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  1.  3
    Gene Centrism, Causal Specificity and Missing Heritability.Gökhan Akbay - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1455-1478.
    Gene centrism is the idea that genes have a privileged causal role in the ontogeny of phenotypes. It has traditionally been defended on the grounds that genetic causation is a special kind of causation. According to this viewpoint, genes are special causal agents because they carry the information to build the organism. The recent trend in the philosophy of biology is to replace informational concepts with causal ones. Specific influence of genes in the production of RNA and proteins has received (...)
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  2. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle: A Thematic Case of Teleology and Causality in Contemporary Science.João Barbosa - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1397-1408.
    The successive versions of the anthropic cosmological principle reintroduced teleology in cosmology, articulating it with two forms of mechanical causality – probabilism and determinism. According to the thematic analysis of science proposed by Gerald Holton, we can say that teleology is the opposing thema of mechanical causality. A return of teleology easily creates suspicions because mechanical causality dominates contemporary science, and teleology is widely considered an obsolete kind of scientific reasoning. Furthermore, in the anthropic cosmological principle, teleology has a deep (...)
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  3.  2
    Kant E a Causalidade: Uma Leitura Baseada Na Representação Do Tempo.Gehad Marcon Bark - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1355-1378.
    This paper aims at discussing the causality principle in the Kantian philosophy trough the argument presented in the Second Analogy of Experience. The main goal is to justify the unrestricted character of the principle of causality, that is, its unrestricted application to all objects of experience, through an argument based on the intuitive and a priori character of the representation of time. The discussion is introduced by a critical analysis of Henry Allison’s interpretation. This analysis, in the second section, explores (...)
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  4.  2
    Book Review - Trueman, Robert. Properties and Propositions: The Metaphysics of Higher-Order Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021. [REVIEW]Ricardo Barroso Batista - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1549-1554.
    A comunidade de filósofos da Metafísica Analítica Contemporânea não consegue entender-se com respeito ao estatuto ontológico das “Propriedades”. Uma parte defende que as propriedades existem, mas, têm grandes dificuldades em explicar a sua existência. Outra parte acredita que as propriedades não existem, mas, não conseguem justificar o problema ontológico da sua predicação. Esta divisão é o tema central deste livro que vos apresentamos, intitulado, “Properties and Propositions: The Metaphysics of Higher-Order Logic” da autoria de Robert Trueman e publicado pela Cambridge (...)
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  5. Causalidad y Regulación: Algunas Dificultades de Los Ensayos Controlados Aleatorizados.Juan Bautista Bengoetxea - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1409-1438.
    The article focuses on the key importance of causality in regulatory activities in the social sciences and especially in nutrition. After a brief presentation, the text proposes several ways of examining the notion of cause and of conceiving it from a philosophical perspective. Section 3 particularly discusses the counterfactual way, understood as a broad approach to conceiving causation in terms of its relationship to randomized controlled trials and, by derivation, to the objective character of the latter. Section 4 examines the (...)
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  6.  3
    Causes, Contingency and Freedom: A Reply to Anscombe, Mumford and Anjum.Michaël Bauwens - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1315-1338.
    This paper takes Anscombe, Mumford and Anjum as key interlocutors for an exploration of the causality involved in our understanding of free will. Anscombe tried to disentangle causality from necessary determination in order to make room for free will, and a first section points to the historical and theological background of this entanglement. However, what is also crucially at stake is the relation between time and causality whereby this paper advocates a shift from a diachronic to a synchronic conception. This (...)
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  7.  1
    Access to Being: Elitism in M. Heidegger’s Philosophy.Mateo Belgrano - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1481-1498.
    The aim of this paper is to show the elitist character of Martin Heidegger’s philosophy. Heidegger, throughout his thought and in different ways, has argued for privileged access to truth. Only some will be able to glimpse the Ereignis and will have the task of bequeathing this vision to the people. I propose to analyze three figures that appear in the philosopher’s conceptual itinerary and that corroborate this hypothesis: 1. those who suffer anxiety in Being and Time; 2. the figure (...)
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  8.  6
    On Backwards Causation.Brian Garrett - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1209-1212.
    In our world we never observe an effect which is earlier than its cause. All of our experience is of future-directed causation. But many have thought that backwards causation is at least logically or metaphysically possible. Max Black famously argued against this thought. I think his argument fails, but it’s still instructive. The correct rejoinder to Black teaches us what backwards causation must be like in a world of free agents, and implies that we can never have reason to bring (...)
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  9.  3
    The Nonidentity Problem is an Artifact of Faulty Causal Reasoning.Peter Gildenhuys - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1339-1354.
    This paper argues that the nonidentity problem is really an artifact of faulty causal reasoning. In order to solve the nonidentity problem, we must determine that an agent causes a loss of happiness to another agent by means of an action that also causes the victim to exist. Woodward’s test for actual causation yields just this result. Equally crucial to solving the problem is the recognition that harms must be intentional and that intentionality is a function of norm-violation; this latter (...)
