Year:

  1.  50
    Nudges and Cultural Variance: A Note on Selinger and Whyte.Luc Bovens - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):483-486.
    Selinger and Whyte argue that Thaler and Sunstein are insufficiently sensitive to cultural variance in Nudge. I construct a taxonomy of the various roles that cultural variance may play in nudges. First, biases that are exploited in nudging may interact with features that are culturally specific. Second, cultures may be more or less susceptible to certain biases. Third, cultures may resolve conflicting biases in different ways. And finally, nudge may be enlisted for different aims in different cultures.
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  2.  47
    General and Familiar Trust in Websites.Coye Cheshire, Judd Antin, Karen S. Cook & Elizabeth Churchill - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):311-331.
    When people rely on the web to gather and distribute information, they can build a sense of trust in the websites with which they interact. Understanding the correlates of trust in most websites and trust in websites that one frequently visits is crucial for constructing better models of risk perception and online behavior. We conducted an online survey of active Internet users and examined the associations between the two types of web trust and several independent factors: information technology competence, adverse (...)
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  3.  27
    Responsibility of and Trust in ISPs.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):381-397.
    This discussion is about the neglected concepts of trust and social responsibility on the Internet. I will discuss and explain the concepts and their implications to people and society. I then address the issue of moral and social responsibilities of ISPs and web-hosting companies. I argue that ISPs and web-hosting companies should aspire to take responsibility for content and that they should respect and abide by their own terms of conduct.
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  4.  21
    Making the Technological Trustworthy.S. D. Noam Cook - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):455-459.
    Joseph C. Pitt, based on his understanding of trust and of technology, makes the provocative argument that trusting technology is actually a matter of trusting people. I agree with Pitt’s conclusion but differ with him on the nature of trust. I contend, nonetheless, that my understanding of trust actually reinforces Pitt’s characterization of technology as “humanity at work.”.
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  5.  33
    What Is the Model of Trust for Multi-Agent Systems? Whether or Not E-Trust Applies to Autonomous Agents.Massimo Durante - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):347-366.
    A socio-cognitive approach to trust can help us envisage a notion of networked trust for multi-agent systems based on different interacting agents. In this framework, the issue is to evaluate whether or not a socio-cognitive analysis of trust can apply to the interactions between human and autonomous agents. Two main arguments support two alternative hypothesis; one suggests that only reliance applies to artificial agents, because predictability of agents’ digital interaction is viewed as an absolute value and human relation is judged (...)
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  6.  18
    Comments on Responsibility of and Trust in ISPs.Dorothy E. Denning - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):399-401.
    Picking up on the themes of ISP responsibility and trust raised by Raphael Cohen-Almagor, this paper discusses the problem of removing inappropriate content from the Internet. It suggests that an approach based on community involvement such as used by YouTube may be preferable to one that relies on artificial intelligence to detect inappropriate content. The paper also suggests ways in which ISPs could help increase trust in the Internet by strengthening security.
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  7.  33
    Designing for Trust: A Case of Value-Sensitive Design.Pieter E. Vermaas, Yao-Hua Tan, Jeroen van den Hoven, Brigitte Burgemeestre & Joris Hulstijn - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):491-505.
    In this paper, we consider the meaning, roles, and uses of trust in the economic and public domain, focusing on the task of designing systems for trust in information technology. We analyze this task by means of a survey of what trust means in the economic and public domain, using the model proposed by Lewicki and Bunker, and using the emerging paradigm of value-sensitive design. We explore the difficulties developers face when designing information technology for trust and show how our (...)
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  8.  37
    Trust and New Communication Technologies: Vicious Circles, Virtuous Circles, Possible Futures. [REVIEW]Charles M. Ess - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):287-305.
    I approach the philosophical analyses of the phenomenon of trust vis-à-vis online communication beginning with an overview from within the framework of computer-mediated communication of concerns and paradigmatic failures of trust in the history of online communication. I turn to the more directly philosophical analyses of trust online by first offering an introductory taxonomy of diverse accounts of trust that have emerged over the past decade or so. In the face of important objections to the possibility of establishing and fostering (...)
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  9.  74
    Trusting Our Selves to Technology.Asle H. Kiran & Peter-Paul Verbeek - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):409-427.
    Trust is a central dimension in the relation between human beings and technologies. In many discourses about technology, the relation between human beings and technologies is conceptualized as an external relation: a relation between pre-given entities that can have an impact on each other but that do not mutually constitute each other. From this perspective, relations of trust can vary between reliance, as is present for instance in technological extensionism, and suspicion, as in various precautionary approaches in ethics that focus (...)
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  10.  20
    Trust in the Shell.Andrea Monti - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):507-517.
