48 found

Year:

  1.  4
    Translational Control Under Stress: Reshaping the Translatome.Vivek M. Advani & Pavel Ivanov - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900009.
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  2.  18
    Writing Papers to Be Memorable, Even When They Are Not Really Read.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900035.
  3.  3
    On the Origins of Symmetry and Modularity in the Proteasome Family.Adrian C. D. Fuchs & Marcus D. Hartmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800237.
    The proteasome family of proteases comprises oligomeric assemblies of very different symmetry. In different sizes, it features ring‐like oligomers with dihedral symmetry that allow the stacking of further rings of regulatory subunits as observed in the modular proteasome system, but also less symmetric helical assemblies. Comprehensive sequence and structural analyses of proteasome homologs reveal a parsimonious scenario of how symmetry may have emerged from a monomeric ancestral precursor and how it may have evolved throughout the proteasome family. The four characterized (...)
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  4.  9
    Inferring the Evolutionary History of Your Favorite Protein: A Guide for Molecular Biologists.Jolien J. E. Hooff, Eelco Tromer, Teunis J. P. Dam, Geert J. P. L. Kops & Berend Snel - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900006.
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  5.  3
    How Does Inflammation‐Induced Hyperglycemia Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Immune Cells?Gustav Niekerk, Tanja Davis, Hugh‐George Patterton & Anna‐Mart Engelbrecht - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800260.
    Inflammatory mediators have an established role in inducing insulin resistance and promoting hyperglycemia. In turn, hyperglycemia has been argued to drive immune cell dysfunction as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, the authors review the evidence challenging this view. First, it is pointed out that inflammatory mediators are known to induce altered mitochondrial function. In this regard, critical care patients suffer both an elevated inflammatory tone as well as hyperglycemia, rendering it difficult to distinguish between the effects of inflammation and (...)
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  6.  2
    Cooking a Research Project: New Trends in the Kitchen and in Scientific Policies.Dolores Queiruga & Juan Cabello - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900017.
  7.  3
    Targeting the Spleen as an Alternative Site for Hematopoiesis.Christie Short, Hong K. Lim, Jonathan Tan & Helen C. O'Neill - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800234.
    Bone marrow is the main site for hematopoiesis in adults. It acts as a niche for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and contains non‐hematopoietic cells that contribute to stem cell dormancy, quiescence, self‐renewal, and differentiation. HSC also exist in resting spleen of several species, although their contribution to hematopoiesis under steady‐state conditions is unknown. The spleen can however undergo extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) triggered by physiological stress or disease. With the loss of bone marrow niches in aging and disease, the spleen as (...)
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  8.  5
    Why the Lipid Divide? Membrane Proteins as Drivers of the Split Between the Lipids of the Three Domains of Life.Victor Sojo - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800251.
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  9.  1
    BioEssays 5∕2019.Victor Sojo - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1970051.
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  10.  3
    Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription‐Associated Genome Instability.Zivkos Apostolou, Georgia Chatzinikolaou, Kalliopi Stratigi & George A. Garinis - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800201.
    Transcription is a potential threat to genome integrity, and transcription‐associated DNA damage must be repaired for proper messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and for cells to transmit their genome intact into progeny. For a wide range of structurally diverse DNA lesions, cells employ the highly conserved nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to restore their genome back to its native form. Recent evidence suggests that NER factors function, in addition to the canonical DNA repair mechanism, in processes that facilitate mRNA synthesis or (...)
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  11.  5
    BioEssays 4∕2019.Ayelet Arbel‐Eden & Giora Simchen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1970041.
    In sexual organisms, haploid gametes are produced from diploid germ cells through meiosis. Chromosome reassortment and recombination generate ample genetic variation, augmented by newly arising mutations. Meiotic mutations are associated with recombination, initiated by DNA breakage, and may lead to faster evolution and sequence heterogeneity around recombination hotspots. More details can be found in the Review article 1800235 by Ayelet Arbel‐Eden and Giora Simchen, Elevated Mutagenicity in Meiosis and Its Mechanism, DOI: 10.1002/bies.201970041.
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  12.  6
    Elevated Mutagenicity in Meiosis and Its Mechanism.Ayelet Arbel‐Eden & Giora Simchen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800235.
    Diploid germ cells produce haploid gametes through meiosis, a unique type of cell division. Independent reassortment of parental chromosomes and their recombination leads to ample genetic variability among the gametes. Importantly, new mutations also occur during meiosis, at frequencies much higher than during the mitotic cell cycles. These meiotic mutations are associated with genetic recombination and depend on double‐strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate crossing over. Indeed, sequence variation among related strains is greater around recombination hotspots than elsewhere in the genome, (...)
