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  1.  4
    Eliminativní Materialismus, Lidová Psychologie a Jazyk Myšlení.Matěj Dražil - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (2):253-284.
    The article provides an analysis of Paul and Patricia Churchland’s eliminative materialism. I will distinguish two lines of argument in their eliminativism: one seeking to eliminate folk psychology and the second criticising Jerry Fodor’s language of thought hypothesis. Then I will closely examine the second line of argument, and show that it represents the main motive of Churchland’s work since the end of 1980s and demonstrate why the success of the argument against the language of thought hypothesis does not constitute (...)
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  2.  1
    Philosophy and History of Science in Collaboration with Academic Institutions in Great Britain and the USA in 2019.Tomáš Hermann - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (2):305-309.
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  3.  2
    Against Grand Theories: A (Cautionary) Tale of Two Disciplines.Petr Jedlička - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (2):175-199.
    In this paper, I combine an exposition of the historical development of sociology and philosophy of science from the era of grand theories onwards, with an explication as to why the grand theories have failed. First, I trace some parallels in the history of each of the disciplines. After presenting their chronological development, I scrutinize the metatheoretical findings about the disciplines and examine the main ontological and epistemic reasons why attempts at these general theories or frameworks have not succeeded. Among (...)
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  4.  3
    Inercialita V Kontextu Leibnizovy Korespondence s Clarkem.Kateřina Lochmanová - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (2):201-229.
    This study deals with a controversy between Leibniz and Clarke concerning the relativity of space. Although substantivalism, i.e. an approach treating space as a substance, is to be indicated as the main target of Leibniz’s attack, it has usually been replaced by Newtonian absolutism instead, as a proper opposition to Leibniz’s relationalism. However, such absolutism has not been defined ontologically, but dynamically, as if the difference between their conceptions consisted of a different approach to the inertiallity of motion. However, this (...)
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  5.  13
    A Manifesto for Messy Philosophy of Technology: The History and Future of an Academic Field.Gregory Morgan Swer & Jean Du Toit - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (2):231-252.
    Philosophy of technology was not initially considered a consolidated field of inquiry. However, under the influence of sociology and pragmatist philosophy, something resembling a consensus has emerged in a field previously marked by a lack of agreement amongst its practitioners. This has given the field a greater sense of structure and yielded interesting research. However, the loss of the earlier “messy” state has resulted in a limitation of the field’s scope and methodology that precludes an encompassing view of the problematic (...)
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  6.  1
    Newtonova Metodologie a Kritika Mechanického Materialismu.Roman Zavadil - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (2):285-304.
    This article will introduce Isaac Newton’s fundamental methodological concepts applied for a solution concerning a question of gravity in his Principia Mathematica. The method of deduction of propositions from phenomena can be described as demonstrative induction. The main aim is to show that this method proposed by Newton explicitly contains a criticism of hypothetico-deductive methodology as an inadequate approach to the study of nature. As opposed to hypothetico-deductive method, demonstrative induction is capable of producing theories with much richer empirical and (...)
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  7.  2
    Cosmological, Astronomical and Astrological Elements in Sermons of Seventeenth-Century Ruthenian Authors.Olga Čadajeva - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):141-171.
    The development of oral preaching and the genre of sermon in seventeenth-century Russia was primarily brought about by Ruthenian authors influenced by the Latin tradition, e.g., Ioannikiy Galyatovsky, Lazar Baranovych and Simeon Polotsky. These authors incorporated their general knowledge of cosmology, astronomy and astrology into their homilies, which present a valuable insight into the intellectual background of the period through the prism of cosmological elements used mostly as parts of rhetoric constructions. While the functions of the particular elements of natural (...)
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  8.  2
    The “Physica Mosaica” of Johann Heinrich Alsted.Jan Čížek - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):117-139.
    Some early modern scholars believed that Scripture provided more certain knowledge than all secular authorities – even Aristotle – or investigating nature as such. In this paper, I analyse one such attempt to establish the most reliable knowledge of nature: the so-called Mosaic physics proposed by the Reformed encyclopaedist Johann Heinrich Alsted. Although in his early works on Physica Mosaica Alsted declares that his primary aim is proving the harmony that exists between various traditions of natural philosophy, namely between the (...)
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  9.  4
    The Status of the Quadrivium in the Corpus on Logic of the Brethren of Purity.Crina Galita - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):7-24.
    This article proposes some reflections on the status of the quadrivium in the epistles X–XIV of one of the best known encyclopaedia of the Brethren of Purity Rasā’il, by reconstructing the implied methodology of how the quadrivium is applied within a theoretic philosophy and therefore how all these aspects concur in order to obtain demonstrations that are in complete cohesion with soundness. Following a hermeneutical methodology, this research explores the ways to get to the universal truth and how exactly one (...)
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  10.  2
    Renaissance Anatomy: The Path From Ars to Scientia with a Focus on Anatomical Works of Johannes Jessenius.Tomáš Nejeschleba - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):95-115.
    Johannes Jessenius became known by his contemporaries mostly as an exponent of the Italian anatomical Renaissance in Central Europe at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The image of Jessenius in the twentieth century was also created with respect to his activities in the area of anatomy in Wittenberg and Prague in particular. The aim of this article is to put Jessenius into the context of the development of anatomy in the sixteenth century. (...)
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  11.  4
    Gerbert of Aurillac (Pope Sylvester II) as a Clockmaker.Marek Otisk - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):25-49.
    The paper analyses three preserved reports, depicting Gerbert of Aurillac as a clockmaker. The Benedictine monk William of Malmesbury writes about clocks Gerbert made in Reims in The History of the English Kings and describes them as arte mechanica compositum. The Benedictine Arnold Wion mentions clocks from Ravenna, where Gerbert allegedly constructed a clepsydra, in The Tree of Life. In his Chronicle, Thietmar of Merseburg describes a horologium with an observation tube from Magdeburg. These three references are analysed from a (...)
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  12. Botany as a New Field of Knowledge in the Thirteenth Century: On the Genesis of the Specialized Sciences.Mustafa Yavuz & Pilar Herraíz Oliva - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):51-75.
    The reception of the translations of Aristotelian and pseudo-Aristotelian works at the University of Paris in the thirteenth century promoted a new understanding of the sciences as specialized fields of knowledge. The huge amount of translations required a new organization of knowledge, which included novel subjects and categories. Among these there is a very special case, namely the pseudo-Aristotelian De plantis, translated from Arabic into Latin and then back into Greek to be re-translated into Latin again. De plantis was included (...)
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  13.  1
    Marsilio Ficino's Allegorical Reading of Optical Phenomena.Martin Žemla - 2020 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 42 (1):77-93.
    As a Platonist, Marsilio Ficino was deeply interested in light and its qualities. As a matter of fact, the metaphysics of light is so fundamental for him that it appears, treated more or less systematically, almost in all of his works. As a physician, he was naturally concerned with the human corporeality and with the relation of human body to the physical world, both terrestrial and astral. However, when discussing astronomical and optical phenomena, he sees them primarily not as physical (...)
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