    This paper advocates the importance of an ethical choice in the design of a given technology. As—among various possible examples—the history of the Internet shows, the intersection between trust, law, and technology can become either an empowering factor for business and individuals or a tool for infringing human rights. It is of utmost importance not to lose focus on the fact that every technology is a human byproduct, and that when a technology fails, it is mainly a human fault.
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  11.  18
    A Response to Responsibility of and Trust in ISPs by Raphael Cohen-Almagor.Michael R. Nelson - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):403-407.
    The Internet and Internet applications such as cloud computing continue to grow at an extraordinary rate, enabled by the Internet's open architecture and the vibrant lightly regulated Internet service provider market. Proposals to hold ISPs responsible for content and software shared by their customers would dramatically constrain the openness and innovation that has been the hallmark of the Internet to date. Rather than taking the kind of approach favored by Raphael Cohen-Almagor, government should enlist the assistance of other intermediaries such (...)
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  12.  53
    Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):429-444.
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  13.  12
    Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):429-444.
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  14.  55
    Robotrust and Legal Responsibility.Ugo Pagallo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):367-379.
    The paper examines some aspects of today’s debate on trust and e-trust and, more specifically, issues of legal responsibility for the production and use of robots. Their impact on human-to-human interaction has produced new problems both in the fields of contractual and extra-contractual liability in that robots negotiate, enter into contracts, establish rights and obligations between humans, while reshaping matters of responsibility and risk in trust relations. Whether or not robotrust concerns human-to-robot or even robot-to-robot relations, there is a new (...)
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  15.  22
    Comment on “Nudges and Cultural Variance”.Trevor Pinch - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):487-490.
    In this brief commentary, I suggest Selinger and Whyte are essentially correct in their criticism of the Nudge approach advocated by Thaler and Sunstein. I use some examples from road behavior and traffic planning to amplify the criticism that the simple behavioral economics approach fails to take account of the embedding of humans and technology in the wider social and cultural context.
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  16.  46
    It’s Not About Technology.Joseph C. Pitt - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):445-454.
    It is argued that the question “Can we trust technology?” is unanswerable because it is open-ended. Only questions about specific issues that can have specific answers should be entertained. It is further argued that the reason the question cannot be answered is that there is no such thing as Technology simpliciter. Fundamentally, the question comes down to trusting people and even then, the question has to be specific about trusting a person to do this or that.
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  17.  18
    Competence and Trust in Choice Architecture.Evan Selinger & Kyle Powys Whyte - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):461-482.
    Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein’s Nudge advances a theory of how designers can improve decision-making in various situations where people have to make choices. We claim that the moral acceptability of nudges hinges in part on whether they can provide an account of the competence required to offer nudges, an account that would serve to warrant our general trust in choice architects. What needs to be considered, on a methodological level, is whether they have clarified the competence required for choice (...)
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  18.  56
    Competence and Trust in Choice Architecture.Evan Selinger & Kyle Powys Whyte - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):461-482.
    Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein’s Nudge advances a theory of how designers can improve decision-making in various situations where people have to make choices. We claim that the moral acceptability of nudges hinges in part on whether they can provide an account of the competence required to offer nudges, an account that would serve to warrant our general trust in choice architects. What needs to be considered, on a methodological level, is whether they have clarified the competence required for choice (...)
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  19.  31
    Trust in Technology: A Distinctive and a Problematic Relation. [REVIEW]Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):283-286.
    The use of tools and artefacts is a distinctive and problematic phenomenon in the history of humanity, and as such it has been a topic of discussion since the beginning of Western culture, from the myths of the Ancient Greek through Humanism and Romanticism to Heidegger. Several questionable aspects have been brought to the fore: the relation between technology and arts, the effects of the use of technology both on the world and on the user and the nature of the (...)
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  20.  55
    The Case of Online Trust.Matteo Turilli, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Antonino Vaccaro - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):333-345.
    This paper contributes to the debate on online trust addressing the problem of whether an online environment satisfies the necessary conditions for the emergence of trust. The paper defends the thesis that online environments can foster trust, and it does so in three steps. Firstly, the arguments proposed by the detractors of online trust are presented and analysed. Secondly, it is argued that trust can emerge in uncertain and risky environments and that it is possible to trust online identities when (...)
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  21.  11
    The Case of Online Trust.Matteo Turilli, Antonino Vaccaro & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):333-345.
    This paper contributes to the debate on online trust addressing the problem of whether an online environment satisfies the necessary conditions for the emergence of trust. The paper defends the thesis that online environments can foster trust, and it does so in three steps. Firstly, the arguments proposed by the detractors of online trust are presented and analysed. Secondly, it is argued that trust can emerge in uncertain and risky environments and that it is possible to trust online identities when (...)
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  22.  13
    Designing for Trust: A Case of Value-Sensitive Design.Pieter E. Vermaas, Yao-Hua Tan, Jeroen Hoven, Brigitte Burgemeestre & Joris Hulstijn - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):491-505.