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  13.  5
    How We Forgot Who Discovered DNA: Why It Matters How You Communicate Your Results.Ralf Dahm & Mita Banerjee - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1900029.
    One hundred and fifty years ago, a hopeful young researcher reported a recent discovery he had made. Working in the bowels of a medieval castle in the German city of Tübingen, he had isolated a then entirely new type of molecule. This was the birth of a field that would fundamentally change the course of biology, medicine, and beyond. His discovery: DNA. His name: Friedrich Miescher. In this article, the authors try to find answers to the question why—despite the fact (...)
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  14.  6
    Extracellular Vesicles From Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert Pleiotropic Effects on Amyloid‐Β, Inflammation, and Regeneration: A Spark of Hope for Alzheimer's Disease From Tiny Structures?Chiara A. Elia, Morris Losurdo, Maria L. Malosio & Silvia Coco - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800199.
    No cure yet exists for devastating Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite many years and humongous efforts to find efficacious pharmacological treatments. So far, neither designing drugs to disaggregate amyloid plaques nor tackling solely inflammation turned out to be decisive. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and, in particular, extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from them could be proposed as an alternative, strategic approach to attack the pathology. Indeed, MSC‐EVs—owing to their ability to deliver lipids/proteins/enzymes/microRNAs endowed with anti‐inflammatory, amyloid‐β degrading, and neurotrophic activities—may be exploited (...)
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  15.  6
    Impact of RNA–Protein Interaction Modes on Translation Control: The Versatile Multidomain Protein Gemin5.Rosario Francisco‐Velilla, Embarc‐Buh Azman & Encarnacion Martinez‐Salas - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800241.
    The fate of cellular RNAs is largely dependent on their structural conformation, which determines the assembly of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Consequently, RNA‐binding proteins (RBPs) play a pivotal role in the lifespan of RNAs. The advent of highly sensitive in cellulo approaches for studying RNPs reveals the presence of unprecedented RNA‐binding domains (RBDs). Likewise, the diversity of the RNA targets associated with a given RBP increases the code of RNA–protein interactions. Increasing evidence highlights the biological relevance of RNA conformation for recognition (...)
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  16.  5
    Too Many False Targets for MicroRNAs: Challenges and Pitfalls in Prediction of miRNA Targets and Their Gene Ontology in Model and Non‐Model Organisms.Arie Fridrich, Yael Hazan & Yehu Moran - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800169.
    Short (“seed”) or extended base pairing between microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target RNAs enables post‐transcriptional silencing in many organisms. These interactions allow the computational prediction of potential targets. In model organisms, predicted targets are frequently validated experimentally; hence meaningful miRNA‐regulated processes are reported. However, in non‐models, these reports mostly rely on computational prediction alone. Many times, further bioinformatic analyses such as Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment are based on these in silico projections. Here such approaches are reviewed, their caveats are highlighted (...)
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  17.  6
    Is “Wolf‐Pack” Predation by Antimicrobial Bacteria Cooperative? Cell Behaviour and Predatory Mechanisms Indicate Profound Selfishness, Even When Working Alongside Kin.Rupert C. Marshall & David E. Whitworth - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800247.
    For decades, myxobacteria have been spotlighted as exemplars of social “wolf‐pack” predation, communally secreting antimicrobial substances into the shared public milieu. This behavior has been described as cooperative, becoming more efficient if performed by more cells. However, laboratory evidence for cooperativity is limited and of little relevance to predation in a natural setting. In contrast, there is accumulating evidence for predatory mechanisms promoting “selfish” behavior during predation, which together with conflicting definitions of cooperativity, casts doubt on whether microbial “wolf‐pack” predation (...)
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  18.  10
    Stress‐Induced Evolutionary Innovation: A Mechanism for the Origin of Cell Types.Günter P. Wagner, Eric M. Erkenbrack & Alan C. Love - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800188.
    Understanding the evolutionary role of environmentally induced phenotypic variation (i.e., plasticity) is an important issue in developmental evolution. A major physiological response to environmental change is cellular stress, which is counteracted by generic stress reactions detoxifying the cell. A model, stress‐induced evolutionary innovation (SIEI), whereby ancestral stress reactions and their corresponding pathways can be transformed into novel structural components of body plans, such as new cell types, is described. Previous findings suggest that the cell differentiation cascade of a cell type (...)
