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  1.  6
    The Government of the Body: A Reconstruction of the Physiological Chapters in Nemesius of Emesa’s De Natura Hominis.David Lloyd Dusenbury - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (5):480-506.
    This contribution argues that the physiological and psychological chapters of Nemesius of Emesa’s highly influential conspectus of late-antique anthropology, De natura hominis, are not random memoranda on the human organism or disjecta membra extracted from a range of late-antique sources. On the contrary, it is claimed here that De natura hominis 6-28, in which the medical anthropology of the Platonic–Galenic tradition comes to the fore, mark a decisive phase in the argument of Nemesius’ text. The human is defined by Nemesius (...)
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  2.  5
    Enthusiasm and Platonic Furor in the Origins of Cartesian Science: The Olympian Dreams.Susana Gómez López - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (5):507-535.
    In the Olympica, the lost manuscript wherein Descartes described his famous three dreams, he wrote that on the night of Saint Martin in 1619 he felt asleep in a state of enthusiasm. He interpreted the dreams that ensued as the divine revelation of the principles of a new and admirable science. I here propose that the Olympica were a literary fiction devised by Descartes to legitimize his arrival on the philosophical scene by proposing the principles of a new science. The (...)
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  3.  6
    Madness, Pain, & Ikhtilāṭ Al-ʿaql: Conceptualizing Ibn Abī Ṣādiq’s Medico-Philosophical Psychology.Ashwak Sam Hauter - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (5):453-479.
    This paper brings both textual and ethnographic considerations to bear on Ibn Abī Ṣādiq’s medico-philosophical commentary on the Hippocratic Apho­risms. He considers cases of madness and absence of pain in order to discuss the problem of ikhtilāṭ al-ʿaql and its relation to the body, soul, and spirit. Focusing on ikhtilāṭ offers a space to examine an important configuration at the limit of the physical, the metaphysical, and spiritual. Ultimately, a close reading of Ibn Abī Ṣādiq’s commentaries moves toward a theoretical (...)
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  4.  2
    “Learn to Restrain Your Mouth”: Alchemical Rumours and Their Historiographical Afterlives.Rafał T. Prinke & Mike A. Zuber - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (5):413-452.
    From around 1700 onwards, a number of sensationalist claims regarding adepts of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries began to appear in alchemical literature. They eventually made their way into standard works of historiography and continue to be repeated as factual. Yet the source for these rumours, a poem attributed to Martinus de Delle, supposedly a chamberlain of Emperor Rudolf II, has largely escaped scrutiny. The only surviving manuscript version currently known is here edited and translated in full for the (...)
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  5.  3
    ‘The Curious Ways to Observe Weight in Water’: Thomas Harriot and His Experiments on Specific Gravity.Stephen Clucas - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):302-327.
    This paper explores the experiments of the English mathematician Thomas Harriot on specific gravity in the years 1600-1605, as recorded in a series of manuscript notes in British Library Add. MS 6788. It examines the programme of reading undertaken by Harriot before these experiments, and describes a series of experiments conducted by him which compared the weight of a wide variety of substances in air and water. Harriot’s work is compared to that of his contemporary Marino Ghetaldi in Promotus Archimedis, (...)
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  6.  4
    Experiments in the Making: Instruments and Forms of Quantification in Francis Bacon’s Historia Densi Et Rari.Dana Jalobeanu - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):360-387.
    The Historia densi et rari, published posthumously in 1658, is probably Francis Bacon’s most complex natural and experimental history. It contains observations and experimental reports, quantitative estimates and tables, and theoretical and methodological considerations, in a structure which has never been fully investigated. I provide here a fresh reading of this text from the perspective of scientific practices. I claim that Historia densi et rari represents a quantitative and instrumental investigation assembled with the help of Bacon’s philosophy of experiment as (...)
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  7.  4
    Experiment and Quantification of Weight: Late-Renaissance and Early Modern Medical, Mineralogical and Chemical Discussions on the Weights of Metals.Silvia Manzo - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):388-412.
    This paper explores how a set of observations on the weight of lead were interpreted and assessed between the 1540s and the 1630s across three different interconnecting disciplines: medicine, mineralogy and chemistry. The epistemic import of these discussions will be demonstrated by showing: 1) the changing role and articulation of experience and quantification in the investigation of metals; and 2) the notions associated with weight in different disciplinary frameworks. In medicine and mineralogy, weight was not considered as a specific subject (...)
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  8.  4
    Johannes Kepler and the Exploration of the Weight of Substances in the Long Sixteenth Century.Cesare Pastorino - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):328-359.