    In this paper, we consider the meaning, roles, and uses of trust in the economic and public domain, focusing on the task of designing systems for trust in information technology. We analyze this task by means of a survey of what trust means in the economic and public domain, using the model proposed by Lewicki and Bunker, and using the emerging paradigm of value-sensitive design. We explore the difficulties developers face when designing information technology for trust and show how our (...)
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  23.  21
    Comments on “Trust and New Communication Technologies: Vicious Circles, Virtuous Circles, Possible Futures”. [REVIEW]John Weckert - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):307-309.
    These comments claim that a shift has occurred between early discussions of online trust, where the focus was on the possibility of such trust and later ones, such as Ess’s, where the concern is more with the influence of the new communication technologies on trust in general. The comments, then, focus on affordance as examined by Ess, arguing that it is, indeed, a central issue in new communications and trust.
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  24.  77
    A Critical Analysis of Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information.Pieter Adriaans - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):41-56.
    n various publications over the past years, Floridi has developed a theory of semantic information as well-formed, meaningful, and truthful data. This theory is more or less orthogonal to the standard entropy-based notions of information known from physics, information theory, and computer science that all define the amount of information in a certain system as a scalar value without any direct semantic implication. In this context the question rises what the exact relation between these various conceptions of information is and (...)
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  25.  8
    A Critical Analysis of Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information.Pieter Adriaans - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):41-56.
  26.  54
    A Classical Prejudice?Patrick Allo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):25-40.
    In this paper I reassess Floridi's solution to the Bar-Hillel-Carnap paradox (the information-yield of inconsistent propositions is maximal) by questioning the orthodox view that contradictions cannot be true. The main part of the paper is devoted to showing that the veridicality thesis (semantic information has to be true) is compatible with dialetheism (there are true contradictions), and that unless we accept the additional non-falsity thesis (information cannot be false) there is no reason to presuppose that there is no such thing (...)
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  27.  36
    A Logic of Ethical Information.Joseph E. Brenner - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):109-133.
    The work of Luciano Floridi lies at the interface of philosophy, information science and technology, and ethics, an intersection whose existence and significance he was one of the first to establish. His closely related concepts of a philosophy of information, informational structural realism, information logic, and information ethics provide a new ontological perspective from which moral concerns can be addressed, especially but not limited to those arising in connection with the new information and communication technologies. In this paper, I relate (...)
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  28.  36
    Floridi’s Fourth Revolution and the Demise of Ethics.Michael Byron - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):135-147.
    Luciano Floridi has proposed that we are on the cusp of a fourth revolution in human self-understanding. The information revolution with its prospect of digitally enhancing human beings opens the door to engineering human nature. Floridi has emphasized the importance of making this transition as ethically smooth as possible. He is quite right to worry about ethics after the fourth revolution. The coming revolution, if it unfolds as he envisions, spells the demise of traditional ethical theorizing.
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  29.  11
    Floridi’s Fourth Revolution and the Demise of Ethics.Michael Byron - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):135-147.
  30.  5
    On the Ethics of Democratic Access to Web Information.Flavio Soares Correa da Silva - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):97-107.
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  31.  11
    On the Ethics of Democratic Access to Web Information.Flavio Soares Correa da Silva - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):97-107.
    Floridi’s work, although diverse and multifaceted, portrays a solid coherence across his different lines of work. Among his wealth of interests and results, we highlight his recent work on information logics, on the ethics of information technology, and his rigorous (and vigorous) philosophical analysis of recent technological trends and developments in information technology. In the present article we illustrate, by means of some connecting arguments, the diversity and coherence of Floridi’s work. We also show how his work, although fundamentally philosophical (...)
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  32.  28
    The Fourth Revolution: Philosophical Foundations and Technological Implications. [REVIEW]Hilmi Demir - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):1-6.
    This article introduces this special issue of Knowledge, Technology and Policy. It also explains why Luciano Floridi’s Philosophy of Technology is chosen as the topic of the special issue.
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  33.  22
    A Critique of Information Ethics.Tony Doyle - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
    Luciano Floridi presents Information Ethics (IE) as an alternative to traditional moral theories. IE consists of two tenets. First, reality can be interpreted at numerous, mutually consistent levels of abstraction, the highest of which is information. This level, unlike the others, applies to all of reality. Second, everything, insofar as it is an information object, has some degree of intrinsic value and hence moral dignity. I criticize IE, arguing that Floridi fails to show that the moral community should be expanded (...)
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  34.  10
    A Critique of Information Ethics.Tony Doyle - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
  35.  17
    The Value of Information as Ontological Pluralism.Massimo Durante - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):149-161.