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  10.  3
    On the (Possible) Moral Meaning of the Beautiful in Kant.Rômulo Eisinger Guimarães - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1499-1528.
    With his Critique of Judgment, Kant aimed to establish a connection between the Understanding, concerning the sensibly cognizable, and Reason, concerning the domain of the intelligible, completing, thus, his critical system of Reason. However, to establish this bridge over the “incalculable gulf fixed between the domain of the concept of nature […] and the domain of the concept of freedom, as the supersensible” is not as easy as it may seem: since each of these faculties has its own ground, it (...)
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  11.  2
    The Causal Nature of Dispositions and Modality.Jan Hauska - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1213-1242.
    Theories of modality which invoke possible worlds have recently been challenged by accounts that appeal to dispositional properties. A prominent strand of the accounts maintains that there is an intimate link between dispositions and possibility. The link is said to be captured by the proposition that, at first approximation, a state of affairs is possible just in case there is some actual disposition whose manifestation is the state. Focusing on the most detailed exposition and defence of this approach, put forward (...)
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  12.  5
    Anselm, Existence, and the Metaphysics of Intentionality: Proslogion 2 Revisited.Christopher Hughes - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1243-1276.
    I argue that the Proslogion 2 argument rests on Meinongian assumptions, and Meinongianism is more defensible than many metaphysicians think, but although Meinongianism can be defended from objections, the most promising strategies for doing that call into question the cogency of the Proslogion 2 argument, so that argument is less than convincing, even if Meinongianism is true.
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  13.  5
    Dispositionalism at Work: A Causal Theory of Perception.Christian Kanzian - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1297-1314.
    This paper seeks to show how a proper version of dispositionalism, taking powers as basic elements of reality, may figure as a causal theory of perception. On the basis of this argument, the paper draws some further conclusions, which may indicate the explanatory competence of such a disposition-affine theory of causality, for example in terms of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities, as well as an ontological account of mere potentialities of active capacities to perceive and of “privations,” respectively.
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  14. Book Review - Vattimo, Gianni. Essere e dintorni. Milan: La nave di Teseo, 2018. [REVIEW]Daniel Leiro - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1555-1562.
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  15.  6
    Causal Predicates, Causal Principles, and the Core of Causation.Uwe Meixner - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1153-1174.
    How might one tackle the subject of causation with the least amount of preformed conceptions – and arrive by a series of well-motivated conceptual decisions at a concept of causation that captures the “heart of the matter”? This essay is a sustained attempt to answer this question. On the way, causal predicates of various degrees of importance are defined and causal principles of various degrees of plausibility discussed, all of this in the service of approaching, step by step, “the heart (...)
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  16.  2
    Causality: Contemporary Approaches.Bruno Nobre & Ricardo Barroso Batista - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1141-1150.
    From the dawn of philosophy, with pre-Socratic thinkers, to the present day, the concept of causality continues to captivate and divide philosophers in all areas. On the one hand, as it is a fundamental concept for understanding the World and its dynamism, the notion of causality remains attractive. On the other hand, it is a source of discord, since it can be understood and thought of in different ways, which leads to contradictory visions about reality. In face of these two (...)
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  17.  3
    Causation, Symmetry and Quantum Physics: Space-Like Causality and Conserved Quantities.L. S. F. Olavo, Ademir E. Santana & Samuel Simon - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1381-1396.
    This work addresses the problem of causation in physics, as for quantum fields, the fundamental theory describing elementary particle physics. Three basic elements are used as methodological concepts: a) the notion of mass-point and the notion of a field describing a physical system ; b) the notion of state of a mass-point and of a field; c) the notion of causality among states, which are defined by symmetries. Then time and space changes include a space-like causality. These elements are discussed (...)
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  18. New Mechanism and Causality: The Case of Interactive Causal Pluralism.Michał Oleksowicz - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1175-1208.
    This paper focuses on the causal pluralism that emerges from the new mechanistic discussion on causality. The reason for our choice of the New Mechanical Philosophy is twofold. Firstly, the NMP is one of the dominant approaches within the current philosophy of science and has produced very extensive literature on the problem of causation. Secondly, the intersection of the understanding of nature via mechanisms and the focus on explanatory practice across different scientific fields has brought a great renewal of causal (...)
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  19. Sobre a Questão Dos Limites da Aplicação da Causalidade Em Ciência: A Posição de Delfim Santos.Luís Ramos - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1439-1454.
    The main objective of this article is to determine how Delfim Santos positions himself in relation to what I designated as the question of the limits of the application of causality in science. With this objective in mind, I divided the article into three sections: in the first, I show how Delfim Santos exposes these two opposing positions, namely, on the one hand, the universalist position, and on the other hand, the rejectionist position; in the second, I present Delfim Santos’ (...)
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  20.  14
    Consciousness: Removing the Hardness and Solving the Problem.John Shand - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1279-1296.
