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  1.  9
    The Video Gamer’s Dilemmas.Rami Ali - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    The gamer’s dilemma offers three plausible but jointly inconsistent premises: Virtual murder in video games is morally permissible. Virtual paedophelia in video games is not morally permissible. There is no morally relevant difference between virtual murder and virtual paedophelia in video games. In this paper I argue that the gamer’s dilemma can be understood as one of three distinct dilemmas, depending on how we understand two key ideas in Morgan Luck’s original formulation. The two ideas are those of occurring in (...)
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  2. Putting Explainable AI in Context: Institutional Explanations for Medical AI.Jacob Browning & Mark Theunissen - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    There is a current debate about if, and in what sense, machine learning systems used in the medical context need to be explainable. Those arguing in favor contend these systems require post hoc explanations for each individual decision to increase trust and ensure accurate diagnoses. Those arguing against suggest the high accuracy and reliability of the systems is sufficient for providing epistemic justified beliefs without the need for explaining each individual decision. But, as we show, both solutions have limitations—and it (...)
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  3.  1
    Algorithmic Decision-Making Employing Profiling: Will Trade Secrecy Protection Render the Right to Explanation Toothless?Paul B. de Laat - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    Algorithmic decision-making based on profiling may significantly affect people’s destinies. As a rule, however, explanations for such decisions are lacking. What are the chances for a “right to explanation” to be realized soon? After an exploration of the regulatory efforts that are currently pushing for such a right it is concluded that, at the moment, the GDPR stands out as the main force to be reckoned with. In cases of profiling, data subjects are granted the right to receive meaningful information (...)
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  4. Reflection Machines: Increasing Meaningful Human Control Over Decision Support Systems.W. F. G. Haselager, H. K. Schraffenberger, R. J. M. van Eerdt & N. A. J. Cornelissen - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    Rapid developments in Artificial Intelligence are leading to an increasing human reliance on machine decision making. Even in collaborative efforts with Decision Support Systems, where a human expert is expected to make the final decisions, it can be hard to keep the expert actively involved throughout the decision process. DSSs suggest their own solutions and thus invite passive decision making. To keep humans actively ‘on’ the decision-making loop and counter overreliance on machines, we propose a ‘reflection machine’. This system asks (...)
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  5.  5
    Relative Explainability and Double Standards in Medical Decision-Making: Should Medical AI Be Subjected to Higher Standards in Medical Decision-Making Than Doctors?Saskia K. Nagel, Jan-Christoph Heilinger & Hendrik Kempt - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    The increased presence of medical AI in clinical use raises the ethical question which standard of explainability is required for an acceptable and responsible implementation of AI-based applications in medical contexts. In this paper, we elaborate on the emerging debate surrounding the standards of explainability for medical AI. For this, we first distinguish several goods explainability is usually considered to contribute to the use of AI in general, and medical AI in specific. Second, we propose to understand the value of (...)
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  6.  1
    Disability, Fairness, and Algorithmic Bias in AI Recruitment.Nicholas Tilmes - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    While rapid advances in artificial intelligence hiring tools promise to transform the workplace, these algorithms risk exacerbating existing biases against marginalized groups. In light of these ethical issues, AI vendors have sought to translate normative concepts such as fairness into measurable, mathematical criteria that can be optimized for. However, questions of disability and access often are omitted from these ongoing discussions about algorithmic bias. In this paper, I argue that the multiplicity of different kinds and intensities of people’s disabilities and (...)
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  7. Epistemo-Ethical Constraints on AI-Human Decision Making for Diagnostic Purposes.Athanasios Votsis & Dina Babushkina - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    This paper approaches the interaction of a health professional with an AI system for diagnostic purposes as a hybrid decision making process and conceptualizes epistemo-ethical constraints on this process. We argue for the importance of the understanding of the underlying machine epistemology in order to raise awareness of and facilitate realistic expectations from AI as a decision support system, both among healthcare professionals and the potential benefiters. Understanding the epistemic abilities and limitations of such systems is essential if we are (...)
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  8.  2
    A Capability Approach to Worker Dignity Under Algorithmic Management.Mieke Boon, Giedo Jansen, Jeroen Meijerink & Laura Lamers - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to study and evaluate the impact of ‘Algorithmic Management’ on worker dignity. While the literature on AM addresses many concerns that relate to the dignity of workers, a shared understanding of what worker dignity means, and a framework to study it, in the context of software algorithms at work is lacking. We advance a conceptual framework based on a Capability Approach as a route to understanding worker dignity under AM. This paper contributes to the (...)