    Numerous early modern experimentalists, including Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon and Thomas Harriot, viewed one seemingly humble principle – that at a given volume, different substances can be identified by their particular weight, or specific gravity – as a fundamental key to the understanding of nature in general. Johannes Kepler’s Messekunst Archimedis of 1616 contains a striking summary of the experimental research on specific gravities in the long sixteenth-century. Counting himself amongst an extensive list of authors interested in this problem, Kepler (...)
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  9.  2
    Exploration and Experimentation on the Weight and Density of Substances in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries: Introduction.Cesare Pastorino - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):297-301.
  10.  3
    From Flanders to Lisbon to the Mughal Empire: Hendrick Uwens and the Mathematical Backstage of a Jesuit Missionary’s Life.Nuno Castel-Branco - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (3):224-249.
    Hendrick Uwens was a Flemish-educated Jesuit who became a missionary to the Mughal Empire. Prior to embarking on his missionary work, he taught mixed mathematics in Lisbon in the early 1640s. Both in Europe and India, Uwens often insisted on portraying himself as a mathematician. Mathematics allowed him to be amongst the first teachers of certain aspects of Galileo’s physics and to promote a mechanical worldview – unusual ideas in early Jesuit circles. He also used mathematics to negotiate his missionary (...)
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  11.  1
    Hippocrate Empiriste? Un Idolum Entre Philosophie Et Praxis Médicale.Mila Maselli - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (3):250-272.
    This paper offers a reconstruction of the fortuna of a Hippocratic formula that has been conspicuously misunderstood since the sixteenth century by physicians and philosophers. For several centuries, and despite the increasing care with which translators and editors have examined classical texts and their circulation, the quote in question by Hippocrates has been expounded as a sentence advocating the primacy of sensory experience as a means of knowledge. This article aims to highlight the philological, cultural, and epistemic circumstances that produced (...)
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  12.  1
    Continuous Time and Instantaneous Speed in the Works of William Heytesbury and Richard Swineshead.Robert Podkoński - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (3):205-223.
    The term ‘instantaneous speed’ that appears explicitly in the works of famous Oxford fourteenth-century natural philosophers, William Heytesbury and Richard Swineshead, seems odd in the context of the then accepted Aristotelian worldview for at least two reasons. First, Aristotle himself stated unambiguously that no motion can occur in an instant. Second, after fourteenth-century atomism was rejected, the majority of thinkers denied the existence of instants, understood as indivisibles. Nevertheless, both Oxford philosophers describe instantaneous speed, also in the context of the (...)
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  13.  1
    Impotence and the Natural Explanation of Bewitchment: Wolfgang Reichart’s Medical Case Report on the Loss of “Potentia Coeundi”.Giovanni Rubeis, Frank Ursin & Florian Steger - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (3):273-295.
    Wolfgang Reichart was a humanist and a town physician of Ulm. His work consists of a largely unpublished collection of nearly 600 texts. So far, it has been claimed that this compilation only consists of letters and poems. However, we have found a medical treatise, wherein Reichart discusses a case of impotence, its pathophysiology and therapy. One of the crucial aspects in this text is the relationship it describes between witchcraft and medicine. The patient claims that his condition is the (...)
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  14.  8
    Controversies Over the Soul and its Origin.Davide Cellamare - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (2):195-204.
  15.  4
    George Berkeley’s Tar-Water Medicine.Mirek Tobiáš Hošman - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (2):173-193.
    In his last major book, Siris, the philosopher George Berkeley proposed tar-water as a universal medicine, suggesting that he had found a panacea. Shortly after its publication, Siris became immensely popular and tar-water spread all around Europe and even reached America. The aim of this article is to present Berkeley’s ideas about tar-water as a medicine with a particular focus on the origins of tar-water in Berkeley’s thinking and its alleged medical effects. Berkeley conceived of tar-water as at one end (...)
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  16.  5
    Descartes’ Man Under Construction: The Circulatory Statue of Salomon Reisel, 1680.Mattia Mantovani - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (2):101-134.
    This paper studies the “human circulatory statues” which Salomon Reisel designed in the 1670s in order to demonstrate the circulation of the blood and its effect on the brain. It investigates how Reisel intended this project to promote Descartes’ philosophy, and how it relates to contemporary diagrammatic schematizations of the blood circulation system. It further explores Reisel’s claims concerning the epistemological and practical advantages of working with a three-dimensional model and argues that Reisel intended his statua to address the concerns (...)
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  17.  2
    A Medieval European Value for the Circumference of the Earth.C. Philipp E. Nothaft - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (2):135-151.