    The ‘hard’ problem of consciousness is the seemingly intractable one of explaining the properties of consciousness in terms of the properties of physical objects. This is often seen mistakenly as a metaphysical problem, whereby the properties of physical things are of such a nature and so unlike mental properties that it is difficult to understand how the physical could ever explain consciousness. This view of the physical is not however the true reason for the hardness of the problem, rather it (...)
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  21. Rumo À Escola Cultural Pluridimensional Segundo Manuel Ferreira Patrício.Hélder António de Mendonça Silva & Jacinto Jardim - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (4):1529-1546.
    Education aims at the integral development of the person. However, there are few proposals that conceptualize ways to implement this desideratum. In the Portuguese context, we had the paradigmatic case of the Manuel Ferreira Patrício Cultural School. MFP differentiates itself by advocating for integral education that establishes an essential connection between the teaching, extra-lecture, interactive and ecological components of the school, highlighting the multidimensionalities of education: personality, culture, methodologies, curriculum, resources, educators, and pedagogical organization.
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  22.  8
    Aportes de la Filosofía Jurídica Al Concepto Persona.Juan Manuel Alba Bermúdez - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1057-1072.
    The present study has the purpose of analyzing a concept widely approached by most scholars of the philosophy of law throughout the ages, we are referring without doubt to the term person. That is why we will review the most important and relevant ideas from ancient times to current thinking. The philosophical concept of person has a notorious role in the understanding of the human being and in modern debates both in politics, law and, of course, in ethics. The aforementioned (...)
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  23.  5
    Book Review - Bernstein, Sara, E Tyron Goldschmidt, Eds. Non-Being: New Essays on the Metaphysics of Non-Existence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021. [REVIEW]Ricardo Barroso Batista - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1099-1106.
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  24.  2
    Book Review - Baschet, Jérôme. Corpos e Almas: Uma História da Pessoa na Idade Média. Tradução de Erica Ziegler. São Leopoldo: Unisinos, 2019. [REVIEW]Leandro Bertoncello - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1107-1116.
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  25. Philosophical Practice as a Way to Address the Students’ Existential Problems During the Pandemic.Veronika Bogdanova & Kirill Rezvushkin - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):979-994.
    This article is devoted to the study of the academic and existential problems of students during the pandemic. The authors conducted sociological surveys among first- and second-year students of a higher educational institution, where they analyze students’ attitudes towards distance learning and identify the most pressing existential problems of students. The authors concluded that during the quarantine period, learning has lost its semantic basis. The reason for this is the inability of the education system to respond to the challenges of (...)
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  26. Actitudes Culturales Ante la Enfermedad y la Muerte. Perspectivas Desde la Pandemia Global.Julian Bohórquez-Carvajal - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):793-818.
    In the context of Covid-19 pandemic, this paper reflects on the effects of great epidemics on our cultural attitudes towards illness and death. First, through a parallel between the coronavirus pandemic and the medieval Black Death, I examine the impact of epidemics on our ways of thinking about reality and of responding collectively to the fear of dying. Based on the historical periodization of the different mentalities towards death, formulated by Philippe Ariès, I argue that epidemic phenomena modify the way (...)
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  27. In Memoriam. Roque de Aguiar Pereira Cabral, SJ.José Henrique Silveira Brito - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1075-1092.
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  28. Life Uprooted. Social and Moral Challenges of Woe.Noelia Bueno Gómez - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):959-973.
    Entering into dialogue with Simone Weil, this article contributes to the identification of woe as a social and psychological phenomenon that should not remain hidden and minimized anymore. Affliction is described as a kind of extreme suffering that causes a partial or total loss of self-appropriation, self-blame and self-shame. Moreover, it is accompanied by social degradation, marginalization, guilt and shame, such that institutions and even social theories can feed its perverse inertia. Woe has such overwhelming destructive power that any socio-political (...)
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  29.  4
    Democracy and Borderline Cases: Covid-19 Emergency.Enrica Caraffini - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):565-578.
    Since the primary mode of Covid transmission is person-to-person contact both through respiratory droplets produced by sneezing, breathing, coughing and direct contact with an infecting subject or indirect through hand-mediated transfer of the virus, governments had to limit the contact between individuals to reduce the risk of coronavirus infection. The effect has been a drastic reduction of human interactions, as these were “cut to the bone”. The strict rules the world population has been following, have brought about an urgent debate (...)
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  30. El Escotoma Cultural En Tiempos de Pandemia. El Empobrecimiento de la Función Simbólica Del Hombre.Luis Fernando Cardona Suárez - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):883-914.
    This text addresses the cultural scotoma of these times of pandemic. To do this, we seek to apply the metaphor of the scotoma, used by Oliver Sacks in the clinical setting, expanding it to examine the cultural phenomenon of the pandemic. This scotoma is characterized by the impoverishment of the symbolic function of man. This impoverishment can be seen, for example, in the cultural phenomena of statistical panic and the loss of the most basic rituals, through which man used to (...)