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  9.  1
    Deny, Dismiss and Downplay: Developers’ Attitudes Towards Risk and Their Role in Risk Creation in the Field of Healthcare-AI.Shaul A. Duke - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    Developers are often the engine behind the creation and implementation of new technologies, including in the artificial intelligence surge that is currently underway. In many cases these new technologies introduce significant risk to affected stakeholders; risks that can be reduced and mitigated by such a dominant party. This is fully recognized by texts that analyze risks in the current AI transformation, which suggest voluntary adoption of ethical standards and imposing ethical standards via regulation and oversight as tools to compel developers (...)
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  10.  2
    Wisdom in the Digital Age: A Conceptual and Practical Framework for Understanding and Cultivating Cyber-Wisdom.Tom Harrison & Gianfranco Polizzi - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    The internet presents not just opportunities but also risks that range, to name a few, from online abuse and misinformation to the polarisation of public debate. Given the increasingly digital nature of our societies, these risks make it essential for users to learn how to wisely use digital technologies as part of a more holistic approach to promoting human flourishing. However, insofar as they are exacerbated by both the affordances and the political economy of the internet, this article argues that (...)
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  11. Ethical Responsibility and Computational Design: Bespoke Surgical Tools as an Instructive Case Study.David Howard, Justine Lacey & David M. Douglas - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    Computational design uses artificial intelligence to optimise designs towards user-determined goals. When combined with 3D printing, it is possible to develop and construct physical products in a wide range of geometries and materials and encapsulating a range of functionality, with minimal input from human designers. One potential application is the development of bespoke surgical tools, whereby computational design optimises a tool’s morphology for a specific patient’s anatomy and the requirements of the surgical procedure to improve surgical outcomes. This emerging application (...)
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  12.  5
    Fairness, Explainability and in-Between: Understanding the Impact of Different Explanation Methods on Non-Expert Users’ Perceptions of Fairness Toward an Algorithmic System.Doron Kliger, Tsvi Kuflik & Avital Shulner-Tal - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    In light of the widespread use of algorithmic systems across numerous domains, there is an increasing awareness about the need to explain their underlying decision-making process and resulting outcomes. Since oftentimes these systems are being considered as black boxes, adding explanations to their outcomes may contribute to the perception of their transparency and, as a result, increase users’ trust and fairness perception towards the system, regardless of its actual fairness, which can be measured using various fairness tests and measurements. Different (...)
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  13. Framing Ethical Issues Associated with the UK COVID-19 Contact Tracing App: Exceptionalising and Narrowing the Public Ethics Debate.F. Lucivero & G. Samuel - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    This paper explores ethical debates associated with the UK COVID-19 contact tracing app that occurred in the public news media and broader public policy, and in doing so, takes ethics debate as an object for sociological study. The research question was: how did UK national newspaper news articles and grey literature frame the ethical issues about the app, and how did stakeholders associated with the development and/or governance of the app reflect on this? We examined the predominance of different ethical (...)
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  14.  3
    Rethinking Explainability: Toward a Postphenomenology of Black-Box Artificial Intelligence in Medicine.Jay R. Malone, Jordan Mason & Annie B. Friedrich - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    In recent years, increasingly advanced artificial intelligence, and in particular machine learning, has shown great promise as a tool in various healthcare contexts. Yet as machine learning in medicine has become more useful and more widely adopted, concerns have arisen about the “black-box” nature of some of these AI models, or the inability to understand—and explain—the inner workings of the technology. Some critics argue that AI algorithms must be explainable to be responsibly used in the clinical encounter, while supporters of (...)
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  15. Ethical Implications of Fairness Interventions: What Might Be Hidden Behind Engineering Choices?Julian Alfredo Mendez, Rüya Gökhan Koçer, Flavia Barsotti & Andrea Aler Tubella - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    The importance of fairness in machine learning models is widely acknowledged, and ongoing academic debate revolves around how to determine the appropriate fairness definition, and how to tackle the trade-off between fairness and model performance. In this paper we argue that besides these concerns, there can be ethical implications behind seemingly purely technical choices in fairness interventions in a typical model development pipeline. As an example we show that the technical choice between in-processing and post-processing is not necessarily value-free and (...)
