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  1. The Limits of Understanding and the Infinity of Will: A Critical Explanation on the Twelfth Rule of the Rules of the Direction of the Mind and Cartesian Error Theory.َAli Ardeshir Larijani - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (4):45-72.
    The treatise of Rules for the Direction of the Mind can be traced back to the period of Descartes’ youth in which, until rule eight, he has presented some foundations of the theory of truth and error; such as the truth being founded on manifest and distinct intuition and deductive inference which is an adaptation of his analytical geometric theory. However, in rule twelve, he has vaguely addressed how the set of human faculties commits errors. Since this philosopher has also (...)
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  2. Comparing the Consolations of Ibn Sina and Kant in the Face of Financial Poverty.Mona Forozian, Foruzan Rasekhi & Narges Nazarnejad - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (4):143-164.
    Throughout history, philosophy has always been accused of being abstract and unrelated to the everyday issues of human life, so some later philosophers have offered solutions to some individual problems and social problems. Some of them are called “philosophical consolations.” Of course, “consolation” in custom means to calm a sad or afflicted person, but the meaning of the term consolation in philosophy and social sciences is somewhat broader than its customary meaning, and it means to calm the person through the (...)
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  3. Statistical Analysis of Conceptual Metaphors of Causation in Mulla Sadra’s Al-Shawahid Al-Rubūbīyyah.Vahid Khademzadeh & Kokab Darabi - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (4):121-142.
    The theory of conceptual metaphor claims that abstract concepts are understood by concrete and less abstract concepts. Conceptual metaphors map the conceptual structure of the source domain over the conceptual structure of the target domain. In this view, a conceptual metaphor is an intrinsic component of human thought, and the appearance of metaphors in language is only a sign of their existence in human thought.Lakoff and Johnson introduce causation as one of the important abstract concepts that are understood and described (...)
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  4.  2
    Linguistic Nature of Reality in Richard Rorty.Isa Mousazadeh, Muhammad Asghari & Mohammadreza Abdollahnejat - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (4):103-120.
    In this article, our aim is to examine the place of “reality” in Richard Rorty’s thought in view of the important and key discussion of language in the philosophy of this thinker. In other words, we know that with the occurrence of the “linguistic turn” in the middle of the twentieth century, the relationship between language and reality has become one of the central debates of philosophy, especially analytical philosophy, and has become of particular importance. Is it language that determines (...)
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  5.  2
    A Critical Study: Physical Closure and the Argument for Naturalism.Nima Narimani - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (4):73-102.
    Great naturalist philosophers like David Armstrong, David Papineau, Jeagwon Kim, and others have argued that the best arguments for naturalism are based on Physical Causal Closure. P.C that is a premise in these arguments implies that only natural/physical causes are responsible for natural events and supernatural/non-physical causes cannot have any effective role in the natural universe. By adding some reasonable rules such as Ockham’s Razor or Eleatic Principle to P.C, they have concluded that there is no non-natural cause such as (...)
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  6.  2
    “Substitution” in Levinas and “Replacement in Sympathy”: Two Different Approaches to Facing the Other.Hamede Rastaei & Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (4):5-22.
    The point of this paper is to compare substitution from the perspective of Levinas and the replacement sympathy as two approaches in facing the other. Sympathy, as one of the moral issues, is a way of paying attention and understanding the anxiety, worry, or need of others, which occurs consciously and with the recognition and replacement of the other. The substitution from the perspective of Levinas is also in relation to the “other” and outlines the scope of the subject’s responsibility (...)
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  7.  17
    Libertarian Free Will, Naturalism, and Science.Stewart Goetz - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):157-172.
    If we have libertarian free will, then it is plausible to believe that the occurrences of certain physical events have irreducible and ineliminable mental explanations. According to a strong version of naturalism, everything in the physical world is in principle explicable in nonmental terms. Therefore, the truth of naturalism implies that libertarian choices cannot explain the occurrences of any physical events. In this paper, I example a methodological argument for the truth of naturalism and conclude that the argument fails. I (...)
