useful information (...)
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  73.  4
    Sedimentary Characteristics of Muddy Deposits in Sandy Braided Fluvial System: A Case Study From Outcrops of the Jurassic Yungang Formation in the Datong Basin, Central China.Yuming Liu, Luxing Dou, Xiaoxu Ren & Jiagen Hou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM139-SM149.
    The sandbodies within braided fluvial deposits are important reservoirs for the oil fields in China, and they usually have complex sedimentary architecture. A lot of research has been concentrated on characterizing the architecture of the sandbodies. Based on the observation that muddy deposits are commonly well preserved in fluvial deposits, we find that understanding the contact relationship between the muddy deposits and surrounding sand bodies can help characterize the depositional process of sandy braided fluvial systems. We have determined the effectiveness (...)
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  74.  4
    Enhancing Interpretability with Diffraction Imaging Using Plane-Wave Destruction Aided by Frequency-Wavenumber F-K Filtering.Brydon Lowney, Ivan Lokmer, Gareth Shane O’Brien, Lawrence Amy, Christopher J. Bean & Michael Igoe - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T541-T554.
    A conventional processing workflow favors only the specular reflections, reducing or removing other wavefield interactions. These specular reflections are unsuitable for directly imaging sharp corners, such as those in fault zones and pinch outs; therefore, diffractions are used instead in a technique known as diffraction imaging. Plane-wave destruction is a well-established method for removing reflections and imaging diffractions. However, this method assumes a gently variable slope; therefore, it fails to remove energy in areas that do not follow this assumption such (...)
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  75.  1
    Interpreting Bibliometric Signals.Jeno Mavzer - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):3A-12A.
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  76.  5
    Machine Learning for Geophysical Characterization of Brittleness: Tuscaloosa Marine Shale Case Study.Mark Mlella, Ming Ma, Rui Zhang & Mehdi Mokhtari - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T589-T597.
    Brittleness is one of the most important reservoir properties for unconventional reservoir exploration and production. Better knowledge about the brittleness distribution can help to optimize the hydraulic fracturing operation and lower costs. However, there are very few reliable and effective physical models to predict the spatial distribution of brittleness. We have developed a machine learning-based method to predict subsurface brittleness by using multidiscipline data sets, such as seismic attributes, rock physics, and petrophysics information, which allows us to implement the prediction (...)
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  77.  4
    Oil Content Prediction of Lacustrine Organic-Rich Shale From Wireline Logs: A Case Study of Intersalt Reservoirs in the Qianjiang Sag, Jianghan Basin, China.Xin Nie, Jing Lu, Roufida Rana Djaroun, Peilin Wang, Zhang Chaomo & Jun Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL79-SL88.
    Shale oil is an unconventional oil resource with great potential. Oil saturation is an essential parameter for formation evaluation. However, due to the complexity of matrix mineral components and pore structure, Archie’s law cannot be used directly to calculate [Formula: see text] in shale oil reservoirs. We have developed a new saturation model for shale oil reservoirs. This model allows us to separate the organic from the inorganic pores, eliminate the background conductivity mainly caused by the borehole fluid or conductive (...)
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  78.  1
    To: “Surface to Subsurface Correlation of the Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation Within a Revised Sequence Stratigraphic Framework,” William A. Rouse, Katherine J. Whidden, Julie A. Dumoulin, and David W. Houseknecht, Interpretation, 8, No. 2, SJ1–SJ16, Doi: 10.1190/INT-2019-0195.1. [REVIEW]William A. Rouse, Katherine J. Whidden, Julie A. Dumoulin & David W. Houseknecht - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):Y1-Y1.
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  79.  7
    4D Petroelastic Modeling Based on a Presalt Well.E. P. A. Silva, A. Davólio, M. S. Santos & D. J. Schiozer - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T639-T649.
    After their initial discovery in 2006, followed by an accumulated production of over 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent, the presalt carbonate reservoirs of offshore Brazil are now candidates for time-lapse seismic analysis. Therefore, we have conducted a 4D feasibility study in a Brazilian presalt reservoir well, which is composed of two types of carbonate rocks: microbialite and coquina. We evaluated two petroelastic models to obtain the acoustic impedance and shear impedance needed to estimate potential time-lapse differences. For this, we (...)
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  80.  2
    Application of Seismic Sedimentology in Lithostratigraphic Trap Exploration: A Case Study From Banqiao Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Mingjun Su, Jun Yao, Qilin Chen, Kaifeng Hu & Zhong Hong - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T501-T514.
    A method of identifying lithostratigraphic traps based on seismic sedimentology is proposed. We first establish a 3D high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework by using the stratal slices. Then, the reservoir distribution and reservoir-seal assemblage are investigated within the high-resolution sequence framework. This method turns the interpretation of lithostratigraphic traps from traditional seismic facies-based approach to the dynamic analysis of high-resolution seismic geomorphic information. We divide the lower Sha-1 member in the Banqiao Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China, into fourth- and fifth-order (...)
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  81. Sedimentary Environment Prediction of Grain-Size Data Based on Machine Learning Approach.Qiao Su, Yanhui Zhu, Fang Hu & Xingyong Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL71-SL78.
    Grain size is one of the most important records for sedimentary environment, and researchers have made remarkable progress in the interpretation of sedimentary environments by grain size analysis in the past few decades. However, these advances often depend on the personal experience of the scholars and combination with other methods used together. Here, we constructed a prediction model using the K-nearest neighbors algorithm, one of the machine learning methods, which can predict the sedimentary environments of one core through a known (...)
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  82.  6
    Near-Salt Stress-Induced Seismic Velocity Changes and Seismic Anisotropy and Their Impacts on Salt Imaging: A Case Study in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, China.Yunqiang Sun, Gang Luo, Yaxing Li, Mingwen Wang, Xiaofeng Jia, Cheng Chang & Rui Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T487-T499.
    It has been recognized that stress perturbations in sediments induced by salt bodies can cause elastic-wave velocity changes and seismic anisotropy through changing their elastic parameters, thus leading to difficulties in salt imaging. To investigate seismic velocity changes and seismic anisotropy by near-salt stress perturbations and their impacts on salt imaging, taking the Kuqa depression as an example, we have applied a 2D plane-strain static geomechanical finite-element model to simulate stress perturbations and calculate the associated seismic velocity changes and seismic (...)
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  83.  3
    Application of Time-Frequency Entropy Based on High-Order Synchrosqueezing Transform in Reservoir Prediction.Renfei Tian, Xue Lei & Jiangtao Hu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T667-T674.
    Reservoir prediction is an essential component of seismic exploration. We have introduced a new technique for reservoir prediction based on time-frequency entropy that can detect seismic attenuation caused by reservoir fluid, such as gas and oil. The use of conventional methods of time-frequency analysis leads to low resolution due to inadequate calculation accuracy. To address this issue, we have adopted a novel method of calculating time-frequency entropy that computes the time-frequency distribution using a high-order synchrosqueezing transform to obtain time-frequency entropy (...)
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  84.  1
    Introduction to Special Section: Formation Evaluation Using Petrophysics and Borehole Geophysics.Hua Wang, Hu Li, Bo Zhang, Shuvajit Bhattacharya, Zhaohui Xu & Bin Zhao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SLi-SLii.
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  85.  3
    Automated Gamma-Ray Log Pattern Alignment and Depth Matching by Machine Learning.Shirui Wang, Qiuyang Shen, Xuqing Wu & Jiefu Chen - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL25-SL34.
    Depth matching of multiple logging curves is essential to any well evaluation or reservoir characterization. Depth matching can be applied to various measurements of a single well or multiple log curves from multiple wells within the same field. Because many drilling advisory projects have been launched to digitalize the well-log analysis, accurate depth matching becomes an important factor in improving well evaluation, production, and recovery. It is a challenge, though, to align the log curves from multiple wells due to the (...)
