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  1. The Pacifism of Bertrand Russell During the Great War.Claudio Giulio Anta - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):438-453.
    ABSTRACT Through a brief analysis of the reflections of some prestigious contemporary philosophers such as Norberto Bobbio, Mulford Quickert Sibley, Wilhelm Emil Mühlmann, Michael Allen Fox, David Cortright, Larry May, John Rawls, Eric Reitan, Johan Galtung and David Boersema, this essay reconstructs Russell's pacifist commitment during the First World War. This dramatic event represented a real watershed for his multifaceted and ingenious personality, leading to his new political and civil commitment. Through a series of articles and lectures, he fought against (...)
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  2. A Different Antifascism. An Analysis of the Rise of Nazism as Seen by Anarchists During the Weimar Period.David Bernardini - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):454-471.
    ABSTRACT The article examines some thoughts on the rise of National Socialism by Rudolf Rocker and Gerhard Wartenberg, two figures of fundamental significance in the anarchism of the Weimar Republic, militant in the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands, active from 1919 to 1933. A systematic reading of the period's anarchist press, in particular of the weekly ‘Der Syndikalist’ and the monthly ‘Die Internationale’ will show that their rejection of Hitler was based on the theoretical principles of anarchism and a criticism (...)
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  3.  3
    The Passion for Equality and Merit in the Modern Regime: Les Meilleurs N’Auront Pas le Pouvoir. Une Enquête À Partir D’Aristote, Pascal Et Tocqueville [The Best Won’T Have the Power: An Inquiry on the Basis of Aristotle, Pascal and Tocqueville], by Adrien Louis, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2021, P. 203, 19 Euros. [REVIEW]Alexis Carré - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):477-479.
  4. Widening the Idea of Profit in the Hobbesian Eight Bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre?Andrea Catanzaro - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):335-350.
    ABSTRACT Scholars have analysed in-depth the famous three greatest things linking Thomas Hobbes and Thucydides. As is well known, the ideas of fear, honour and profit – that is, timé, déos and opheléia – play a fundamental role in showing the latter’s influences on the former. With particular regard to ophelía it has been suggested that it has to be conceived ‘as economic advantage or interest’ [Slomp Gabriella, ‘Hobbes, Thucydides and the Three Greatest Things’, History of Political Thought 11 : (...)
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  5. The Sphinx of Modern Democracy: Œuvres Complètes XVII: Correspondance À Divers (3 Volumes), by Alexis de Tocqueville, Edited by Françoise Mélonio and Anne Vibert, Paris, Gallimard, 2021, Vol. 1, 402 Pp., 39 €, ISBN: 978-2-07-292637-2; Vol. 2, 762 Pp., 44 €, ISBN 978-2-07-292642-6; Vol. 3, 638 Pp., 42 €, ISBN 978-2-07-292647-1. [REVIEW]Aurelian Craiutu - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):472-477.
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  6.  2
    From ‘Pure Botany’ to ‘Economic Botany’ – Changing Ideas by Exchanging Plants: Spain and Italy in the Late Eighteenth and the Early Nineteenth Century.Martino Lorenzo Fagnani - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):402-420.
    ABSTRACT At the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of the 19th, Spain and the Italian States contributed to the development of European agricultural science and the improvement of manufacturing. They collaborated with each other and reworked the most advanced models of France, Central Europe and Great Britain. Despite their somewhat less prosperous economic status, they demonstrated great originality in research and experimentation. In this process, botanical knowledge served as a starting point for a new epistemological path. Through three (...)
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  7. The Early Modern Corporation as Nursery of Democratic Thought: The Case of the Virginia Company and Thomas Hobbes.Andrew Fitzmaurice - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):309-334.
    ABSTRACT This paper examines early modern discussions of democracy in the context of a chartered company: namely, the Virginia Company. It examines descriptions of the Company’s constitution and politics as democratic. It focuses, in particular, upon a petition that William Cavendish presented to the Virginia Company assembly defending the democratic constitution of the Company. Cavendish's secretary, Thomas Hobbes, may or may not have assisted with drafting that petition, but he was closely involved in the debates to which it contributed. The (...)
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  8. Pierre Bayle and Richard Simon: Toleration, Natural Law, and the Old Testament.James Michael Hooks - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):382-401.
    ABSTRACT Pierre Bayle developed an expansive theory of toleration in his Commentaire philosophique by arguing that tolerance is a universal principle of natural law. However, by situating toleration in natural law rather than positive law, Bayle was brought into theoretical conflict with the Old Testament injunction that the state should punish idolatry. To resolve this conflict, Bayle drew upon the work of early modern Hebraists, particularly the Catholic biblical scholar Richard Simon. Bayle adapted Simon’s idea that theocracy uniquely shaped the (...)