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  8.  7
    Divine and Conventional Frankfurt Examples.Ishtiyaque Haji - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):51-72.
    The principle of alternate possibilities says that you are morally praiseworthy or blameworthy for something you do only if you could have done otherwise. Frankfurt examples are putative counterexamples to PAP. These examples feature a failsafe mechanism that ensures that some agent cannot refrain from doing what she does without intervening in how she conducts herself, thereby supposedly sustaining the upshot that she is responsible for her behavior despite not being able to do otherwise. I introduce a Frankfurt example in (...)
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  9.  3
    Creation, Bugs, and Emergence.William Hasker - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):93-112.
    An argument is presented, based on a common-sense interpretation of an everyday experience, for emergent dualism as the best available account of the origin of the human mind/soul. Emergent dualism is superior to subjective idealism in that it honors the common-sense conviction that the things we encounter have a real, physical existence, separate from our mental perceptions of them. It is superior to materialism in that it allows for our mental states to have real, physical effects, distinct from the effects (...)
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  10.  4
    The Relation of Causal Necessity and Free Will in The Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence “When Our Pen Reached This Point, It Shattered to Pieces”.Mohsen Javadi - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):113-136.
    The relation of causal necessity with free will has been a source of great debate in the history of philosophy and theology. However, in recent years, it has also been discussed in the science of Usul al-Fiqh. After explaining the compatibility of causal necessity with free will, Ākhūnd Khurāsānī speaks of the ’shattering of his pen.’ Two interpretations have been given for this statement. Muḥaqqiq Iṣfahānī considers the theory of compatibility that Khurāsānī presented as being correct. However, he interprets the (...)
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  11.  13
    Making Sense of a Free Will That is Incompatible with Determinism: A Fourth Way Forward.Robert Kane - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):5-28.
    For a half - century, I have been developing a view of free will that is incompatible with determinism and, in the process, attempting to answer the Intelligibility Question about such a free will: Can one make sense of an incompatibilist or libertarian free will without reducing it to mere chance, or mystery, and can such a free will be reconciled with modern views of the cosmos and human beings? In this paper, I discuss recent refinements to my earlier writings (...)
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  12.  3
    The Free Agent, Luck, and Character.Zahra Khazaei - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):173-192.
    Whether we are free agents or not and to what extent depends on factors such as the necessary conditions for free will and our definition of human agency and identity. The present article, apart from possible alternatives and the causality of the agent regarding his actions, addresses the element of inclination as a necessary condition for free will. Therefore, an analysis of these conditions determines that even though in some circumstances the range of alternatives the agent can choose is very (...)
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  13.  3
    Dimensions of Divine Freedom.Hajj Muhammad Legenhausen - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):73-92.
    Divine freedom is reviewed with respect to three important themes: fate, revisions in divine decisions, and divine obligations. A study of the first theme yields the conclusion that God is free because He has absolute power and authority. In addition, God is free in relation to human beings in the sense that He can do what they do not expect. This theme is found under the heading of decree and measure, qaḍāʾ and qadar. Theologians have also grappled with the problem (...)
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  14.  7
    The Indeterministic Weightings Model of Libertarian Free Will.John Lemos - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):137-156.
    This article articulates and defends an indeterministic weightings model of libertarian free will. It begins by defining the conception of free will at issue and then goes on to present versions of the luck objection which is often made against theories of LFW. It is argued that the sort of indeterministic weightings model of LFW which has been defended in the recent literature by Storrs McCall and E.J. Lowe and John Lemos has the resources to answer such luck objections while (...)
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  15.  11
    Free Will Versus Determinism - As Determined by Radical Conceptual Changes.Nancey Murphy - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (3):29-50.
    My objective in this article is to question whether the problem of free will can, within our current conceptual system, be framed coherently. It is already widely recognized that a mental faculty, the will, needed to initiate action, no longer fits with current thought. However, we can still ask whether human decisions and actions are determined by something other than the agent. So the important question is whether we still have a cogent concept of determinism. The two prevalent alternatives are (...)