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  19.  21
    Sentience and Consciousness in Single Cells: How the First Minds Emerged in Unicellular Species.František Baluška & Arthur Reber - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800229.
    A reductionistic, bottom‐up, cellular‐based concept of the origins of sentience and consciousness has been put forward. Because all life is based on cells, any evolutionary theory of the emergence of sentience and consciousness must be grounded in mechanisms that take place in prokaryotes, the simplest unicellular species. It has been posited that subjective awareness is a fundamental property of cellular life. It emerges as an inherent feature of, and contemporaneously with, the very first life‐forms. All other varieties of mentation are (...)
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  20.  4
    Do Telomeres Influence Pace‐of‐Life‐Strategies in Response to Environmental Conditions Over a Lifetime and Between Generations?Mathieu Giraudeau, Frederic Angelier & Tuul Sepp - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800162.
    The complexity of the physiological phenotype currently prevents us from identifying an integrative measure to assess how the internal state and environmental conditions modify life‐history strategies. In this article, it is proposed that shorter telomeres should lead to a faster pace‐of‐life where investment in self‐maintenance is decreased as a means of saving energy for reproduction, but at the cost of somatic durability. Inversely, longer telomeres would favor an increased investment in soma maintenance and thus a longer reproductive lifespan (i.e., slower (...)
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  21.  5
    Ribosomal Proteins Control Tumor Suppressor Pathways in Response to Nucleolar Stress.Frédéric Lessard, Léa Brakier‐Gingras & Gerardo Ferbeyre - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800183.
  22.  3
    Cell Fate and Developmental Regulation Dynamics by Polycomb Proteins and 3D Genome Architecture.Vincent Loubiere, Anne‐Marie Martinez & Giacomo Cavalli - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800222.
    Targeted transitions in chromatin states at thousands of genes are essential drivers of eukaryotic development. Therefore, understanding the in vivo dynamics of epigenetic regulators is crucial for deciphering the mechanisms underpinning cell fate decisions. This review illustrates how, in addition to its cell memory function, the Polycomb group of transcriptional regulators orchestrates temporal, cell and tissue‐specific expression of master genes during development. These highly sophisticated developmental transitions are dependent on the context‐ and tissue‐specific assembly of the different types of Polycomb (...)
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  23.  16
    Why Carbon‐Based Fuels Are Not “Bad” − Or Will We Ever Learn From Biology?Andrew Moore - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1900026.
  24.  5
    Coordination of Timers and Sensors in Cell Signaling.Junbin Qian, Lendert Gelens & Mathieu Bollen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800217.
    Timers and sensors are common devices that make our daily life safer, more convenient, and more efficient. In a cellular context, they arguably play an even more crucial role as they ensure the survival of cells in the presence of various extrinsic and intrinsic stresses. Biological timers and sensors generate distinct signaling profiles, enabling them to produce different types of cellular responses. Recent data suggest that they can work together to guarantee correct timing and responsiveness. By exploring examples of cellular (...)
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  25.  10
    Veins and Arteries Build Hierarchical Branching Patterns Differently: Bottom‐Up Versus Top‐Down.Kristy Red‐Horse & Arndt F. Siekmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800198.
    A tree‐like hierarchical branching structure is present in many biological systems, such as the kidney, lung, mammary gland, and blood vessels. Most of these organs form through branching morphogenesis, where outward growth results in smaller and smaller branches. However, the blood vasculature is unique in that it exists as two trees (arterial and venous) connected at their tips. Obtaining this organization might therefore require unique developmental mechanisms. As reviewed here, recent data indicate that arterial trees often form in reverse order. (...)
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  26.  6
    Recurrent Noncoding Mutations in Skin Cancers: UV Damage Susceptibility or Repair Inhibition as Primary Driver?Steven A. Roberts, Alexander J. Brown & John J. Wyrick - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800152.
    Somatic mutations arising in human skin cancers are heterogeneously distributed across the genome, meaning that certain genomic regions (e.g., heterochromatin or transcription factor binding sites) have much higher mutation densities than others. Regional variations in mutation rates are typically not a consequence of selection, as the vast majority of somatic mutations in skin cancers are passenger mutations that do not promote cell growth or transformation. Instead, variations in DNA repair activity, due to chromatin organization and transcription factor binding, have been (...)
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  27.  15
    Back From the Brink: Retrieval of Membrane Proteins From Terminal Compartments.Matthew N. J. Seaman - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800146.