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  86.  1
    Identifying the Lithology of Volcanic Rocks by Using the Time-Frequency Features of Array Acoustic Logging Data.Wenhua Wang, Pujun Wang, Zhuwen Wang, Min Xiang & Jinghua Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL127-SL136.
    The traditional acoustic logging signal processing method is computing the slowness of each component wave by time-domain or frequency-domain methods. But both of the two methods are limited. To combine the signals’ times, frequencies, or amplitudes, we have analyzed the array acoustic logging signals by the fractional Fourier transform and the Choi-Williams distribution. First, we apply the fractional Fourier transform on an array acoustic logging waveform with proper [Formula: see text], then the Choi-Williams distribution analysis method is used to process (...)
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  87.  5
    The Relationship Between Synsedimentary Fault Activity and Reservoir Quality — A Case Study of the Ek1 Formation in the Wang Guantun Area, China.Xixin Wang, Yuming Liu, Jiagen Hou, Shaohua Li, Qiangqiang Kang, Shuang Sun, Ling Ji, Jian Sun & Rui Ma - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM15-SM24.
    The activity of synsedimentary faults plays an important role in controlling the distribution of sand bodies in basins and furthermore the porosity and permeability of reservoirs. We have used fault interpretation, the method of image and granularity size analysis, and the seismic pumping effect to investigate the control of the activity of the Kongdong fault on the development degree of the dissolution pores and grain size, further studying the controlling mechanism of the activity of synsedimentary faults on reservoir quality. The (...)
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  88.  4
    Anisotropic Strength and Failure Behaviors of Transversely Isotropic Shales: An Experimental Investigation.Yang Wang, Hui Li, Abhijit Mitra, De-Hua Han & Teng Long - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL59-SL70.
    The deformation and fracture of anisotropic shale rocks are of great interest to geoengineers concerned with assessing the stability of boreholes and underground excavations. However, some mechanic properties associated with anisotropic rock fracture remain ambiguous. We have purposely reported triaxial failure tests on two sets of transversely isotropic shale plugs cutting parallel and perpendicular to the bedding planes. The experimental results suggest that the bedding planes give rise to considerable differences in the elastic properties, failure strength, and failure modes in (...)
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  89.  1
    Comparison and Research of Multidimensional Analysis for Array Acoustic Logging in Fractured Formations.Min Xiang, Zhuwen Wang & Xinghua Qi - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL89-SL102.
    Currently, array acoustic logging data processing is mainly achieved by calculating only the velocity variation of each component wave. This provides a little formation information; thus, it is difficult to identify all fractures. We have analyzed the array acoustic logging signals by combining their times, frequencies, or amplitudes. First, we decomposed the array acoustic logging signals into main and secondary signals by improving the singular value decomposition. We then analyzed the characteristics of the array acoustic logging signals in fractured formations (...)
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  90.  1
    Focused Fluid Flow Systems Discovered From Seismic Data at the Southern Margin of the South China Sea.Wei Yan, Guangxue Zhang, Li Zhang, Bin Xia, Zhen Yang, Kunsheng Qiang & Miaomiao Meng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T555-T567.
    This research focuses on the seismic characteristics of various fluid flow systems at the southern margin of the South China Sea. We have considered their associated seismic responses and hydrocarbon accumulations and determined the relationships between fluid flow and hydrocarbon migration. From amplitude anomalies and geometric morphology, we identify different focused fluid flow systems, such as mud diapirs/mud volcanoes, gas chimneys, pipes, and fault-related flow systems. We observe that gas-bearing fields associated with high-amplitude anomalous, low-amplitude chaotic, and “drop-down” reflection events (...)
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  91.  1
    Conglomerate Petrology Characterization Using High-Definition Borehole Electrical Images in the Upper Urho Formation at Well JL42, Zhongguai Uplift, Junggar Basin, China.Rui Yuan, Bo Yang, Chunfu Pan, Guo Xuguang, Huang Liliang, He Wenjun, Youlun Feng & Kang Zhao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL137-SL150.
    Cores drilled from wells are significant resources for understanding the geologic characteristics of petroleum reservoirs. However, due to the high cost and long rig time involved, it is impossible to obtain cores from the entire sedimentary formation in a drilling well. Furthermore, core breakage limits the amount of information that can be obtained in the vertical deposition environment of deep-buried formations. Therefore, we have used ultrahigh-resolution and high-quality borehole electrical images obtained by a borehole electrical imaging tool, High-Definition Formation MicroImager, (...)
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  92.  1
    The Impact of Grain Characteristics on Acoustic Logging in Unconsolidated Sands.Chongwang Yue, Zhuwen Wang, Zhi Yang & Yu Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL103-SL111.
    Characterizing acoustic propagation in unconsolidated sand reservoirs is critical in offshore oil and gas exploration. We have simulated the acoustic field in a borehole surrounded by granular media based on nonuniform contact, using a 2nd-order in time and 10th-order in space finite-difference technique. We focus on the impact of the porosity and coordination number, grain size, and grain scale distribution on acoustic logging. Numerical simulation results show that P- and S-wave velocities decrease with increasing the porosity or decreasing the coordination (...)
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  93. Reservoir Characterization by Integrating Multidiscipline Data — Introduction.Bo Zhang, Yuming Liu, Shuvajit Bhattacharya, Shan Huang, Bin Zhao & Fan Song - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SMi-SMi.
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  94.  2
    Origin of Multiple-Phase Carbonate Cements in the Sandstones of the Third Member of the Shahejie Formation in the Niuzhuang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin.Yongwang Zhang & Feng Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM83-SM101.
    Authigenic carbonate cement is one of the most abundant diagenetic minerals in sandstone reservoirs. Determining its origin and distribution may provide useful information for understanding the sandstone reservoir quality. In this study, we report results from a suite of analytical techniques to investigate the origin and evolution of carbonate cements in the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Bohai Bay Basin. Our data indicate that the carbonate cements mainly occur in three phases: the early-phase calcite, late-phase ferroan calcite, (...)
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  95.  2
    Hydrodynamics and Deposition in Lacustrine Shallow-Water Delta Front: A Combination of Numerical Simulations and Modern Sedimentation Measurements.Yunlong Zhang, Zhidong Bao, Luxing Dou, Li Jiang, Mingyang Wei & Li Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM39-SM52.
    With the exploration of tight oil and gas, shallow-water deltaic reservoirs have been attracting more and more attention. The sedimentary architecture of a shallow-water delta shows distinctive differences with that of a deep-slope delta. These differences may be associated with the mechanism and characteristics of the deposition in the area where the sediments unloaded. Based on modern sedimentary research of the Poyang Lake in China, this paper focuses on the processes of river flow entering a lake with a low dip (...)
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  96.  1
    Integrated Reservoir Characterization of a Utica Shale with Focus on Sweet Spot Discrimination.Jinming Zhu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM1-SM14.
    Multiclient 3D seismic data were acquired in 2015 in eastern Ohio for reservoir characterization of the Utica Shale consisting of the Utica and Point Pleasant Formations. I attained accurate, high-fidelity acoustic impedance, shear impedance, density, and [Formula: see text], from elastic inversion. These accurate inversion results allow consistent calculation of reservoir and geomechanical properties of the Utica Shale. I found density critically important affecting the accuracy of other reservoir and geomechanical properties. More than a dozen properties in geologic, geomechanical, and (...)
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  97.  3
    An Improved Method to Characterize the Full-Scale Pore System and Dual Pore Model of Tight Sands.Yurui Zhu, Zhengyuan Lu, Mingshi Feng, Jun Wang & Zhipeng Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL9-SL23.