    Geographic and astronomical texts from late-medieval Central Europe frequently give 16 German miles, or miliaria teutonica, as the length of a degree of terrestrial latitude. The earliest identifiable author to endorse this equivalence is the Swabian astronomer Heinrich Selder, who wrote about the length of a degree and the circumference of the Earth on several occasions during the 1360s and 1370s. Of particular interest is his claim that he and certain unnamed experimentatores established their preferred value empirically. Based on an (...)
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  18.  7
    Lichens in Al-Biruni’s Kitab Al-Saydanah Fi Al-Tibb.Mustafa Yavuz - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (2):152-172.
    Lichens are understood to be symbiotic organisms consisting of mycobiont and photobiont partners. This mutual partnership results in the production of unique secondary metabolites, which are used in contemporary pharmacy and medicine. The purpose of this study is to explore the uses of lichens in a particular period of medieval pharmacology: it retraced the relevant Arabic terms for, and descriptions of, lichens in the Kitab al-Saydanah fi al-Tibb, the “Book of Pharmacy in Medicine” written by Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad (...)
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  19.  4
    Mechanism: A Visual, Lexical, and Conceptual History, Written by Domenico Bertoloni Meli, 2019.Fabrizio Baldassarri - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):91-93.
  20.  6
    An Alchemical Quest for Universal Knowledge. The ‘Christian Philosophy’ of Jan Baptist Van Helmont (1579-1644), Written by Georgiana D. Hedesan, 2016. [REVIEW]Lyke de Vries - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):88-90.
  21.  7
    Astrolabes in Medieval Cultures, Edited by Josefina Rodriguez-Arribas, Charles Burnett, Silke Ackermann, and Ryan Szpiech, 2019.Margaret E. Gaida - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):76-79.
  22.  5
    The Body Politic Metaphor in Communal and Post-Communal Italy – Some Remarks on the Case of Lombardy.Andrea Gamberini - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):8-21.
    This paper uses the body politic metaphor to explore the dialectic of power between different political players in communal and post-communal Lombardy. On the one hand, notions of corporeal links, drawing upon an ancient and venerable tradition, were key strands of public debate on state formation in the Late Middle Ages. On the other hand, there were distinctively communal and post-communal discourses based upon the body politic metaphor. My purpose is to investigate all of these aspects through analysis of the (...)
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  23.  3
    L’Homme Parfait: L’Anthropologie Médicale de Harvey, Riolan, Et Perrault (1628-1688), Written by Sarah Carvallo, 2017.Anita Guerrini - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):85-87.
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  24.  6
    Chemins du Cartésianisme, Edited by Antonella Del Prete and Raffaele Carbone, 2017.Mattia Mantovani - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):94-99.
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  25.  2
    The Political Thinker as a Civil Physician: Some Thoughts on Marsilius of Padua and Machiavelli Beyond Leo Strauss’ Al-F'r'bî.Alessandro Mulieri - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):22-45.
    While scholars have widely acknowledged a reliance on medical language in the political theories of Marsilius of Padua and Niccolò Machiavelli, they have rarely investigated the epistemological status of this appropriation. Questioning Leo Strauss’ claim that Jewish-Arabic Platonic ideas on the philosopher-king could have been a possible model for Marsilius and Machiavelli, this paper aims to show that the use of medical language by Marsilius of Padua and Machiavelli entails a form of political knowledge that is decidedly at odds with (...)
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  26.  4
    Drugs on the Page: Pharmacopoeias and Healing Knowledge in the Early Modern Atlantic World, Edited by Matthew James Crawford and Joseph M. Gabriel, 2019.Jole Shackelford - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):80-84.
  27.  7
    Reproduction: Antiquity to the Present Day, Edited by Nick Hopwood, Rebecca Flemming, and Lauren Kassell, 2018.R. Allen Shotwell - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):73-75.
  28.  3
    The Body Politic From Medieval Lombardy to the Dutch Republic: An Introduction.Vasileios Syros - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):1-7.
  29.  5
    From the King’s Two Bodies to the People’s Two Bodies: Spinoza on the Body Politic.Marin Terpstra - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):46-71.
    In this article, using Spinoza’s treatment of the image of the political body, I aim to show what happens to the concept of a healthy commonwealth linked to a monarchist model of political order when transformed into a new context: the emergence of a democratic political order. The traditional representation of the body politic becomes problematic when people, understood as individual natural bodies, are taken as the starting point in political theory. Spinoza’s understanding of the composite body, and the assumption (...)
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  30.  2
    Genealogy of Knowledge and Delegitimization of Universities: The Pseudo-Paracelsian Aurora Philosophorum.Tobias Bulang - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):473-484.