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  31. Pandemic Capital or “The New Gravity”.Agostino Cera - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):579-596.
    This paper aims to highlight a latent evidence emerging from the pandemic phenomenon: Pandemic Capital. By this formula I mean a process of naturalization in regards to the equivalence between the right of a commercial enterprise to profit from its activity and the right of people to protect their own health, or, better, the right to maximize profit as new aspirant fundamental right. This naturalization becomes particularly clear in relation to the question of vaccine patents. The distinction between just profit (...)
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  32.  8
    The Covid-19 Pandemic and Climate Change: Some Lessons Learned on Individual Ethics and Social Justice.Fausto Corvino - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):691-714.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has confronted humanity with a complex and unexpected challenge. One part of this challenge concerned individual ethics, i.e., the behaviour of individuals with respect to the rules and restrictions that have been imposed by health authorities in the collective interest. Another part concerned, instead, the social organisation of immunisation campaigns. In this article I wonder whether the lessons we have learned in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic can be applied to climate change mitigation. My first argument (...)
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  33. Antropo-Etica Della Vulnerabilità Al Tempo Del Covid-19.Maria Chiara De Nardo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):819-840.
    Concern for human vulnerability seems to be at the heart of the recent sanitary emergency. The aim of this article is to show why actual reflections on Covid-19 need an adequately theorized conception of vulnerability. We first review anthropological and ethical approaches to vulnerability in two of the main authors of the classical-medieval tradition: Aristoteles and Thomas Aquinas, proving that they include the vulnerability in their reflections. The thought of these authors is then combined with the ethical reflections of the (...)
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  34.  5
    Filosofia, Politica E Società Ai Tempi Della Pandemia. Agamben E la «Paranoia Della Ragione».Antonio Di Chiro - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):617-642.
    In this essay we will try to analyze the thought of the philosopher Giorgio Agamben on the pandemic. The aim of the work is twofold. On the one hand, we will try to demonstrate that Agamben’s positions on the pandemic are not to be understood as mere extemporaneous statements, but as integral parts of his philosophy. On the other hand, we will try to show how these positions are based on a deeply paranoid and anti-scientific vision, since Agamben believes that (...)
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  35. L’Amour de la Vie Face À la Peur de la Mort. Une Réflexion Sur la Crise Sanitaire Et Sa Portée Métaphysique.Jean-Marc Ferry & Magali Croset-Calisto - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):501-512.
    The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, including variants, is global; hence the name “pandemic”. However, its experience varies between continents, regions, nations, as well as between socio-cultural groups within the same nation. If we target the population fringe that corresponds to a privileged third of our European capitals, it appears that its “resilience” in the face of the crisis is undoubtedly different from that of the inhabitants of Africa, Asia and South America. This choice will undoubtedly teach us less about humanity in general (...)
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  36. La Modernità Cartesiana: Un Paradigma di Interpretazione.Alfredo Gatto - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1007-1026.
    Descartes is usually considered as the father of Western rationalism and the thinker who made the cogito and the subjective element the cornerstone of philosophical investigation. This article aims to analyze the history of this hermeneutic paradigm by verifying the main turning points which transformed this reading into the traditional approach to Cartesian thinking and modern philosophy. Starting from M. Heidegger’s analysis, the article proceeds backwards and identifies the main phases of this interpretation giving a sharper focus on F. Nietzsche, (...)
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  37.  3
    Covid-19 and Our Duty to Die.Jose Luis Guerrero Quiñones - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):769-790.
    When considering our own death, we normally weigh its impact on the people we love and care about, as well as worrying about the way in which our life might end, hoping that not too much suffering precedes it. However, such view, despite necessary, is a passive understanding of death, interpreted as something that merely happens to us, where we would have some control over timing if physician-assisted dying were legal in our countries. But what if our relation to death (...)
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  38.  8
    Radically Hopeful Thinking for a Wicked Covid-19 Pandemic Problem.Benjamin Hole - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):751-768.
    This paper explores the prospects of radical hope for addressing the devastation of the Covid-19 pandemic. Hope is useful for conceptualizing the proper balance between too much fear and too little about our uncertain future. First, I describe the ethical challenge of the pandemic as a wicked problem. Because accepted ethical theories fail to motivate solutions, wicked problems pressure us to develop our value systems, exercise moral imaginations, and discover creative solutions. Second, I develop an Aristotelian account of radical hope, (...)
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  39.  68
    When the Face Becomes a Carrier: Biopower, Levinas’s Ethics, and Contagion.Sarah Horton - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):715-732.
    In the midst of a pandemic, what does it mean to see the Other as Other and not as a carrier of the virus? I argue that in seeking a Levinasian response to the pandemic, we must be mindful of the implications of the mechanisms of surveillance and control that, presented as ways to protect the Other, operate by controlling the Other and rendering our relation to the Other increasingly impersonal. Subjected to these mechanisms, the Other becomes a dangerous entity (...)