    Tight sands have pore systems with complex structures and widely distributed pore sizes. We have studied the characteristics of these pore systems to better understand their important role in the accumulation and migration mechanisms of oil and gas reservoirs, which may enhance our ability to evaluate reservoir quality and predict reservoir production. To this end, we carried out thin-section analysis, scanning electron microscopy, pressure-controlled porosimetry, and rate-controlled porosimetry to describe the pore systems of a typical tight-sand reservoir in East Asia. (...)
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  98.  3
    Influencing Factor Analysis of the Elastic Properties of Shale with Rock-Physical Model Including Pressure Effects.Zhaoyun Zong, Man Jiang & Miaomiao Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T515-T524.
    With the continuous petroleum exploration around the world, the target of exploration is converting from conventional to deep, unconventional reservoirs. The pressure condition on those new target layers is different from the conventional reservoir, and pressure is one of the important factors affecting the elastic moduli and velocities of shale reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to take pressure effects into consideration in rock-physics modeling. We initially adopted a novel iterative rock-physical modeling approach on the basis of pore space stiffness theory (...)
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  99.  1
    Interpretation of Paleozoic Paleokarst Features in the Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma Using 3D Seismic and Well Logs.Olanrewaju Aboaba & Christopher Liner - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T421-T440.
    Paleokarst regions worldwide are repositories for hydrocarbons, mineral deposits, and groundwater. Time structure maps were generated for the Ordovician Viola Limestone, Mississippian Caney Shale, and Pennsylvanian Jefferson Sandstone and Wapanucka Limestone. Isochron maps indicate pronounced visible sinkhole time thickening in the Viola-Caney and Caney-Jefferson intervals relative to the Jefferson-Wapanucka. Sinkhole features in the Viola exhibit mappable structural depression, characterized by lower positive amplitude, higher seismic variance, and most-negative curvature. Curiously, spatially coincident sinkhole features in the shallower Wapanucka display the opposite (...)
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  100.  3
    Introduction to Special Section: Atlantic Margin of Canada.Ian Atkinson, Vsevolod Egorov, David Brown, John Cody, William Dickson, Michael Enachescu, Roy Fitzsimmons, John Hogg & Jonathan Redfern - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SHi-SHi.
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  101.  4
    Seismic Attribute and Petrophysics-Assisted Interpretation of the Nanushuk and Torok Formations on the North Slope, Alaska.Shuvajit Bhattacharya & Sumit Verma - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ17-SJ34.
    Exploration of the Brookian sandstone reservoirs in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations on the North Slope of Alaska is a hot topic and presents opportunities to the oil and gas community because of their shallow depth, vast extent, and scope of development. The consecutive hydrocarbon discoveries announced by Repsol-Armstrong, Caelus Energy, and ConocoPhillips in 2015, 2016, and 2017 have indicated the presence of the vast recoverable resources on the North Slope in the Nanushuk and Torok reservoirs. We have investigated the (...)
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  102.  2
    Introduction to Special Section: Alaska — Challenges and Opportunities in the Last Frontier.Shuvajit Bhattacharya, Sumit Verma, Evan Staples, Jacob Mongrain & Bradley Wallet - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ17-SJ34.
    Exploration of the Brookian sandstone reservoirs in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations on the North Slope of Alaska is a hot topic and presents opportunities to the oil and gas community because of their shallow depth, vast extent, and scope of development. The consecutive hydrocarbon discoveries announced by Repsol-Armstrong, Caelus Energy, and ConocoPhillips in 2015, 2016, and 2017 have indicated the presence of the vast recoverable resources on the North Slope in the Nanushuk and Torok reservoirs. We have investigated the (...)
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  103.  1
    Seismic Characterization of Geothermal Sedimentary Reservoirs: A Field Example From the Copenhagen Area, Denmark.Kenneth Bredesen, Esben Dalgaard, Anders Mathiesen, Rasmus Rasmussen & Niels Balling - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T275-T291.
    We have seismically characterized a Triassic-Jurassic deep geothermal sandstone reservoir north of Copenhagen, onshore Denmark. A suite of regional geophysical measurements, including prestack seismic data and well logs, was integrated with geologic information to obtain facies and reservoir property predictions in a Bayesian framework. The applied workflow combined a facies-dependent calibrated rock-physics model with a simultaneous amplitude-variation-with-offset seismic inversion. The results suggest that certain sandstone distributions are potential aquifers within the target interval, which appear reasonable based on the geologic properties. (...)
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  104.  1
    Near-Salt Perturbations of Stresses and Pore Fluid Pressures and Their Impacts on Wellbore Stability in the Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin, China.Cheng Chang, Gang Luo, Mingwen Wang & Yunqiang Sun - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG33-SG49.
    Salt structures are highly associated with economic hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, drilling a wellbore near or through the salt is usually difficult because the near-salt stresses and pore fluid pressures are largely perturbed due to weaker mechanical strength of salt bodies than their surrounding sediments. We have developed a 2D plane-strain poroelastic finite-element model to simulate stresses and pore pressures in the horizontal-compression salt tectonic system, the Kuqa depression in the Tarim Basin, China, and we use the model results of stresses (...)
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  105.  1
    Seismic Geomorphology of Shoal-Water Deltaic and Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Beach-Bar Systems in Hanging Wall of Rift Basins: Paleogene of the Raoyang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Hehe Chen, Xiaomin Zhu, Ruisheng Shi & Zili Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF1-SF19.
    Recent studies of ancient rift basins focus on the tectonosedimentary models, which emphasize the control of tectonics on the distribution and evolution of depositional systems in rift basins, whereas these studies seldom address stratigraphic dominated depositional models. Compared to footwall depositional systems, hanging wall depositional systems are especially underexplored due to their fine-grained, thin-layered, and widely distributed features. We integrated seismic data, cores, and well logs to define the dispersal of hanging wall depositional systems that are related to the fluctuation (...)
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  106.  1
    Seismic Petrophysics Workflow Applied to Delaware Basin.Yoryenys Del Moro, Venkatesh Anantharamu, Lev Vernik, Alfonso Quaglia & Eduardo Carrillo - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T349-T363.
    Petrophysical analysis of unconventional plays that are comprised of organic mudrock needs detailed data QC and preparation to optimize the results of quantitative interpretation. This includes accurate computation of mineral volumes, total organic carbon, porosity, and saturations. We used TOC estimation to aid the process of determining the best pay zones for development of such reservoirs. TOC was calculated as a weighted average of Passey’s and the bulk density-based methods. In organic mudrock reservoirs, the computed TOC log was used as (...)
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  107.  1
    Sedimentary Characteristics and Mechanism Analysis of a Large-Scale Fan Delta System in the Paleocene Kongdian Formation, Southwestern Bohai Sea, China.Xiaofeng Du, Qiming Wang, Meng Zhao & Xiaojian Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF81-SF94.
    Exploration of the deep buried sandstones and glutenites of the Paleocene Kongdian Formation of the Bozhong 19-6 structure was a significant success. An integrated analysis of 3D seismic data, logging curves, core observation, thin sections, and casting thin sections was applied to characterize the sequences, petrology, sedimentary facies, and reservoir properties of the glutenite of the Kongdian Formation. The results indicated that the Kongdian Formation mainly consisted of tuffaceous glutenites at the lower section and glutenites in the upper section. The (...)
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  108.  1
    Impact of Convective Cooling on Pore Pressure and Stresses Around a Borehole Subjected to a Constant Flux: Implications for Hydraulic Tests in an Enhanced Geothermal System Reservoir.Zhiqiang Fan, Rishi Parashar & Zhi-He Jin - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG13-SG20.