  28.  9
    Microtubule Plus End Dynamics − Do We Know How Microtubules Grow?Jeffrey van Haren & Torsten Wittmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800194.
    Microtubules form a highly dynamic filament network in all eukaryotic cells. Individual microtubules grow by tubulin dimer subunit addition and frequently switch between phases of growth and shortening. These unique dynamics are powered by GTP hydrolysis and drive microtubule network remodeling, which is central to eukaryotic cell biology and morphogenesis. Yet, our knowledge of the molecular events at growing microtubule ends remains incomplete. Here, recent ultrastructural, biochemical and cell biological data are integrated to develop a realistic model of growing microtubule (...)
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  29.  5
    Targeted Proteomics Comes to the Benchside and the Bedside: Is It Ready for Us?Anjali Arora & Kumaravel Somasundaram - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800042.
    While mass spectrometry (MS)‐based quantification of small molecules has been successfully used for decades, targeted MS has only recently been used by the proteomics community to investigate clinical questions such as biomarker verification and validation. Targeted MS holds the promise of a paradigm shift in the quantitative determination of proteins. Nevertheless, targeted quantitative proteomics requires improvisation in making sample processing, instruments, and data analysis more accessible. In the backdrop of the genomic era reaching its zenith, certain questions arise: is the (...)
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  30.  7
    Genomic Accumulation of Retrotransposons Was Facilitated by Repressive RNA‐Binding Proteins: A Hypothesis.Jan Attig & Jernej Ule - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800132.
  31.  11
    Natural History Collections as Inspiration for Technology.David W. Green, Jolanta A. Watson, Han‐Sung Jung & Gregory S. Watson - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1700238.
    Living organisms are the ultimate survivalists, having evolved phenotypes with unprecedented adaptability, ingenuity, resourcefulness, and versatility compared to human technology. To harness these properties, functional descriptions and design principles from all sources of biodiversity information must be collated − including the hundreds of thousands of possible survival features manifest in natural history museum collections, which represent 12% of total global biodiversity. This requires a consortium of expert biologists from a range of disciplines to convert the observations, data, and hypotheses into (...)
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  32.  12
    RNA Binding Proteins as Regulators of Retrotransposon‐Induced Exonization.John LaCava - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800263.
  33.  4
    Can Vestibular Stimulation Be Used to Treat Obesity?Paul D. McGeoch - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800197.
    It is hypothesized that repeated, non‐invasive stimulation of the vestibular (balance) system, via a small electrical current to the skin behind the ears, will cause the brain centers that control energy homeostasis to shift the body toward a leaner physique. This is because these centers integrate multiple inputs to, in effect, fix a set‐point for body fat, which though difficult to alter is not immutable. They will interpret repeated stimulation of the parts of the vestibular system that detect acceleration as (...)
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  34.  9
    Let's Stop the Sloppy Use of “Lamarckian”.Dave Speijer - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800258.
  35.  5
    Are SMC Complexes Loop Extruding Factors? Linking Theory With Fact.Jonathan Baxter, Antony W. Oliver & Stephanie A. Schalbetter - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800182.
    The extreme length of chromosomal DNA requires organizing mechanisms to both promote functional genetic interactions and ensure faithful chromosome segregation when cells divide. Microscopy and genome‐wide contact frequency analyses indicate that intra‐chromosomal looping of DNA is a primary pathway of chromosomal organization during all stages of the cell cycle. DNA loop extrusion has emerged as a unifying model for how chromosome loops are formed in cis in different genomic contexts and cell cycle stages. The highly conserved family of SMC complexes (...)
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  36.  7
    The LKB1‐AMPK and mTORC1 Metabolic Signaling Networks in Schwann Cells Control Axon Integrity and Myelination.Bogdan Beirowski - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800075.
    The Liver kinase B1 with its downstream target AMP activated protein kinase (LKB1‐AMPK), and the key nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) form two signaling systems that coordinate metabolic and cellular activity with changes in the environment in order to preserve homeostasis. For example, nutritional fluctuations rapidly feed back on these signaling systems and thereby affect cell‐specific functions. Recent studies have started to reveal important roles of these strategic metabolic regulators in Schwann cells for the trophic support (...)
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  37.  16
    Why the Submarine Alkaline Vent is the Most Reasonable Explanation for the Emergence of Life.Elbert Branscomb & Michael J. Russell - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800208.
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  38.  11
    Proteoglycan 4: From Mere Lubricant to Regulator of Tissue Homeostasis and Inflammation.Nabangshu Das, Tannin A. Schmidt, Roman J. Krawetz & Antoine Dufour - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800166.