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  40.  2
    Reconstructing Professional Philosophy: Lessons From Philosophy as a Way of Life During a Time of Crises.Eli Kramer & Marta Faustino - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):513-546.
    This article reflects on the way the Covid-19 hecatomb has disclosed and unraveled the ongoing crisis of professional philosophy, and suggests some lessons that might be taken from the pandemic, urging academic philosophers to take action regarding the future of their work in philosophy departments and institutions. In the first section of the article, we highlight some lasting criticisms to academic philosophy and explore one particular nasty thorn in the side of philosophers doing the kind of work that might speak (...)
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  41.  1
    Book Review - Esquirol, Josep Maria. A Resistência Íntima. Ensaio de uma Filosofia da Proximidade. Trad. Jorge Melícias. Lisboa: Edições 70, 2020. [REVIEW]Andreas Gonçalves Lind - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1095-1098.
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  42.  2
    «Resistir» Em Tempos de Pandemia.Andreas Gonçalves Lind & Bruno Nobre - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):547-562.
    In 2015, Josep Maria Esquirol sketched his “philosophy of proximity”. Such a philosophy does not seek to attain a propositional, abstract, or purely theoretical truth. According to Esquirol, it is rather about healing the human person in the concreteness of his or her life. More precisely, without wishing to return to ancient metaphysics, Esquirol seeks to «resist» against the nihilistic forces of disintegration of meaning that leads the human being to the experience of nothingness. In our understanding, La Resistencia Íntima, (...)
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  43.  1
    The Ethics of Social Distance and Proximity in the City.Tea Lobo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):995-1004.
    The genealogy of ethics starts in the polis. Plato and Aristotle had an optimistic view of polis life, even though Plato was born shortly after the plague of Athens, an experience that left a deep imprint in his society, and interestingly not a very good opinion of democracy. The idea of the polis as the ideal locus for human flourishing can be contested because we do not share the same face-to-face form of life with the ancient polis-dwellers. Contemporary megacities do (...)
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  44.  5
    What is It to Lose Trust? Covid-19 Pandemic, Extended Minds and Shared Feelings.Marcelo Vieira Lopes - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):937-958.
    Since the emergence of the Covid-19 outbreak, the world has faced profound changes, with different levels of impact on human experience. Besides immediate health, economic, and political issues, psychological and existential impacts have also emerged. It is no exaggeration to say that even our taken-for-granted, embodied being in the world has profoundly changed, with collectively felt impacts. In this paper, I argue for a general description of the Covid-19 experience. I suggest that loss of trust emerges as a pervasive dimension (...)
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  45.  2
    What the Plague Tells Me and What It Can’T: Moral Lessons From Two Novels.Roger López - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):859-882.
    This article turns to Jack London’s and Albert Camus’ novels about contagion to try to tease out some of the moral meanings of the pandemic we are currently living through. In many ways, these works are prescient, and can thus serve as commentary on the situation we find ourselves in. In others, their narratives differ from each other and from our experience; the differences signal what is at stake in some of our circumstances. Camus’ ideal of solidarity focuses my discussion. (...)
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  46. Paul Ricœur: Traços Do Religioso Numa Filosofia Sem Absoluto.Gonçalo Marcelo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):1027-1056.
    This paper assesses the ways in which Transcendence and the question of God appear in the philosophy of Paul Ricœur. Taking stock of the debate on the theological turn of French phenomenology, the paper aims to show the unique position held by Ricœur among French phenomenology and hermeneutics, in that in spite of his Christian faith, Ricœur strove to put forward a philosophy of limits ‘without absolute’ while, at the same time, developing inquiries in phenomenology and hermeneutics of religion. The (...)
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  47.  1
    Implicaciones Biopolíticas de la Covid-19: Del Pesimismo a la Parresia.Ricardo Mejía Fernández - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):597-616.
    Covid-19 is, above all, a problem concerning public health and healthcare professionals. This seems totally obvious but not for everybody. However, just beginning the outbreak of the pandemic, in the midst of its deadliest first wave, some renowned intellectuals, such as Slavoj Žižek, speculated in highly idealized and utopian terms about the positive effects that would be unleashed for philosophical and political thought. In this article we try to think the biopolitical implications of this pandemic, especially through a critical pessimism (...)
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  48.  2
    Between Catastrophes: God, Nature and Humanity.John Milbank - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):489-500.
    Critical responses to the pandemic have divided between the need to control and defeat it and fears of a new medicalisation of human existence. In the short-term the first response is right, but in the long-term the second. The ideological division on this issue on the left roughly correlates with a relative stress on the power of the market on the one hand or the power of the state on the other. But these are two halves of the same picture: (...)
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  49.  3
    Le Masque En Temps de la Covid-19 : Ce Qu’Il Donne À Penser.Robby Mandiangu Ngofo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):733-750.