    Hydraulic tests are commonly performed prior to reservoir stimulation to determine the natural permeability of the enhanced geothermal system, which typically involves injection of cold water at low rates into the hot target EGS reservoir and measurement of the surface pressure, flow rate, and thermal drawdown simultaneously. Interpretation and analysis of the data collected during a hydraulic test are largely based on fitting type curves generated from analytical solutions. We have formulated a geomechanical model for hydraulic tests in a thermoporoelastic (...)
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  109.  2
    Seismic Sedimentary Characteristics and Filling Structure of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China.Congjun Feng, Mengsi Sun, Chiyang Liu, Xili Deng, Yuze Xue & Li Dong - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T259-T274.
    Following the analysis of cores, outcrops, well log, and seismic sections, we have studied the seismic reflection configuration and depositional history of the hydrocarbon-rich Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin. We divided the seismic reflection configurations into five types: subparallel reflection, parallel reflection, tangential progradational reflection, shingled progradational reflection, and chaotic reflection. Based on our study results, we concluded that the slopes exhibit differences in the different regions of the Ordos Basin during the sedimentary period of the Yanchang Formation: The (...)
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  110.  1
    Definition of the Churchill River Delta and its Petroleum Potential, Offshore Labrador, Canada.Erin Gillis, Richard Wright, Victoria Mitchell & Nick Montevecchi - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SH19-SH32.
    Starting in 2011, a multiyear modern 2D long offset broadband seismic survey was acquired offshore Labrador, Canada, by TGS and PGS in partnership with Nalcor Energy. This regional survey covers the slope and deepwater portions of the margin. Three Mesozoic and Cenozoic-aged basins were informally defined from these data, the Chidley, Henley, and Holton; also, the poorly constrained Hawke Basin was remapped. The 2D data set imaged for the first time a very large Cenozoic-aged delta adjacent to the mouth of (...)
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  111.  2
    Structural Characterization of Potentially Seismogenic Faults in the Fort Worth Basin.Elizabeth A. Horne, Peter H. Hennings, Johnathon L. Osmond & Heather R. DeShon - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T323-T347.
    From 2006 through mid-2018, there have been 125 [Formula: see text] recorded earthquakes within the Fort Worth Basin and the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. There is general scientific consensus that this increase in seismicity has been induced by increases in pore-fluid pressure from wastewater injection and from cross-fault pore-pressure imbalance due to injection and production. Previous fault stress analyses indicate that many of the faults are critically stressed; therefore, careful consideration should be taken when injecting in close proximity to these (...)
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  112.  3
    A Lateral Well in the Shublik Formation, Alaska North Slope, with Implications for Unconventional Resource Potential.Allegra Hosford Scheirer & Kenneth J. Bird - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ35-SJ49.
    Analyses of a horizontal well drilled in the Shublik Formation within the southern part of the Prudhoe Bay field provide the first glimpse of the unit’s potential as an unconventional resource. Drilled in 1996, the 1450 ft long well, PBU X-19B L1, targeted the 17 ft thick Shublik Zone B. More than 70% of the lateral well path sampled that target, a feat of precise geosteering years before the unconventional revolution. The well operator’s drilling plan focused on the middle subzone (...)
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  113.  2
    Gas Hydrate Petroleum Systems: What Constitutes the “Seal”?Junbong Jang, William F. Waite & Laura A. Stern - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T231-T248.
    The gas hydrate petroleum system approach, which has been used to characterize gas hydrates in nature, uses three distinct components: a methane source, a methane migration pathway, and a reservoir that not only contains gas hydrate, but also acts as a seal to prevent methane loss. Unlike GHPS, a traditional petroleum system approach further distinguishes between the reservoir, a unit with generally coarser sediment grains, and a separate overlying seal unit with generally finer sediment grains. Adopting this traditional PS distinction (...)
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  114.  2
    Seismic Quality Factor Estimation Using Prestack Seismic Gathers: A Simulated Annealing Approach.Shengjun Li, Bo Zhang, Xueshan Yong & Wang Shangxu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T441-T451.
    Fluid movement and grain boundary friction are the two main factors affecting the anelastic attenuation of seismic data. The quality factor quantifies the degree of anelastic attenuation and is commonly used in assisting the identification of gas reservoirs. We can accurately compute [Formula: see text] if we obtain the accurate amplitude spectrum of seismic wavelets at refereed and at target time indexes of the seismic profile. However, it is very difficult to obtain the accurate wavelets at the referred and target (...)
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  115.  3
    Characterizing Subseismic Faults From SK-2 Drilling Core (2900–4200 M): Implication for Reservoir Transmissibility and Regional Tectonic Evolution. [REVIEW]Shujun Liang, Wei Gan & Chengshan Wang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG1-SG11.
    Undiscernible faults on seismic reflection profiles are referred to as subseismic faults. Although most subseismic faults are undetected, they play a significant role in understanding regional tectonic evolution and can influence the flow of oil and gas. The Songliao Basin in northeast China is a typical Meso-Cenozoic continental petroliferous basin characterized by stable sedimentation, rift-depression dual structure, and large-scale oil and gas production. However, the characteristics of subseismic faults and their effect on petroleum resources remain not well understood. We have (...)
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  116.  3
    Seismic Geologic Structure Characterization Using a High-Order Spectrum-Coherence Attribute.Naihao Liu, Zhen Li, Fengyuan Sun, Fangyu Li & Jinghuai Gao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T391-T401.
    Characterization of seismic geologic structures, such as describing fluvial channels and geologic faults, is significant for seismic reservoir prediction. The coherence algorithm is one of the widely used techniques for describing discontinuous seismic geologic structures. However, precise coherence attributes between adjacent seismic traces are difficult to compute due to the nonstationary and non-Gaussian property of seismic data. To describe seismic geologic structures accurately, we define a high-order spectrum-coherence attribute. First, we have developed a time-frequency analysis method to compute a constant-frequency (...)
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  117.  2
    Using Well-Log Data to Modeling Factors Influencing the Amount of Adsorbed Gas in Transitional Shale Reservoirs.Rui Liu, Shaobin Guo & Kun Ji - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T249-T258.
    Traditional isothermal adsorption experiments often fail to accurately estimate the adsorption capacity of reservoirs with rapidly changing lithology. Temperature, pressure, and mineral composition can influence the adsorption capacity of shale reservoirs. We have examined the influence of these factors on the amount of gas adsorbed in samples from well Yu-88. Samples consist of marine-continental transitional coal-bearing strata from the Upper Paleozoic Shanxi-Taiyuan Formation of the Ordos Basin of China. Shales occur as frequently interbedded, thin, and single layers that exhibit large (...)
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  118.  2
    Introduction to Special Section: Characterization of the Subsurface Stress, Deformation, and Pore Pressure.Gang Luo, Wei Gan, Rui Zhang, Junhua Guo & Jincai Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SGi-SGii.
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  119.  3
    Multiphysics Anomaly Map: A New Data Fusion Workflow for Geophysical Interpretation.Julio Cesar S. O. Lyrio, Paulo T. L. Menezes, Jorlivan L. Correa & Adriano R. Viana - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):B35-B43.
    When collecting and processing geophysical data for exploration, the same geologic feature can generate a different response for each rock property being targeted. Typically, the units of these responses may differ by several orders of magnitude; therefore, the combination of geophysical data in integrated interpretation is not a straightforward process and cannot be performed by visual inspection only. The multiphysics anomaly map that we have developed is a data fusion solution that consists of a spatial representation of the correlation between (...)
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  120.  1
    Predicting and 3D Modeling of Karst Zones Using Seismic Facies Analysis in Ordovician Carbonates of the Tahe Oilfield, China.José N. Méndez, Qiang Jin, María González, Wei Hehua & Cyril D. Boateng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T293-T307.