  39.  16
    To Read More Papers, or to Read Papers Better? A Crucial Point for the Reproducibility Crisis.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800206.
    The overflow of scientific literature stimulates poor reading habits which can aggravate science's reproducibility crisis. Thus, solving the reproducibility crisis demands not only methodological changes, but also changes in our relationship with the scientific literature, especially our reading habits. Importantly, this does not mean reading more, it means reading better.
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  40.  6
    Cura“X”Ing Cancer and Beyond.Vassilis G. Gorgoulis & Athanassios Kotsinas - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800223.
  41.  6
    Chromatin Stability as a Target for Cancer Treatment.Katerina V. Gurova - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800141.
    In this essay, I propose that DNA‐binding anti‐cancer drugs work more via chromatin disruption than DNA damage. Success of long‐awaited drugs targeting cancer‐specific drivers is limited by the heterogeneity of tumors. Therefore, chemotherapy acting via universal targets (e.g., DNA) is still the mainstream treatment for cancer. Nevertheless, the problem with targeting DNA is insufficient efficacy due to high toxicity. I propose that this problem stems from the presumption that DNA damage is critical for the anti‐cancer activity of these drugs. DNA (...)
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  42.  7
    Phase Separation and Transcription Regulation: Are Super‐Enhancers and Locus Control Regions Primary Sites of Transcription Complex Assembly?Aishwarya Gurumurthy, Yong Shen, Eliot M. Gunn & Jörg Bungert - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800164.
    It is proposed that the multiple enhancer elements associated with locus control regions and super‐enhancers recruit RNA polymerase II and efficiently assemble elongation competent transcription complexes that are transferred to target genes by transcription termination and transient looping mechanisms. It is well established that transcription complexes are recruited not only to promoters but also to enhancers, where they generate enhancer RNAs. Transcription at enhancers is unstable and frequently aborted. Furthermore, the Integrator and WD‐domain containing protein 82 mediate transcription termination at (...)
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  43.  4
    Cell‐Cycle‐Dependent Regulation of Cell Adhesions: Adhering to the Schedule.Yitong Li & Keith Burridge - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800165.
    Focal adhesions disassemble during mitosis, but surprisingly little is known about how these structures respond to other phases of the cell cycle. Three recent papers reveal unexpected results as they examine adhesions through the cell cycle. A biphasic response is detected where focal adhesions grow during S phase before disassembly begins early in G2. In M phase, activated integrins at the tips of retraction fibers anchor mitotic cells, but these adhesions lack the defining components of focal adhesions, such as talin, (...)
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  44.  3
    A Perspective on the Potential Utility of a Viscosupplement Multifunctional Biotherapeutic.James Melrose - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800215.
  45.  14
    “Memetic Engineering”, Please! Thought, Values and Behaviour Are as Important as Technology!Andrew Moore - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800242.
  46.  7
    HIV Disease Progression: Overexpression of the Ectoenzyme CD38 as a Contributory Factor?Juan C. Rodríguez‐Alba, Amayrani Abrego‐Peredo, Carlos Gallardo‐Hernández, Jocelyn Pérez‐Lara, Wendolaine Santiago‐Cruz, Wei Jiang & Enrique Espinosa - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1).
    Despite abundant evidence associating CD38 overexpression and CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection, no causal relation has been investigated. To address this issue, a series of mechanisms are proposed, supported by evidence from different fields, by which CD38 overexpression can facilitate CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection. According to this model, increased catalytic activity of CD38 may reduce CD4 T cells’ cytoplasmic nicotin‐amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), leading to a chronic Warburg effect. This will reduce mitochondrial function. Simultaneously, CD38's (...)
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  47.  13
    Can All Major Ros Forming Sites of the Respiratory Chain Be Activated by High FADH2/NADH Ratios?Peter Schönfeld - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800225.
  48.  4
    Can All Major ROS Forming Sites of the Respiratory Chain Be Activated By High FADH2 /NADH Ratios?Dave Speijer - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800180.
    Aspects of peroxisome evolution, uncoupling, carnitine shuttles, supercomplex formation, and missing neuronal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in respiratory chains. Oxidation of substrates with high FADH2/NADH (F/N) ratios (e.g., FAs) initiate ROS formation in Complex I due to insufficient availability of its electron acceptor (Q) and reverse electron transport from QH2, e.g., during FAO or glycerol‐3‐phosphate shuttle use. Here it is proposed that the Q‐cycle of Complex III contributes to enhanced ROS formation going (...)
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