    In my paper I will focus my attention on some philosophical aspects of the Information Ethics displayed by Luciano Floridi. Floridi’s Information Ethics has the methodological merit of providing the interpretation of the Informational Turn with a solid philosophical basis, the roots of which deserve a careful investigation. In this perspective, I will analyse a key question, which is essential not only from a theoretical but also from a practical (moral, political and legal) point of view, i.e. whether or not (...)
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  36.  7
    The Value of Information as Ontological Pluralism.Massimo Durante - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):149-161.
    In my paper I will focus my attention on some philosophical aspects of the Information Ethics displayed by Luciano Floridi. Floridi’s Information Ethics has the methodological merit of providing the interpretation of the Informational Turn with a solid philosophical basis, the roots of which deserve a careful investigation. In this perspective, I will analyse a key question, which is essential not only from a theoretical but also from a practical point of view, i.e. whether or not Floridi’s construction of information (...)
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  37.  8
    Tony Doyle.A. Critique of Information Ethics - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
    Luciano Floridi presents Information Ethics (IE) as an alternative to traditional moral theories. IE consists of two tenets. First, reality can be interpreted at numerous, mutually consistent levels of abstraction, the highest of which is information. This level, unlike the others, applies to all of reality. Second, everything, insofar as it is an information object, has some degree of intrinsic value and hence moral dignity. I criticize IE, arguing that Floridi fails to show that the moral community should be expanded (...)
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  38.  64
    The Philosophy of Information as a Conceptual Framework.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):1-31.
    The article contains the replies to the collection of contributions discussing my research on the philosophy of information.
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  39.  21
    The Philosophy of Information as a Conceptual Framework.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):253-281.
  40.  36
    Epistemology of AI Revisited in the Light of the Philosophy of Information.Jean-Gabriel Ganascia - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):57-73.
    Artificial intelligence has often been seen as an attempt to reduce the natural mind to informational processes and, consequently, to naturalize philosophy. The many criticisms that were addressed to the so-called “old-fashioned AI” do not concern this attempt itself, but the methods it used, especially the reduction of the mind to a symbolic level of abstraction, which has often appeared to be inadequate to capture the richness of our mental activity. As a consequence, there were many efforts to evacuate the (...)
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  41.  35
    Informational Realism and World 3.Donald Gillies - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical realism (...)
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  42.  15
    Typ-Ken Drives Infosphere.Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Takayuki Niizato, Hisashi Murakami & Iori Tani - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):227-251.
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  43.  14
    Typ-Ken (an Amalgam of Type and Token) Drives Infosphere.Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Takayuki Niizato, Hisashi Murakami & Iori Tani - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):227-251.
    Floridi’s infosphere consisting of informational reality is estimated and delineated by introducing the new notion of Typ-Ken, an undifferentiated amalgam of type and token that can be expressed as either type or token dependent on contingent ontological commitment. First, we elaborate Floridi’s system, level of abstraction (LoA), model, and structure scheme, which is proposed to reconcile ontic with epistemic structural reality, and obtain the duality of type and token inherited in the relationship between LoA and model. While we focus on (...)
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  44.  23
    How to Design the Infosphere: The Fourth Revolution, the Management of the Life Cycle of Information, and Information Ethics as a Macroethics. [REVIEW]Wolfgang Hofkirchner - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):177-192.
    The paper reconstructs the read thread that links the information revolution, the information concept and information ethics in Floridi’s philosophy of information. In doing so, it acknowledges the grand attempt but doubts whether this attempt is up to the state of affairs concerning the actual point human history has reached. It contends that the information age is rather conceivable as a critical stage in which human evolution as a whole is at stake. The mastering of this crisis depends on an (...)
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  45.  7
    How to Design the Infosphere: The Fourth Revolution, the Management of the Life Cycle of Information, and Information Ethics as a Macroethics.Wolfgang Hofkirchner - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):177-192.
  46.  56
    Perceptual Evidence and Information.Tommaso Piazza - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):75-95.
    Quite recently, Luciano Floridi has put forward the fascinating suggestion that knowledge should be analyzed as special kind of information, in particular as accounted information. As I will try tentatively to show, one important consequence of Floridi’s proposal is that the notion of justification, and of evidence, should play no role in a philosophical understanding of knowledge. In this paper, I shall suggest one potential difficulty with which Floridi’s proposal might be consequently afflicted, yet accept the fundamental suggestion that traditional (...)
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  47.  99
    Pre-Cognitive Semantic Information.Orlin Vakarelov - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):193-226.
    This paper addresses one of the fundamental problems of the philosophy of information: How does semantic information emerge within the underlying dynamics of the world?—the dynamical semantic information problem. It suggests that the canonical approach to semantic information that defines data before meaning and meaning before use is inadequate for pre-cognitive information media. Instead, we should follow a pragmatic approach to information where one defines the notion of information system as a special kind of purposeful system emerging within the underlying (...)
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