    Karsted carbonates of the Ordovician Yingshan Formation represent significant hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China. Due to the geologic complexity of the formation, realistically predicting and modeling karst zones and rock properties is challenging. This drives the need to apply diverse techniques for building a suitable geologic model. We have developed a static model approach that uses fully automated seismic facies classification processes for predicting and modeling patterns associated with karst elements. Our method uses a seismic attribute and well (...)
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  121.  4
    Application of Sparse-Layer Inversion and Harmonic Bandwidth Extension for a Channel System in Southern Alberta, Canada.Yang Mu, John Castagna & Gabriel Gil - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T217-T229.
    Sparse-layer reflectivity inversion decomposes a seismic trace into a limited number of simple layer responses and their corresponding reflection coefficients for top and base reflections. In contrast to sparse-spike inversion, the applied sparsity constraint is less biased against layer thickness and can thus better resolve thin subtuning layers. Application to a 3D seismic data set in Southern Alberta produces inverted impedances that have better temporal resolution and lateral stability and a less blocky appearance than sparse-spike inversion. Bandwidth extension harmonically extrapolated (...)
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  122.  1
    Making Interpretation More Diverse.Balazs Nemeth, Vsevolod Egorov & Kurt Marfurt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):1M-2M.
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  123.  2
    L1–2 Minimization for P- and S-Impedance Inversion.Wenliang Nie, Xiaotao Wen, Jixin Yang, Jian He, Kai Lin & Longcheng Yang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T379-T390.
    Amplitude variation with offset inversion has been widely used in reservoir characterization to predict lithology and fluids. However, some existing AVO inversion methods that use [Formula: see text] norm regularization may not obtain the block boundary of subsurface layers because the AVO inversion is a severely ill-posed problem. To obtain sparse and accurate solutions, we have introduced the [Formula: see text] minimization method as an alternative to [Formula: see text] norm regularization. We used [Formula: see text] minimization for simultaneous P- (...)
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  124.  3
    Conjugate Margins — An Oversimplification of the Complex Southern North Atlantic Rift and Spreading System?Alexander L. Peace & J. Kim Welford - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SH33-SH49.
    The prevalence of conjugate margin terminology and studies in the scientific literature is testimony to the contribution that this concept and approach has made to the study of passive margins, and more broadly extensional tectonics. However, when applied to the complex rift, transform, and spreading system of the southern North Atlantic, it becomes obvious that at these passive continental margin settings, additional geologic phenomena complicate this convenient description. These aspects include the preservation of relatively undeformed continental fragments, formation of transform (...)
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  125.  4
    Coalbed Methane Content Prediction Using Deep Belief Network.Fan Peng, Suping Peng, Wenfeng Du & Hongshuan Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T309-T321.
    Accurate measurement of coalbed methane content is the foundation for CBM resource exploration and development. Machine-learning techniques can help address CBM content prediction tasks. Due to the small amount of actual measurement data and the shallow model structure, however, the results from traditional machine-learning models have errors to some extent. We have developed a deep belief network -based model with the input as continuous real values and the activation function as the rectified linear unit. We first calculated a variety of (...)
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  126.  2
    Surface to Subsurface Correlation of the Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation Within a Revised Sequence Stratigraphic Framework.William A. Rouse, Katherine J. Whidden, Julie A. Dumoulin & David W. Houseknecht - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ1-SJ16.
    Recent work on cores and outcrops of the Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation has facilitated surface to subsurface correlation of depositional sequences across the Alaska North Slope. Five transgressive-regressive depositional sequences have been defined within three large-scale stratigraphic units. Outcrop spectral gamma-ray profiles were used to correlate observed stacking patterns with nearby exploration wells, and GR logs from 161 exploration wells were used to correlate the three large-scale stratigraphic units across the North Slope and nearby offshore. Interpretations of depositional facies and (...)
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  127.  1
    Quantitative Analysis of Facies Variation Using Ground-Based Lidar and Hyperspectral Imaging in Mississippian Limestone Outcrop Near Jane, Missouri.Aydin Shahtakhtinskiy & Shuhab Khan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T365-T378.
    Ground-based hyperspectral imaging is useful for geologic mapping because of its high spectral and spatial resolutions at a millimeter to centimeter scale. We have used hyperspectral and terrestrial laser scanner data collected in close range to a roadcut near Jane, Missouri, that contains a subvertical outcrop of Lower Mississippian limestone. The outcrop consists of the Compton, Northview, and Pierson Formations, which we evaluated for facies heterogeneity. The sequence near Jane, Missouri, was deposited in shelf margin with high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. These (...)
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  128. Texture Attribute Analysis Based on Strong Background Interference Suppression.Shi’an Shen, Siqi Chi, Wenchao Chen, Xiaokai Wang, Cheng Wang & Binke Huang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T475-T486.
    Seismic texture attributes are closely related to seismic facies and reservoir characteristics. However, when a strong reflection interface overlying or underlying one target layer exists, their seismic response will mask the seismic response of the target layer. In this case, it is difficult to use texture attributes to identify geologic structures and reservoirs in the target layer. We have adopted a novel method to analyze texture attributes based on suppressing strong background reflection interference. First, we use the difference between the (...)
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  129.  3
    Factors Affecting the Nanopore Structure and Methane Adsorption Capacity of Organic-Rich Marine Shales in Zhaotong Area, Southern Sichuan Basin.Panke Sun, Hanqing Zhu, Huaimin Xu, Xiaoni Hu & Linfeng Tian - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T403-T419.
    As a national shale-gas demonstration zone in China, the Zhaotong area has great gas resource potential. However, the nanopore structure characteristics, methane adsorption capacity, and their affecting factors of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in this area remain unclear. To address these puzzles, we conducted a series of experiments, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, low-pressure [Formula: see text] adsorption, and high-pressure methane adsorption, and we calculated the relevant characteristic parameters, such as pore volume, specific surface area, (...)
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  130.  2
    Crustal Structure of the Offshore Labrador Margin Into Deep Water From Combined Seismic Reflection Interpretation and Gravity Modeling.J. Kim Welford, Deric Cameron, Erin Gillis, Victoria Mitchell & Richard Wright - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SH1-SH17.
    A regional long-offset 2D seismic reflection program undertaken along the Labrador margin of the Labrador Sea, Canada, and complemented by the acquisition of coincident gravity data, has provided an extensive data set with which to image and model the sparsely investigated outer shelf, slope, and deepwater regions. Previous interpretation of the seismic data revealed the extent of Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins and resulted in the remapping of the basin configuration for the entire margin. To map the synrift package and improve (...)
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  131.  2
    Regularization to Stein Unbiased Risk Estimation Denoising and Threshold for First-Break Picking to Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Surface Microseismic Monitoring — Case of Gas Shale Fracturing.Qingming Xie, Hong Xu, Lichuan Chen, Hong Liu, Bolin Chen, Fei He, Dan Liang & Degui Su - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG51-SG60.
    With monitoring of the acoustic emission phenomenon caused by rock deformation and failure, microseismic monitoring has been widely used in the development of unconventional oil and gas fields. Due to the complex environment and diversity types of the noise, the signal energy of surface microseismic monitoring is weak and the signal-to-noise ratio of raw data is very low. In the process of data processing, many human resources are needed to discriminate the first-break picking because of the low S/N, and this (...)
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  132.  2
    Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lacustrine Rift Basin in the Paleogene System of the Bohai Sea Area: Architecture Mode, Deposition Filling Pattern, and Response to Tectonic Rifting Processes.Changgui Xu, Lu Huan, Song Zhangqiang & Jia Donghui - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF57-SF79.