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  9. Cocceji on Sociality.Martin Otero Knott - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):351-366.
    This essay examines the early writings of Samuel Cocceji on the foundations of natural law. A key focus of this study is his criticism of the ‘principle of sociality’. It situates Cocceji in a debate about sociality that took place in the 1690s and early years of the 1700s throughout various German universities. This was a debate with its own language and integrity. Reconstructing this language and explaining the key terms of contention is central to this enquiry. This aspect of (...)
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  10. Towards a More Natural Structure of Italy? The Federalist Thought of Carlo Cattaneo, Giuseppe Ferrari, Alberto Mario and Gaetano Salvemini.Rafał Lis - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):421-437.
    ABSTRACT The article presents the federalist thought of Carlo Cattaneo, Giuseppe Ferrari and Alberto Mario and Gaetano Salvemini. Referring briefly to the recognised failures of the federal idea in Italy and the corresponding difficulties with its territorial puzzle’ as well, the author proposes to analyse their argumentation through the prism of their attempts to find a proper federal structure for this country. The article shows that despite their eagerness to make Italy perfectly compatible with its ‘natural’ diversity, they gave different (...)
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  11. Republics in Comparison. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Genoa, Venice and the United Provinces in Italian Literature.Enrico Zucchi - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):367-381.
    ABSTRACT Italian historiographers of the second half of the seventeenth century often establish parallels between early modern republics, comparing Genoa and Venice with the United Provinces, considered as similar political entities despite their evident political differences. The article, taking into account four different sources, investigates the meaning of those comparisons, published when the absolutist model was taking root all around Europe. In the twilight of the republican state, when the power and reputation of the Italian republics was maybe at its (...)
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  12. Hobbes, Constant, and Berlin on Liberty.Alan Cromartie - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):214-228.
    ABSTRACT Isaiah Berlin’s ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’ regards both Hobbes and Constant as supporting the negative version. Both took a favourable view of the freedom to live as one pleases. But this shared preference arose from radically different overall philosophies. Hobbes’s support for freedom as ‘the silence of the laws’ reflected his view of happiness as preference-satisfaction. Constant’s support for freedom as a sphere of absolute rights was supplemented by support for active citizenship and connected with belief in ‘perfectibility’ that (...)
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  13.  2
    The Two Modern Liberties of Constant and Berlin.Maria Dimova-Cookson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):229-245.
    ABSTRACT The paper challenges the general perception that the positive–negative freedom discourse privileges negative liberty. It demonstrates that Constant and Berlin’s dual freedom conceptual scheme contains the blueprint of a modern concept of positive freedom and it reveals the nature of negative freedom in an entirely new light. Constant’s ancient and modern liberties have many similarities with Berlin’s two concepts of freedom – positive and negative. The paper shows that these similarities warrant a parallel study and allow us to examine (...)
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  14. From Constant to Spencer: Two Ethics of Laissez-Faire.Alan S. Kahan - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):296-307.
    ABSTRACT Both Constant and Spencer are moralists who want to encourage individual human perfection. But for Constant, politics has moral value even in a laissez-faire state, whereas for Spencer political participation has no moral value in itself. For Constant, from a moral perspective the historical change from an ancient to a modern conception of liberty is not absolute, and he wishes to retain, in a subordinate role, certain aspects of ancient liberty in modern societies. For Spencer, the historical evolution from (...)
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  15. Time, Modernity and Space: Montesquieu’s and Constant’s Ancient/Modern Binaries.Manjeet Ramgotra - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):263-279.
    ABSTRACT This article explores how our thinking about time shapes epistemological and ontological understandings of the world. It considers the idea of modernity as constituted by the ancient/modern binary through an examination of Montesquieu’s and Benjamin Constant’s development of this binary in relation to their understandings of commerce, the law of nations and conquest, political rule and freedom in the context of European colonial empire. Modernity demarcates a break in time between a past and a present that extends into a (...)
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  16.  49
    Beyond Binary Discourses on Liberty: Constant's Modern Liberty, Rightly Understood.Avital Simhony - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):196-213.
    ABSTRACT It is fruitless to interpret Constant's modern liberty from the binary perspective of either the negative/positive freedom opposition or the liberal/republican freedom opposition. Both oppositional perspectives reduce the relationally complex nature of modern liberty to one or another component of the relation. Such reduction inevitably results in an incomplete and, therefore, inadequate interpretation of Constant's modern liberty. Consequently, either of these binary frames of interpretation obscures rather than illuminates the full nature of Constant's modern liberty. Boxed into their irreconcilably (...)