    In this time of the Covid-19 pandemic, one experiences the other and self as mask wearers. Mask, which until now was mainly a reality of the medical world, has become an object of daily life. For some, it is indispensable and beneficial, and it has also become, for others, the symbol of freedom restriction by those in power. This article raises the debate above these different positions to apprehend what the mask makes one think. This study understands the mask from (...)
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  50.  1
    Thinking the Pandemic: Philosophical Perspectives.Róbson Ramos dos Reis, João Carlos Onofre Pinto, Bruno Nobre, Andreas Gonçalves Lind & Ricardo Barroso Batista - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):477-486.
    The response to the profound crisis posed by SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has demanded the best commitment from the various agents of society and called upon researchers from the various fields of knowledge to seek solutions to the challenges we face and to reflect on the impact of the pandemic on the various dimensions of human life. In this context, the Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia intends to contribute to the philosophical reflection on the challenges posed by the pandemic, publishing original essays that (...)
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  51. La Vulnerabilità Come “Ritorno Del Rimosso” E la Nuova Domanda di Senso Durante la Pandemia da Covid-19.Maria Teresa Russo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):841-858.
    The great leap forward of medicine in the twentieth century contributed to the myth of the repression of vulnerability accompanied by the illusion of individual control and self-determination. However, epidemics, like major natural disasters, have continued to act as elements capable of upsetting scientific optimism. The Covid-19 pandemic, with its uncertain causes and unpredictable effects, has led to authentic demythologisation and caused a “return of the repressed”: a feeling of vulnerability along with dramatic awareness of our mortality. This phenomenon has (...)
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  52. Einwanderung in Zeiten von Corona.Daniel Sharp - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):657-688.
    After the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, most states enacted new measures to constrain international mobility. By May 8th, 2020, more than 93% of the world’s population lived in states with special entry bans and more than three billion lived in countries whose borders were almost completely closed to non-citizens. Can such measures be justified? If so, would this undermine the open borders view? This paper examines these questions. It argues, first, that, although short-term entry bans and other similar measures (...)
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  53.  39
    Theories of Justice Applied to the Pandemic: The Case of Vaccine Distribution.Ricardo Tavares Silva - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):643-656.
    The problem of the distribution of the coronavirus vaccines – concerning the criterion by which the beneficiaries of the vaccine are selected – constitute a particular case of the general problem of the distribution of social goods. For this reason, it is necessary to discuss whether the selection criterion to be adopted is that of commutative justice or that of distributive justice and, consequently, whether the approach to the problem must follow an individualist perspective or a collectivist perspective, such as (...)
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  54.  3
    Em Direção À Compreensão Das Emoções Na Pandemia: A Solidão E Seu Significado Epistêmico.Flavio Williges - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (2-3):917-936.
    Emotions elicited by the threat of the coronavirus and social distancing measures are usually characterized in a negative way in the literature about the pandemic. This paper argues that this is not true for all emotions. Based on philosophical and empirical studies of loneliness, I contend that transient feelings of loneliness felt during the pandemic contribute to epistemically recognize what is significant or important to us in terms of social connection and fulfillment. Part of my argument depends on conceiving loneliness (...)
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  55.  8
    Good’s Irreducibility: The Discordancy Argument and Aristotle.Aaron Morgan Anderson - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):163-180.
    In this paper, I argue that the good is irreducible. I use the term ‘irreducible’ in a way similar to but not identical to G. E. Moore’s usage of ‘indefinable’ as found in Principia Ethica. By ‘irreducible,’ I mean that something cannot be simplified into something other than itself. For my purposes, this is to say that the good is sui generis and cannot be accounted for by anything other than itself. Inspired by what I take to be Moore’s basic (...)
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  56.  2
    A Doença de Sócrates, Ou a Doença Sócrates? Nietzsche Entre Instinto E Razão.Fabíola Menezes Araújo & Micael Silva - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):297-324.
    “Socratism despises instinct and, with it, art. It denies wisdom just where it is in its most proper reign”. With this quote from The Dionysian world’s view Nietzsche shows up how he takes the philosophy’s most emblematic figure since the phylosophy’s birth in a duel. Nietzsche starred a duel with Socrates, or rather with what his represents in the course of Western thought. Nietzsche will regard Socrates as a kind of philosopher-antipode that will be present in early Nietzschean’s writings to (...)
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  57.  3
    A Insuficiência Das Leis: Uma Reflexão Sobre o Pensamento de Antifonte.Cristiane A. De Azevedo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):235-250.
    In the 5th century BC, in Athens, Antiphon reflects on the relationship between physis and nómos in a way quite different from most sophists. Indeed, one of the particularities of sophist thought is to minimize physis so that thinking focus itself on nómos, on what man can, through thinking and debate, establish in regard to the common good and justice in the pólis. However, Antiphon takes up this relationship between nature and law to direct it to another path. In an (...)
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  58.  4
    Presentation – The Good in Ancient Philosophy: Contemporary Retrievals.Cristiane A. De Azevedo, Francisco Moraes & João Carlos Onofre Pinto - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):13-18.