    The Bohai Sea area is a complex lacustrine rift basin characterized by multistage rifts, polycycle superimpositions, and multiple genetic mechanisms. We recognized three types of sequence boundaries from the Paleogene strata of offshore Bohai, including 2 first-, 3 second-, and 10 third-order sequence boundaries. The third-order wedges, composed of the low-stand system tract, lake expansion system tract, and high-stand system tract, are significant for hydrocarbon exploration. The sequence stratigraphic patterns vary in different periods. We discovered that the LST and EST (...)
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  133.  2
    High-Quality Marine Shale Reservoir Prediction in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin, China.Shang Xu, Fang Hao, Yuanyin Zhang & Qiyang Gou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T453-T463.
    For the lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale reservoir in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin, China, the traditional P-impedance is insensitive for predicting good reservoirs. As an integral indicator of borehole radioactivity that is substantially corresponding to the organic richness, the uranium curve is qualified to identify the abundance of organic matter. Therefore, to efficiently comprehend the shale distribution in the Jiaoshiba area, we have adopted a so-called pseudo-P-impedance, which is constructed from the P-impedance and the uranium log and spatially computed (...)
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  134.  6
    Sedimentary Characteristics and Genetic Mechanisms of High-Quality Reservoirs in a Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate System in the Qinhuangdao Area, Bohai Sea, China.Yongan Xue, Chengmin Niu, Wei Xu, Xiaojun Pang & Li Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF95-SF111.
    Mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments occur broadly in modern and ancient systems. Studies on mixing processes began in shallow shelf environments; however, the genetic model of marine mixed sediments is difficult to apply to continental rift basins due to the complex palaeogeographic environment. We identified three mixing types in the first and second members of the Palaeogene Shahejie Formation in the Qinhuangdao area of the Bohai Sea: mixed fan delta, retrogradation mixed sheet, and mixed sheet without siliciclastic influx. Tectonic stability, arid climate, (...)
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  135.  2
    Analytic Formulation for Subsurface Volumetric Estimation.Chuan Yin & Terry Thibodeaux - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T465-T473.
    We have developed an analytic formulation for quick and more accurate volumetric estimations of subsurface resource potential. Our formulation is conceptually based on a structurally conformable model built deterministically using known and interpreted reservoir properties from wells, such as net-to-gross, porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, along with oil-water contact or lowest known oil depth and interpreted seismic top-of-pay depth horizon. We have evaluated an important function, the hydrocarbon pore capacity, which is a product of net-to-gross, porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation. HPC reflects (...)
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  136.  8
    The Facies Analysis of a Fan Delta by Integrating Multiple Discipline Data — A Case Study of the KL-A Oilfield, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Zhijun Yin, Bo Zhang, Yue Hu, Jianmin Zhu, Cheng Guo, Guolong Chen, Xianbo Hou, Jianwei Liu & Rongdong Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF21-SF35.
    The third member of the Shahejie Formation is the main hydrocarbon exploration target in the KL-A oilfield, Bohai Bay Basin, East China. The facies classification is an essential step in mapping the depositional system of Es3 within the Bohai Bay Basin. The facies model is important for identifying the “sweet” lithology within the reservoirs. We characterize the facies of Es3 by integrating cores, well logs, and seismic data. The analysis indicates that the Es3 consists of fan delta deposits. The analysis (...)
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  137.  3
    Permeability Inversion Using Induced Microseismicity: A Case Study for the Longmaxi Shale Gas Reservoir.Yadong Zhang, Reza Rezaee, Tobias M. Müller, Guangjie Zheng, Jimmy X. Li, Yu Fan, Bo Zeng & Xiaojin Zhou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG21-SG31.
    We have predicted the flow permeability and its spatial distribution for the Longmaxi shale gas reservoir using microseismicity induced during hydraulic-fracturing stimulation. In the time-of-occurrence versus distance-from-injector plot, we find that microseismic points exhibit a parabolic envelope, which we interpret as a triggering front. This reveals that fluid pressure diffusion is at least one of the underlying mechanisms of microseismicity generation. We derive the large-scale equivalent diffusivity from the triggering front plot and thereafter obtain a 3D diffusivity map of the (...)
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  138.  7
    Depositional Characteristics of Fluvial Facies in Gentle Slope Zone of Lacustrine Rift Basins: The Third Member of the Dongying Formation in the Wen’an Slope of Baxian Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Zili Zhang, Xiaomin Zhu, Qi Li, Ruifeng Zhang, Jing Zhang & Yi Huang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF37-SF55.
    We have integrated core, well logs, and seismic data to analyze fluvial types and reconstruct sediment dispersal patterns of the Dongying Formation in the Wen’an Slope, Bohai Bay Basin. We analyzed four meandering-braided fluvial successions from the Dongying Formation in the Wen’an Slope. The results indicate that the fluvial systems are dominantly northeast–southwest and consist of channel, channel bar, and flood plain subfacies, which can be further subdivided into six microfacies including braided channel, meandering channel, sandy channel bar, muddy channel (...)
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  139.  5
    Introduction to Special Section: Mapping of Depositional Systems — Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China.Hongtao Zhu, Changgui Xu, Xiaofeng Du, Xiaomin Zhu, Zaixing Jiang, Keyu Liu, Changmin Zhang, Hao Liu, Qianghu Liu & Hongliu Zeng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SFi-SFi.
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  140.  3
    Normalized and Color-Filled Logarithmic Gamma-Ray Logs to Enhance Subsurface Stratigraphic Interpretation of Carbonates and Siliciclastics.Thomas De Keyser, Essam Saeid, Christopher G. St C. Kendall & James Kellogg - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):B1-B11.
    Modern petrophysical software has broad capabilities for the display and manipulation of subsurface digital log data and for its integration with core data. Color and scale are two of the most important display attributes that can be used to enhance the visualization and interpretation of rock properties. The gamma-ray log, the most important log used in subsurface interpretation, is conventionally displayed on a linear scale of American Petroleum Institute units. This makes it difficult to interpret in very clean lithologies with (...)
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  141.  1
    Density Log Correction for Borehole Effects and its Impact on Well-to-Seismic Tie: Application on a North Sea Data Set.Isadora A. S. de Macedo, Jose Jadsom S. de Figueiredo & Matias C. de Sousa - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T43-T53.
    Reservoir characterization requires accurate elastic logs. It is necessary to guarantee that the logging tool is stable during the drilling process to avoid compromising the measurements of the physical properties in the formation in the vicinity of the well. Irregularities along the borehole may happen, especially if the drilling device is passing through unconsolidated formations. This affects the signals recorded by the logging tool, and the measurements may be more impacted by the drilling mud than by the formation. The caliper (...)
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  142. Fault-Related Overpressure in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India.Karthikeyan G., Jayanta Dutta, Ashutosh Kumar, Nitin Bhardwaj & Neeraj Sinha - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T183-T193.
    Drilling and reaching to deeper target zones through an overpressured overburden formation in a structurally complex geologic setting requires robust geologic and geomechanical analysis to mitigate risk and control operational costs. These types of geologic conditions are present in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, where a series of horst and grabens defined by deep-seated faults and persistent high sedimentation rates through geologic time, result in the development of challenging conditions for exploratory drilling. We have developed possible overpressure mechanisms across the central part (...)
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  143.  2
    Acadian Detachment and Wrench Faults in Central Pennsylvania: Implications for the Marcellus Shale Reservoir Integrity and Gas Productivity in the Hinge of the Pennsylvania Salient.Dengliang Gao, Emily Roberts, Connor Geiger & Peter Sullivan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T151-T165.
    High-quality 3D seismic data in Clearfield County, central Pennsylvania, reveal subsurface structural details of regional flat-top, box-shaped folds, convergent reverse faults, and cross-regional lineaments in the hinge of the Pennsylvanian salient. Cross-stratal variations in structural relief, bed curvature, and seismic facies indicate that the deformational intensity increases from below the Salina to the Onondaga and then decreases from the Onondaga to the Elk. The pre-Onondaga isochron thickness sees an increasing trend but the post-Onondaga isochron thickness sees a decreasing trend on (...)