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  17. Editors’ Introduction.Avital Simhony & Maria Dimova-Cookson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):193-195.
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  18. Benjamin Constant, Political Power, and Democracy.Nora Timmermans - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):246-262.
    ABSTRACT For several decades now, a steady flow of scholarly contributions from both intellectual history and political theory has been reasserting Benjamin Constant as a theorist of liberal democracy. Constant’s visionary understanding of liberal democracy is usually conflated with his understanding of limited popular sovereignty. In this article, I reconstruct Constant’s positive conception of popular sovereignty, i.e. his conception of what popular sovereignty means within its limits and take it as the starting point of an analysis of Constant’s understanding of (...)
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  19. Rethinking Constant’s Ancient Liberty: Bosanquet’s Modern Rousseauianism.Colin Tyler - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):280-295.
    ABSTRACT Benjamin Constant was a vociferous critic of the political Rousseauianism that he saw underpinning French politics in the early nineteenth-century. Yet, his hostile reaction at the political level co-existed with a far more sympathetic attitude towards Rousseau’s critical analysis of modernity. This article reflects on that combination through the dual lens of the influence on Constant’s position of his ambivalent attitude towards Rousseau on the one hand and the modernisation of Rousseau undertaken eighty years later by the British idealist (...)
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  20. Response to Benedikt Stuchtey.Joshua Bennett - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):186-188.
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  21. Comment on The Veiled God: Friedrich Schleiermacher’s Theology of Finitude, by Ruth Jackson Ravenscroft, Leiden, Brill, 2019.Constanze Güthenke - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):163-167.
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  22.  2
    Phillipson’s Hume in Phillipson's Scottish Enlightenment.James A. Harris - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):145-159.
    ABSTRACT The subject of this paper is the place of Hume in Nicholas Phillipson's account of the Scottish Enlightenment. I begin with Phillipson's reading of Hume as ‘civic moralist’. I then turn to his account of Hume the author of The History of England. And from there I proceed to the place of Hume in his intellectual biography of Adam Smith. I conclude with a brief description of Phillipson's understanding of Hume's place in the history of the Scottish Enlightenment as (...)
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  23. Afterword.Paul E. Kerry - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):189-191.
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  24. Response to Adam Sutcliffe.Paul Michael Kurtz - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):176-179.
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  25. Introduction to the Forum:New Scholarship on Religion in Nineteenth-Century German and British Culture.Zachary Purvis - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):160-162.
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  26. Response to Constanze Güthenke.Ruth Jackson Ravenscroft - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):168-171.
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  27. Comment on God and Progress: Religion and History in British Intellectual Culture, 1845–1914, by Joshua Bennett, Oxford, University of Oxford Press, 2019. [REVIEW]Benedikt Stuchtey - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):180-185.
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  28. Comment on Kaiser, Christ and Canaan: The Religion of Israel in Protestant Germany, 1871–1918, by Paul Michael Kurtz, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2018. [REVIEW]Adam Sutcliffe - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):172-175.
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  29.  1
    Editor's Introduction: Nicholas Phillipson and the Sciences of Humankind in Enlightenment Scotland.Thomas Ahnert - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):1-2.
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  30.  8
    Berkeley’s Passive Obedience: Positive and Negative Norms.Timo Airaksinen - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):66-77.
    ABSTRACT In Berkeley’s Passive Obedience, moral duties are negative and positive as well as civil or legal and natural. Natural duties are from God and therefore valid norms. The supreme civil authority makes civil laws. We must obey the law because loyalty to supreme civil power is one of our natural duties: to be loyal is to obey, which means ‘do not rebel.’ This is a negative duty and as such categorical or unconditional. Positive duties are conditional on conscientious acceptance. (...)
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  31.  1
    Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ and Scottish Political Thought of the 1790s.Danielle Charette - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):78-96.
    ABSTRACT This article traces the reception of Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ among a circle of Scottish Whigs supportive of the French Revolution. While the influence of Hume's essay on American Federalists like James Madison has long been a subject of debate, historians have overlooked the appeal that the plan held for Hume's intellectual heirs in Scotland. In the early 1790s, theorists such as John Millar, James Mackintosh, and Dugald Stewart believed European governments – above all France – could (...)
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  32.  8
    Hermann Kantorowicz and Hans Kelsen: From Debating Legal Sociology to Constructing an International Legal Order.Jacob Giltaij - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):112-128.