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  16.  2
    An Analysis and Study of Fakhr Razi’s and Khwaja Nasir Tusi’s Theory Regarding Notion and Assertion.Ali AllahDadi Hazaveh & Ali Allah Bedashti - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (2):5-26.
    The division of knowledge into “notion” and “assertion” is one of the foundational discussions. Knowledge, in its general sense, is divided into knowledge-by-presence and acquired knowledge. Acquired is either notional that is not judgment or notional accompanied by judgment. The former is “notion” while the latter is “assertion.” The two problems of this division are as follows: 1) “failure to comply with the criteria of rational division” which includes the instances of “unity of the divider and divided” and “lack of (...)
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  17.  6
    An Analysis of Augustine’s Views on Meno’s Paradox and the Theory of Recollection.Mohsen Bohlooli Faskhoodi - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (2):53-74.
    Plato has identified Meno’s paradox as one of the most important theoretical challenges to learning. Meno’s paradox is that research and learning about what one does not know is impossible and about what one knows is useless. To solve this paradox, Plato proposed the Theory of Recollection. According to this theory, learning is the recollection of pre-existing knowledge that the human soul has forgotten in mixing with the body. Augustine does not find the Theory of Recollection convincing. Of course, the (...)
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  18.  2
    Heidegger’s Attitude in Kant and Problem of Metaphysics to the Temporal Aspect of Images in Kant’s Pre-Critique and Critical Period.Seyed Sam Ghazanfari & Farideh Afarin - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (2):99-128.
    Kant, in his pre-critical works like Reflections on Anthropology and Lectures on Metaphysics, considers some aspects of images that are not followed in the Critique of Pure Reason. Instead, in the first critique, he makes us face some new aspects act of the imagination. In this research, through the analytic-descriptive method, we study the relationship between time, image, synthesis, in Heidegger’s Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics which can give imagination an ontological aspect. Heidegger also tries to show the coherence (...)
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  19.  3
    A Study of the Capacities of Intensity Science in Ibn Sina’s Thought.Laleh Haghighat - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (2):173-192.
    The reduction of the field of science to the limits of experience from the eighteenth century and the monopoly of its methods and tools in quantification and material senses, as well as the use of reason as a concept, has limited the scope of human beings; in such a way that the attainment of indulgence was increasingly considered as his goal in the material world. The purpose of this article is to provide another definition of science by considering the courts (...)
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  20.  2
    A New Reflection on the Historical Connection Between Muʿtazilism and Tafwīḍ.Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini Kashani & Ahmad BeheshtiMehr - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (2):27-52.
    Without doubt, one of the important schools of thought in Islam is the Muʿtazilite rationalism school of thought and, in addition, one of the most challenging historical discussions also revolves around the decision of “determinism and delegation.” Based on many accounts, the theory of “delegation” meaning human independent power in performing actions has been attributed to the Muʿtazilites as one of the important Islamic sects; a theory that, according to many of the Ashʿarite and Twelver Shiite thinkers without doubt belongs (...)
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  21.  3
    The Position of Character and Emotions in a Human Being’s Existence According to Mulla Sadra.Fateme Soleimani - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (2):129-154.
    Human actions and behavior are formed based on their internal events. Among these behaviors, some arise specifically under the influence of one character and emotions instantly and without undergoing the stages of thought and reflection; even though they use a knowledgeable source of the category of imagination. Similarly, sometimes particular qualities affect human souls that are subject to passivity that is acquired for the benefit of beneficial and harmful affairs in some faculties. These states of the soul are called human (...)
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  22.  2
    A Study of the Relationship Between Deity and Personality.Maryam Ahmadi Kafshani, Abdul Rasool Kashfi & Mohammad Reza Bayat - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):55-80.
    All popular concepts of deity believe in divinity. In Theism, “God” has attributes such as consciousness, will, goodness, and so forth, which can be seen in humans. On the contrary, pantheists argue that: a) the person is equal to the human being; b) embodiment is a prominent feature of the human being; c) having attributes such as consciousness, will, and so forth, requires a body and equates to anthropomorphism. In other words, these attributes are inevitably associated with embodiment and the (...)