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  144. Diagenetic Characteristics and Quantitative Evolution of Porosity in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs: A Case Study From the Middle and Lower Permian in the Northwestern Ordos Basin, China.Yang Gao, Zhizhang Wang, Shiwei Yi, Yuanqi She, Shiguo Lin, Mingpeng Li, Zhen Yang & Shanshan Chen - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T195-T215.
    Tight sandstone gas is widespread in the middle and lower Permian Shan 1 and He 8 Members in the northwestern Ordos Basin. We have studied the diagenesis by means of many petrographic techniques and determined its important influence on reservoir quality. The quantitative characterization of porosity evolution is important when analyzing reservoir consolidation. We found that reservoir rock types are mainly sublitharenite, quartz arenite, and litharenite in the deltaic facies through petrological and mineralogical analyses. Metamorphic rock, followed by volcanic rock, (...)
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  145.  2
    Brittleness Index Calculation Based on Amplitude-Variation-with-Offset Inversion for Coal-Bed Methane Reservoir: A Case Study of the Qinshui Basin, China.Wu Haibo, Cheng Yan, Zhang Pingsong, Dong Shouhua & Huang Yaping - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA63-SA72.
    The brittleness index is an important parameter for coal-bed methane reservoir fracturing characterization. Most published studies have relied on petrophysical and well-log data to estimate the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks. The major drawback of such methods is the lack of control away from well locations. Therefore, we have developed a method of combining BI calculation from well logs with that inverted from 3D seismic data to overcome the limitation. A real example is given here to indicate the workflow. A (...)
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  146.  1
    Global Seismic Horizon Interpretation Based on Data Mining — A New Tool for Seismic Geomorphologic Study.Zhong Hong, Mingjun Su, Feng Qian, Guangmin Hu & Qingyun Han - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T131-T140.
    Accurate and efficient seismic horizon interpretation is important for seismic geomorphology study. By integrating the improved density-based clustering method to generate horizon patches and a heuristic combining strategy to merge horizon patches, we have developed a novel data mining approach to automatically extract globally optimal horizons for detailed geomorphologic interpretation. First, the application of improved density-based clustering method has distinct merits in calculation speed and avoiding the phenomenon of mis-ties. We design a heuristic combining strategy to effectively combine the horizon (...)
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  147.  3
    Seismic Methods for Fluid Discrimination in Areas with Complex Geologic History — A Case Example From the Barents Sea.Ivan Lehocki, Per Avseth & Nazmul Haque Mondol - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA35-SA47.
    We have developed a new scheme for calculation of density ratio, an attribute that can be directly linked to hydrocarbon saturation, and applied it to seismic amplitude variation with offset data from the Hoop area in the Barents Sea. The approach is based on the inversion of Zoeppritz’s equation for PP-wave. Furthermore, by using interval velocities, we quantified uplift magnitude for a given interval beneath Base Cretaceous unconformity horizon in the Hoop area. Depending on the temperature gradient, the maximum burial (...)
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  148.  3
    Seismic Modeling and Expression of Common Fold-Thrust Structures.Jianjun Li & Shankar Mitra - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T55-T65.
    We have conducted seismic modeling of common fold-thrust structures to understand the common geologic parameters influencing seismic data and to understand the common pitfalls associated with interpreting prestack time migration and prestack depth migration data. Mode 1 fault-bend folds are generally well-imaged in PSTM data, provided the correct migration velocities are used for the dipping back and front limbs. Seismic pull-ups of the footwall related to lateral velocity variations can result in problems in interpreting the fault geometry and the subthrust (...)
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  149.  4
    Effect of Laminae Development on Pore Structure in the Lower Third Member of the Shahejie Shale, Zhanhua Sag, Eastern China.Tingwei Li, Zhenxue Jiang, Pibo Su, Xi Zhang, Weitao Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Chuanxiang Ning, Zhi Wang & Zixin Xue - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T103-T114.
    Similar to mineral composition and organic geochemical features, laminae development significantly influences pore structure. Taking the lower third member of the Shahejie Shale, Zhanhua Sag, Eastern China as the research object, we introduced various methods to analyze the influence of laminae development on pore structure, including thin section observations, field emission scanning electron microscopy, gas adsorption, high-pressure mercury injection, nano-computed tomography, quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, and spontaneous imbibition. We draw the conclusions that various minerals present a (...)
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  150.  8
    Horizon Extraction Using Ordered Clustering on a Directed and Colored Graph.Zhining Liu, Chengyun Song, Kunhong Li, Bin She, Xingmiao Yao, Feng Qian & Guangmin Hu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T1-T11.
    Extracting horizons from a seismic image has been playing an important role in seismic interpretation. However, how to fully use global-level information contained in the seismic images such as the order of horizon sequences is not well-studied in existing works. To address this issue, we have developed a novel method based on a directed and colored graph, which encodes effective context information for horizon extraction. Following the commonly used framework, which generates horizon patches and then groups them into horizons, we (...)
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  151.  12
    Multispectral Coherence: Which Decomposition Should We Use?Bin Lyu, Jie Qi, Fangyu Li, Ying Hu, Tao Zhao, Sumit Verma & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T115-T129.
    Seismic coherence is commonly used to delineate structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. We generally use full-bandwidth seismic data to calculate coherence. However, some seismic stratigraphic features may be buried in this full-bandwidth data but can be highlighted by certain spectral components. Due to thin-bed tuning phenomena, discontinuities in a thicker stratigraphic feature may be tuned and thus better delineated at a lower frequency, whereas discontinuities in the thinner units may be tuned and thus better delineated at a higher frequency. Additionally, whether (...)
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  152.  2
    Improved Seismic Interpretation of a Salt Diapir by Utilization of Diffractions, Exemplified by 2D Reflection Seismics, Danish Sector of the North Sea.Mahboubeh Montazeri, Lars Ole Boldreel, Anette Uldall & Lars Nielsen - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T77-T88.
    Development of salt diapirs affects the hydrocarbon trapping systems in the Danish sector of the North Sea, where the reservoirs mainly consist of chalk. Seismic imaging and interpretation of the salt structures are challenging, primarily due to the complex geometry of the salt bodies and typically strong velocity contrast with the neighboring sediment layers. The quality of seismic imaging in the North Sea is highly dependent on the quality of the estimated velocity model. We have studied diffracted arrivals originating from (...)
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  153.  2
    Case Study: Seismic Resolution and Reservoir Characterization of Thin Sands Using Multiattribute Analysis and Bandwidth Extension in the Daqing Field, China.David Mora, John Castagna, Ramses Meza, Shumin Chen & Renqi Jiang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T89-T102.
    The Daqing field, located in the Songliao Basin in northeastern China, is the largest oil field in China. Most production in the Daqing field comes from seismically thin sand bodies with thicknesses between 1 and 15 m. Thus, it is not usually possible to resolve Daqing reservoirs using only conventional seismic data. We have evaluated the effectiveness of seismic multiattribute analysis of bandwidth extended data in resolving and making inferences about these thin layers. Multiattribute analysis uses statistical methods or neural (...)
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  154.  1
    After One Thousand Papers….Balazs Nemeth, Jennifer Cobb & Sunday Amoyedo - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):1F-1F.
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  155. A Systematic, Science-Driven Approach for Predicting Subsurface Properties.Kelly Kathleen Rose, Jennifer R. Bauer & MacKenzie Mark-Moser - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T167-T181.