    Why talk about the Good in present times? It seems unreasonable, naïve, and romantic in these days of isolation, sadness, and needs of all kinds; days that make it hard for us to see a way out. However, it is precisely because we live in challenging times that it becomes urgent to talk and think about the Good, its practice, its works and its power to make the human, Human. In this special issue we propose to engage in contemporary readings (...)
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  59.  2
    El Logos Propio y El Problema de la Verdad En Antístenes.Santiago Chame - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):383-410.
    In this paper, I examine Antisthenes’s conception of truth in order to better understand the relation between ontology and language in his thought. I intend to show that it presents a sharp contrast to Plato’s account of the problem of truth, which relies on an affirmative conception of ontology that involves both the concepts of correspondence and of predicative attribution. While for both philosophers the problem of truth is central, Antisthenes develops a peculiar perspective that subverts Plato’s attempt to sort, (...)
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  60.  9
    O Bem Humano Em Epicteto.Aldo Dinucci & Kelli Rudolph - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):21-46.
    In this paper we will focus on the following points in Epictetus. First, we will concentrate our attention on the celebrated distinction between things up to us and things not up to us. Second, we will survey the distinction between the material and its use. According to this distinction, all external things are not up to us and consequently have no intrinsic value, although, as materials for the capacity of choice, their use has value, since humans can use things well (...)
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  61.  3
    Nationalism, Globalism, and Religion.John Farina - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):411-426.
    Contemporary political debate is replete with presentations of nationalism that see it as a reactionary movement with a troubling history and dubious prospect. It is often contrasted with globalism, presented in equally sweeping terms. A closer look at the tensions between nationalism and globalism reveals a far more complex picture, especially when the nineteenth and twentieth century histories of those terms are examined. This paper argues for a more nuanced view of nationalism and its value in societies, a value that (...)
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  62.  1
    Desejo, Fantasia, Cognição E Bem Aparente Em Aristóteles.Francisco Marques Miranda Filho - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):181-202.
    Aristotle treats in his works De Anima and De Motu Animalium of desire, perception, cognition, fantasy, and good apparent without directly correlating these concepts with his two great ethics, at least that is what the interpreters have as a question solved. The article takes up these concepts that Jessica Moss and Hendrik Lorenz develop, highlighting the important function that fantasy plays in the locomotion chain, when the soul is moved by the desire of a certain desired object, whose good is (...)
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  63.  3
    Classifying the Epicurean Goods.Alex R. Gillham - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):47-70.
    Scholars have paid little attention to the classifications among goods that Epicureans posit. This paper remedies that deficiency. I argue for three claims. First, if we take instrumental goods to be those that are a means or causally lead to the intrinsic good and we take constitutive goods to be those that are part of or amount to the intrinsic good, then the Epicureans probably took reverence for a wise man and wisdom to be instrumental goods but self-sufficiency and phronesis (...)
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  64.  4
    Sobre o Bem Nas Memoráveis de Xenofonte.Alice Bitencourt Haddad - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):205-216.
    This article analyzes the concept of good through an overview of Xenophon’s Memorabilia. It begins with the dialogue between Socrates and Aristippus, in which the philosopher links the good with utility, indicating the recurrence of this conception in the dialogue with Euthydemus. It shows how the conception of good as useful is expanded to the divine realm, identifying the passages in which the gods appear as benefactors of humanity. Then, it deals, in contrast, with the human difficulty of accessing good, (...)
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  65.  1
    Book Review – Burley, Mikel. Wittgenstein, Religion and Ethics – New Perspectives From Philosophy and Theology. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018. [REVIEW]Ricardo Henriques - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):447-452.
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  66.  11
    Aristotle’s Account of Moral Perception (EN.VI.8) & Nussbaum’s Priority of the Particular Thesis.Benjamin Hole - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):357-380.
    Consider a contemporary retrieval of Aristotle’s account of moral perception. Drawing from EN.VI.8, Martha Nussbaum argues that we perceive moral particulars prior to ethical principles. First, I explain her priority of the particular thesis. The virtuous person perceives value in the world, as part of her moral deliberation. This perceptual skill is an important aspect of her virtuous activity, and hence also part of her eudaimonia. Second, I present her priority thesis with a dilemma: our perception of moral particulars is (...)
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  67.  9
    Ethics of Friendship: Ancient and Modern Philosophical Approaches to the Good.Jonas Holst - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):325-340.
    The purpose of the paper is to investigate into the ethical significance of friendship, beginning with its origins in ancient Greek philosophy. The first part is dedicated to an interpretation of Plato’s understanding of friendship as a way towards the good. The second part focuses on how Aristotle takes up the thread after Plato and elaborates on the potential of friendship to enhance the good between virtuous people. In the final parts, the paper uncovers Friedrich Nietzsche’s posthumous thoughts on “an (...)
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  68.  3
    A Autossuficiência Do Bem. Sobre Alguns Paradoxos da Ética Aristotélica.Paulo Butti de Lima - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):121-142.