    This article introduces the pseudo-Paracelsian treatise Aurora Philosophorum and focusses on the contexts of a specific genealogy of knowledge presented in this text. It reaches from a divine origin of human knowledge to the universities of the author’s times. Here, the transfer of science throughout history is described as a process of continuous decline. The concept of knowledge negotiated by this text is conceptualized not as theory alone: knowledge has a genuine in­strumental and practical aspect. The article also presents the (...)
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  31.  3
    The Authenticity of Paracelsus’ Astronomia Magna and Brief an Die Wittenberger Theologen: Towards a Diagnostic Rubric Clarifying Authentic and Spurious Elements in Paracelsus’ Oeuvre on the Basis of Theological Motifs.Dane T. Daniel - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):419-438.
    The paper is an evaluation of differing opinions regarding the authenticity of two of Paracelsus’ works, the Astronomia Magna and Brief an die Wittenberger Theologen. Karl Sudhoff – the exceptionally erudite and prolific Paracelsus scholar and editor – considered Paracelsus’ letter to Luther and the Wittenberg theologians to be spurious. Others have questioned the extent to which the Astronomia Magna should be placed among the genuine texts of the Paracelsian corpus. Based on historical and conceptual data, and focusing on Paracelsus’ (...)
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  32.  4
    Paracelsus, the Plague, and De Pestilitate.Charles Gunnoe Jr - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):504-526.
    While De Pestilitate is generally regarded as pseudepigraphic by modern scholarship, the treatise occupied a prominent place in Johann Huser’s definitive edition of Paracelsus’ Bücher und Schrifften. The text offers a compelling and generally reliable guide to Paracelsian plague theory with clear resemblances to the authentic Zwey Bücher von der Pestilentz und ihren zufällen and De Peste Libri tres. The text emphasizes the astrological transmission of the disease, describes a large role for divine retribution and demonological agency, and promotes the (...)
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  33.  3
    Into the Forger’s Library: The Genesis of De Natura Rerum in Publication History.Hiro Hirai - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):485-503.
    One of the most popular writings ascribed to Paracelsus, De natura rerum appeared in 1572. That was when the movement of forgery production reached its climax, in parallel with the multiple editions of his genuine work Archidoxis. This article aims to place the genesis of De natura rerum in the context of publication history. It will first reconstruct a “library” by surveying the works ascribed to Paracelsus which could serve as instruments for the “author/reworker/editor” of De natura rerum. Then it (...)
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  34.  2
    The Philosophia Ad Athenienses in the Light of Genuine Paracelsian Cosmology.Didier Kahn - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):439-472.
    The pseudo-Paracelsian Philosophia ad Athenienses draws upon many of the ideas of Paracelsus but combines them with many other elements not found in the genuine works of the Swiss physician. After discussing the details of its edition, we summarize its content, then examine its possible sources, including the authentic texts of Paracelsus by which the unknown author will have taken inspiration. We discuss specifically the question of uncreated prime matter and provide a number of criteria allowing us to consider the (...)
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  35.  5
    Introduction Pseudo-Paracelsus: Forgery and Early Modern Alchemy, Medicine and Natural Philosophy.Didier Kahn & Hiro Hirai - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):415-418.
  36.  1
    The Development of the Basil Valentine Corpus and Biography: Pseudepigraphic Corpora and Paracelsian Ideas.Lawrence M. Principe - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):549-572.
    Early modern alchemical literature is full of pseudonymous corpora. One of the most famous of these is connected with the name Basil Valentine, a supposed Benedictine monk and master of both medicinal and transmutational chymistry. Accreted over a period of nearly a century, the Valentine corpus is complex and heterogeneous. This paper endeavors to organize and recount the construction of the corpus by an array of authors, editors, publishers, and bibliographers, to sort out some of its strata, and to trace (...)
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  37.  7
    The Astronomia Olympi Novi and the Theologia Cabalistica: Two Pseudo-Paracelsian Works of the Philosophia Mystica.Martin Žemla - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (5-6):527-548.
    The Astronomia Olympi novi and the Theologia Cabalistica were published as part of the Philosophia Mystica. This influential collection of Paracelsian and Weigelian texts was among the first to include a publication of the theologica of Paracelsus. Both of these short pseudo-Paracelsian works were written by Adam Haslmayr, the propagator of the “Theophrastia Sancta,” a philosophical theology of Paracelsus mixed with Weigelian and alchemical influences. These works, taken in the Philosophia Mystica, are among the very few of his texts that (...)
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