    As human exploration of the subsurface increases, there is a need for better data- and knowledge-driven methods to improve prediction of subsurface properties. Present subsurface predictions often rely upon disparate and limited a priori information. Even regions with concentrated subsurface exploration still face uncertainties that can obstruct safe and efficient exploration of the subsurface. Uncertainty may be reduced, even for areas with little or no subsurface measurements, using methodical, science-driven geologic knowledge and data. We have developed a hybrid spatiotemporal statistical-geologic (...)
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  156.  10
    Fluid Detection in Carbonate Rocks by Integrating Well Logs and Seismic Attributes.Mohammad Reza Saberi - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA1-SA10.
    Prestack seismic attributes are efficient tools for hydrocarbon exploration and pore fluid detection with the help of various techniques, such as amplitude variation with offset analysis. Such studies focus mainly on siliciclastics rather than carbonates because detection of fluid effects in carbonate rocks can be masked by their complex pore structure and heterogeneity. Current fluid detection methods from seismic attributes usually rely on a linear background model for P- and S-wave velocities of the water-saturated rocks, and any deviation from this (...)
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  157.  2
    A Robust Workflow for Performing Joint Impedance Inversion and its Applications.Ritesh Kumar Sharma, Satinder Chopra & Larry R. Lines - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T141-T149.
    Multicomponent seismic data offer several advantages for characterizing reservoirs with the use of the vertical component and mode-converted data. Joint impedance inversion inverts both of these data sets simultaneously; hence, it is considered superior to simultaneous impedance inversion. However, the success of joint impedance inversion depends on how accurately the PS data are mapped on the PP time domain. Normally, this is attempted by performing well-to-seismic ties for PP and PS data sets and matching different horizons picked on PP and (...)
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  158.  1
    A Methodology for Integrating Unconventional Geologic and Engineering Data Into a Geocellular Model.Kathryn Tamulonis - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):B13-B33.
    Unconventional field development and well performance analysis encompass multiple disciplines and large data sets. Even when seismic and other data sets are not available, geologists can build geocellular models to determine factors that improve operational efficiency by incorporating well log, geosteering, stratigraphic, structural, completion, and production data. I have developed a methodology to integrate these data sets from vertical and horizontal wells to build a sequence stratigraphic and structurally framed geocellular model for an unconventional Marcellus Formation field in the Appalachian (...)
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  159.  1
    Hydrocarbon Identification Using the AVO Response Correction Method Based on High-Resolution Complex Spectral Decomposition.Huihuang Tan, Donghong Zhou, Shengqiang Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Xinyi Duan & Wei Gao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA49-SA61.
    Amplitude-variation-with-offset technique is one of the primary quantitative hydrocarbon discrimination methods with prestack seismic data. However, the prestack seismic data are usually have low data quality, such as nonflat gathers and nonpreserved amplitude due to absorption, attenuation, and/or many other reasons, which usually lead to a wrong AVO response. The Neogene formations in the Huanghekou area of the Bohai Bay Basin are unconsolidated clastics with a high average porosity, and we find that the attenuation on seismic signal is very strong, (...)
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  160.  2
    Identifying Shallow Gas Zones by Using Seismic Attributes, Offshore Vietnam.Anh Thi Van Ngo & Angus John Ferguson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T67-T76.
    Shallow gas zones are a major concern in offshore drilling because of their potential to quickly cause kicks or blowouts. Shallow gas hazards are identified by using a series of seismic attributes. We have combined seismic data analysis and well-log analysis to identify the location and distribution of shallow gas layers. These shallow gas zones are formed during a large influx of gas due to a blowout well. The blowout well is located in the Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam. (...)
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  161.  1
    Gas Hydrate Quantification in Walker Ridge Block 313, Gulf of Mexico, From Full-Waveform Inversion of Ocean-Bottom Seismic Data.Jiliang Wang, Priyank Jaiswal, Seth S. Haines, Yihong Yang, Patrick E. Hart & Shingo Wu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T27-T42.
    The Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project Leg 2 logging-while-drilling data in Walker Ridge lease block 313 in the GOM detected gas hydrate in coarse- and fine-grained sediments at sites WR313-G and WR313-H. The coarse-grained units are thin and highly saturated, whereas the fine-grained unit is thick with low saturation and fracture-filling gas hydrate. Unlike its coarse-grained counterpart, the seismic character of the fine-grained unit does not clearly indicate the presence of gas hydrate, which would likely have remained undiscovered in (...)
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  162.  9
    Azimuthal Anisotropy Analysis of Wide-Azimuth P-Wave Seismic Data for Fracture Orientation and Density Characterization in a Tight Gas Reservoir.Wanxue Xie, Guangming He, Degang le LiJin, Dan Chen, Hua Zhang & Yao Zhao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA73-SA83.
    The role of anisotropy in fracture detection has dramatically increased with the advent of wide-azimuth and high-density seismic acquisition. Fracture prediction using horizontal transverse isotropy anisotropic theory is a useful tool for identifying reservoir characteristics. We have developed an approach for fracture density and orientation estimation based on the combination of a velocity variation with azimuth and an amplitude variation with azimuth analysis workflow. First, we sort the prestack WAZ data into offset vector tile sectors and perform VVAZ inversion by (...)
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  163.  2
    Meet West Africa Deep Exploration Challenge with Geomorphology and Targeted Amplitude Variation with Offset Inversion.Ellen Xiaoxia Xu, Yu Jin, Sarah Coyle, Dileep Tiwary, Henry Posamentier, Andrew Royle & Zhao Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA25-SA33.
    Seismic amplitude has played a critical role in the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon in West Africa. Class 3 and 2 amplitude variation with offset was extensively used as a direct hydrocarbon indicator and reservoir prediction tool in Neogene assets. As exploration advanced to deeper targets with class 1 AVO seismic character, the usage of seismic amplitude for reservoir presence and quality prediction became challenged. To overcome this obstacle, we used seismic geomorphology to infer reservoir presence and precisely target geophysical (...)
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  164.  2
    Seismic Chronostratigraphy at Reservoir Scale: Lessons From a Realistic Seismic Modeling of Mixed Clastic-Carbonate Strata in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, USA.Hongliu Zeng, Yawen He, Charles Kerans & Xavier Janson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T13-T25.
    We tested the validity of tracking seismic events as representations of chronostratigraphic surfaces at the subseismic, high-frequency-cycle level. A high-resolution geocellular model was generated from approximately 400 m of mixed clastic-carbonate sequences in the San Andres and Grayburg Formations in the Permian Basin, with 0.3–0.6 m layering and minimal upscaling. Realistic stratigraphic framework, facies, and velocity volumes were created by geostatistically mapping data from outcrop and subsurface sources while honoring state-of-the-art principles of stratigraphic and sedimentary analyses. Using the synthetic seismic (...)
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  165.  2
    Characterization of a Shale-Gas Reservoir Based on a Seismic Amplitude Variation with Offset Inversion for Transverse Isotropy with Vertical Axis of Symmetry Media and Quantitative Seismic Interpretation.Feng Zhang, Lin Wang & Xiang-Yang Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA11-SA23.
    The Lower Silurian shale-gas formation in the south of the Sichuan Basin represents a strong transverse isotropy with vertical axis of symmetry feature. Successful characterization of shale-gas formation requires handling the great influence of anisotropy in the seismic wave propagation. Seismic amplitude variation with offset inversion for VTI media using PP-waves only is a difficult issue because more than three parameters need to be estimated and such an inverse problem is highly ill posed. We have applied an AVO inversion method (...)
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  166.  1
    Introduction to Special Section: Rock Properties From AVA/AVO Analysis.Zhao Zhang, Chen Bao, Reynaldo Cardona, John Castagna, Todd Dygert, Tapan Mukerji, Stephan Gelinsky, Brian Russell, Yuefeng Sun & Shiyu Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SAi-SAiii.
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