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  23.  5
    Comparative Evaluation of Free Will in Muhammad Taqi Ja’Fari and John Searle’s View.Seyed Ahmad Fazeli, Marziyeh Sadeghi & Morteza Zare Ganjaroudi - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):5-30.
    The question of free will has long been considered one of the most important philosophical questions. It can be said that different and even conflicting opinions have been expressed on this issue. Allamah Jafari and John Searle are two thinkers who, in their intellectual framework, have made a significant contribution to clarifying the “free will” debate. The two thinkers agree on various issues such as the role of the ‘I’ in creating free will, the non-randomness of action, the existence of (...)
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  24.  3
    A Comparative Investigation of the Intrinsic Mobility of the Natural Body in the Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy with the Continuous Evolution of Quantum “Particles”.Farid Hojjati, Mahdi Monfared & Habibollah Razmi - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):31-54.
    In quantum theory, objects are intrinsically evolving and changing based on the Uncertainty Principle, and the particle state is described by a time-dependent wave packet such that the wave packet corresponding to even a free particle is successively evolvable; a quantum particle has an indefinite and transformative state. In the relativistic Quantum Fields Theory, instead of the concepts of particle and wave packet, a continuous object named “field” with permanent fluctuation in its ground state is considered as the original concept. (...)
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  25.  7
    Martin Heidegger’s Interpretation of the Ontological Distinction Between Ground and Existence in Friedrich Schelling’s System of Freedom.Elham Sadat Karimi Douraki, Mohammad Javad Safian & Mohammad Meshkat - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):149-172.
    The Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom is the most coherent form of Schelling’s attempt to describe the absolute system or the system of freedom. For the first time in the twentieth century, with Heidegger’s careful reference to his treatise on freedom and his repeated commentary in 1936 and 1941, the importance of this treatise in the history of Western thought became apparent. Heidegger focuses on Schilling’s thinking, especially with Schilling’s treatise on the Essence of Human Freedom, research (...)
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  26.  5
    An Analysis of Al-Kindi’s View of Human Perfection.Einullah Khademi - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):81-102.
    Perfection is an anthropological issue that is inherently human in nature, but in theory, Greek philosophers played a prominent role. They pursued this more as a virtue. The main question of this research is what analysis can be provided for Al-Kindi’s view of human perfection? This research was done using a descriptive-analytic method and its most important findings are: In analyzing the Al-Kindi’s view of perfection, we can divide it into two types – philosophical perfection and moral perfection. Philosophical perfection (...)
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  27.  4
    Zoroastrian Ethics.Shirzad Peik Herfeh - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):103-130.
    This paper is an ‘interdisciplinary research’ on ‘ethics’ and ‘Iranian ancient culture and languages’ that describes ‘Zoroastrian Ethics’ by analyzing Avestan and Pahlavi texts such as AVESTA, Dēnkard, The Book of Arda Viraf, and Wāzagēčand ī Ādurbād ī Mahraspandān school’ and the doctrine of tashkik al-wujud in Mulla Sadra’s al-Hikma al-Muta’aliya. The consequence of the ‘relation between finite and infinite’ in ‘Zoroastrian theology, ontology, and metaphysics’ is the ‘firm belief in the reality of the individual soul, and in its capacity (...)
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  28.  60
    Roy Bhaskar on Scientific Progress and the Fallibility of Cognition: A Critique of Four Approaches.Maryam Poostforush - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 23 (1):131-148.
    So far, various approaches have been proposed to explain the progress of science. These approaches, which fall under a fourfold classification, are as follows: semantic, functional, epistemic, and noetic approaches. Each of these approaches, based on the intended purpose of science, defines progress on the same basis. The semantic approach defines progress based on the approximation to the truth, the functional approach based on problem-solving, the epistemic approach based on knowledge accumulation, and the noetic approach based on increased understanding. With (...)
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