    In the first book of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle describes the Good as perfect and self-sufficient. He adds that the notion of self-sufficiency must be considered not from the point of view of the single man, but of the community. This argument seems incoherent: is self-sufficiency to be attributed to the Good or to the community? In order to answer this question, we can ask initially if it is the same to say that the Good or the community is self-sufficient. (...)
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  69.  2
    Book Review – Ferry, Jean-Marc. Métaphysiques. Le sens commun au défi du réel. Paris: Les Éditions Cerf, 2021. [REVIEW]Andreas Gonçalves Lind - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):435-438.
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  70.  3
    Eudaimonia: Il Ritorno Agli Antichi E Degli Antichi. Annotazioni Attorno Ad Una Proposta Filosofica.Giannicola Maraglino - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):93-118.
    The study of 20th-century philosophical thought could prove to be of great interest if read in the light of its ethical-anthropological demands. In this sense, he cannot but turn with great interest to the philosophy of the American Martha Nussbaum. Specifically, the name of this philosopher should recall that cultural context of “analytical” philosophy. The intention of this contribution will be to seek the theoretical nodes of the renewed post-modern philosophical interest in the thought of the ancients and especially towards (...)
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  71.  2
    Aristóteles Contra o Bem Dos Economistas.Mário Maximo - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):217-234.
    Despite its origins within moral philosophy, economists think their science has nothing to do with the good. They appeal to some kind of Hume’s guillotine that divides the descriptive and the normative. With that in hand, they affirm the solely descriptive aspect of their discipline. I argue this is not the case. Economists have, as they need to, an all encompassing notion of the good. I suggest going back to Aristotelian arguments to show the shortcomings of this good of economists. (...)
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  72.  2
    Aristóteles E a Hierarquia Dos Bens.Francisco Moraes - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):251-270.
    In this paper, I would like to presente the hierarchy of goods, supported by Aristotle in his ethical treaties and in Politics, as the solution to the impasse between two conceptions of virtue that come into open conflict in some of the main Platonic dialogues: virtue as sovereignity and self-sufficiency of the wise, such as that which opposes the insufficiency of addiction, and virtue as capacity ans achievement, as that which opposes to incapacity and to debility. I intend to show (...)
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  73.  1
    In Memoriam. José Bernardino Fernandes, SJ.Bruno Nobre - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):429-432.
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  74.  3
    Sobre o Caráter Absoluto Ou Relativo da Noção de Bem Em Sua Conexão Com as Noções de Forma E Matéria.Luís Filipe Bellintani Ribeiro - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):143-162.
    In ethics, the good is the final cause of every action. All other causes are what they are relatively to the final cause, but the final cause is not relative to something else, except as means and efficient cause of an ulterior motive, whereby the supreme end, whose possession brings happiness, is the absolute in ethics. In physics, the same thing: the living being tends to the fullness of its eidos and all matter is moved towards that end. But the (...)
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  75.  5
    Book Review – Miguens, Sofia, João Alberto Pinto, E Diana Couto (Eds.) Filosofia da Mente – Uma Antologia. Porto: Editora da Universidade Do Porto, 2019. [REVIEW]João Faria Silva - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):439-446.
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  76.  6
    « Expliquer le Bien Par Une Image ». Simone Weil Et L’Image Platonicienne du Bien Dans la République.Francesca Simeoni - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):341-356.
    In this contribution I aim to analyze how Simone Weil interprets the image of the Good and the periagōghē of the soul described by Socrates in Plato’s Republic. In the first part, I consider the key role that Plato plays in the last writings of Weil. The Athenian philosopher, in fact, becomes a specific reference for Weil in the 1940s, within her attempt to reformulate an ethic for contemporaneity. In the second part, I analyze Weil’s specific comments on the Socratic (...)
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  77.  7
    What Does Divination Mean for Plato’s Socrates? On the Relationship Between Being and the Good.Huaiyuan Zhang - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):71-92.
    Has philosophy ever completed a transition from divine revelation to rational reflection? Has it been Plato’s goal? In this paper I will establish and examine a parallel between divination and philosophy embodied in Plato’s Socrates. I will cite instances from both directions to analyze Plato’s indecision concerning a philosophical treatment of divination: On the one hand, Plato renovates the cultural stock of divination to supplement the rational process of Socratic dialectics. In particular, when he makes a proposal not as a (...)
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  78.  10
    Revisiting the Boy-and-Girl Fallacy at Nicomachean Ethics I 2.Marco Zingano - 2021 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 77 (1):271-294.
    This paper proposes a new reading of Nicomachean Ethics I 2 1094a18-22 with a view to solving the problem that the argument this passage contains would be invalid because it apparently commits a quantifier shift to reach its conclusion. On the reading advocated in this paper, no fallacy is committed, and the argument is sound provided one reads the conclusion at 1094a21-22 in the way the manuscript Marcianus 213 invites us to do. Grammatical considerations are produced to shore up the (...)
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