    ABSTRACT In this article the development of the thought of two important twentieth-century legal theorists is compared. Although Hans Kelsen is primarily known for his Pure theory of law and Hermann Kantorowicz is one of the founders of the Free law movement, the article will revolve around their respective proposals for the post-War restoration of the international legal order. It is argued that these are based on their respective conceptions of ‘law’ and ‘the state’. By virtue of this comparison, it (...)
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  33.  1
    The Human Good and the Science of Man.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):23-32.
    ABSTRACT David Hume and Adam Smith are often regarded as preeminent contributors to the eighteenth-century Scottish ‘science of man.’ For our understanding of Hume’s and Smith’s contributions to this project, scholars today are especially indebted to Nicholas Phillipson, who influentially and persuasively demonstrated how the science of man that they developed sought to account for social progress as the result of man’s natural love of improvement in the face of conditions of indigence and want. Yet Phillipson’s work also helps us (...)
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  34.  2
    Nicolas de Condorcet as a Forerunner of John Rawls.Sven Ove Hansson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):97-111.
    ABSTRACT John Rawls proposed two criteria for the delimitation of acceptable inequalities. The universal gain principle requires inequalities to be beneficial for all, and the difference principle requires them to be beneficial for the least advantaged. These principles are commonly believed to have originated in Rawls’s work, but they were both clearly expressed in the writings of Nicolas de Condorcet. Contrary to Rawls, Condorcet did not imbed them in the framework of a social contract, but instead sought their foundations in (...)
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  35.  1
    Beyond Anglicised Politeness: Addison in Eighteenth-Century Scotland.R. J. W. Mills - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):3-22.
    ABSTRACT Joseph Addison played a key role in Nicholas Phillipson's pioneering studies of eighteenth-century Scottish culture and philosophy. Post-Union Scots were in search of renewed civic purpose now political power had headed to Westminster. They found it in Addison's Spectator essays discussing virtuous living. This article pays homage to Phillipson's work by expanding the scope of the study of Addison's reception in eighteenth-century Scotland. A survey of the publishing history of Addison's works north of the border indicates additional roles for (...)
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  36.  1
    An Activist Stage Craft? Performative Politics in the First British New Left.Sophie Scott-Brown - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):129-143.
    ABSTRACT The First British New Left formed around two journals, The New Reasoner edited by E.P.Thompson and John Saville, and the Universities and Left Review edited by Stuart Hall, Gabriel Pearson, Raphael Samuel and Charles Taylor. Both sought a ‘new’ socialism which, based on a loose concept of socialist humanism, restored the role of the individual and revitalised a popular left movement. Early commentators critiqued its lack of robust theory and organisational structure. More recently, others have proposed that, particularly amongst (...)
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  37.  1
    Monboddo’s ‘Ugly Tail’: The Question of Evidence in Enlightenment Sciences of Man.Silvia Sebastiani - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):45-65.
    ABSTRACT The erudite James Burnet, Lord Monboddo, member of the Select Society and judge of the Court of Session in Edinburgh, wrote many pages about the existence of ‘men with tails’ and orang-utans’ humanity. For this reason, he has been labelled as ‘credulous’, ‘bizarre’ and ‘eccentric’ both by his contemporaries and by modern scholars. In this paper, I shall try to take his argument seriously and to show that throughout his work Monboddo searched for evidence. If his belief in mermaids, (...)
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  38.  1
    The Art of Being in the Eighteenth Century: Adam Smith on Fortune, Luck, and Trust.Sylvana Tomaselli - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):33-44.
    ABSTRACT This article offers some reflections on the importance Adam Smith accorded to luck in The Wealth of Nations. While the place of moral luck in The Theory of Moral Sentiments has been the subject of some scholarly attention, this has not been the case for luck in his best-known work. It focuses on what Smith thought particularly striking about our estimation of our own good fortune and argues that it accentuated the need for trustworthiness and trusted friends.
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  39.  5
    Scheler and Zambrano: On a Transformation of the Heart in Spanish Philosophy.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran & Karolina Enquist Källgren - 2022 - History of European Ideas 47.
    This paper compares the concept of the heart in the works of Max Scheler and María Zambrano. Both authors use the heart as a metaphor for distinct human affective phenomena that have a central anthropological, epistemological, and ontological significance. The comparison between authors’ use of the metaphor is organised around three main topics: the order of the heart; the idea of a primordial feeling and its place in the affective life; and the primacy of love in relation to negative affective (...)
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