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  16.  67
    Trust in Medical Artificial Intelligence: A Discretionary Account.Philip J. Nickel - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    This paper sets out an account of trust in AI as a relationship between clinicians, AI applications, and AI practitioners in which AI is given discretionary authority over medical questions by clinicians. Compared to other accounts in recent literature, this account more adequately explains the normative commitments created by practitioners when inviting clinicians’ trust in AI. To avoid committing to an account of trust in AI applications themselves, I sketch a reductive view on which discretionary authority is exercised by AI (...)
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  17.  5
    The Emergence of “Truth Machines”?: Artificial Intelligence Approaches to Lie Detection.Jo Ann Oravec - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    This article analyzes emerging artificial intelligence -enhanced lie detection systems from ethical and human resource management perspectives. I show how these AI enhancements transform lie detection, followed with analyses as to how the changes can lead to moral problems. Specifically, I examine how these applications of AI introduce human rights issues of fairness, mental privacy, and bias and outline the implications of these changes for HR management. The changes that AI is making to lie detection are altering the roles of (...)
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  18. Positive Risk Balance: A Comprehensive Framework to Ensure Vehicle Safety.Florian Raisch, Ludwig Drees, Felix Fahrenkrog & Nina Kauffmann - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    The introduction of automated vehicles promises an increase in traffic safety. Prior to its launch proof of the anticipated reduction in the sense of a positive risk balance compared with human driving performance is required from various stakeholders such as the European Union Commission, the German Ethic Commission, and the ISO TR 4804. To meet this requirement and to generate acceptance by the public and the regulatory authorities, a qualitative Risk- Benefit framework has been defined. This framework is based on (...)
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  19.  7
    Explanatory Pragmatism: A Context-Sensitive Framework for Explainable Medical AI.Diana Robinson & Rune Nyrup - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    Explainable artificial intelligence is an emerging, multidisciplinary field of research that seeks to develop methods and tools for making AI systems more explainable or interpretable. XAI researchers increasingly recognise explainability as a context-, audience- and purpose-sensitive phenomenon, rather than a single well-defined property that can be directly measured and optimised. However, since there is currently no overarching definition of explainability, this poses a risk of miscommunication between the many different researchers within this multidisciplinary space. This is the problem we seek (...)
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  20.  1
    Instilling Moral Value Alignment by Means of Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning.Juan Antonio Rodriguez-Aguilar, Maite Lopez-Sanchez, Marc Serramia & Manel Rodriguez-Soto - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    AI research is being challenged with ensuring that autonomous agents learn to behave ethically, namely in alignment with moral values. Here, we propose a novel way of tackling the value alignment problem as a two-step process. The first step consists on formalising moral values and value aligned behaviour based on philosophical foundations. Our formalisation is compatible with the framework of Reinforcement Learning, to ease the handling of an agent’s individual and ethical objectives. The second step consists in designing an environment (...)
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  21.  3
    A Sociotechnical Perspective for the Future of AI: Narratives, Inequalities, and Human Control.Andreas Theodorou & Laura Sartori - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    Different people have different perceptions about artificial intelligence. It is extremely important to bring together all the alternative frames of thinking—from the various communities of developers, researchers, business leaders, policymakers, and citizens—to properly start acknowledging AI. This article highlights the ‘fruitful collaboration’ that sociology and AI could develop in both social and technical terms. We discuss how biases and unfairness are among the major challenges to be addressed in such a sociotechnical perspective. First, as intelligent machines reveal their nature of (...)
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  22.  2
    Weapons of Moral Construction? On the Value of Fairness in Algorithmic Decision-Making.Simona Tiribelli & Benedetta Giovanola - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    Fairness is one of the most prominent values in the Ethics and Artificial Intelligence debate and, specifically, in the discussion on algorithmic decision-making. However, while the need for fairness in ADM is widely acknowledged, the very concept of fairness has not been sufficiently explored so far. Our paper aims to fill this gap and claims that an ethically informed re-definition of fairness is needed to adequately investigate fairness in ADM. To achieve our goal, after an introductory section aimed at clarifying (...)
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  23.  3
    The Bitcoin Protocol as a System of Power.Efpraxia D. Zamani - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    In this study, I use the Critical Realism perspective of power to explain how the Bitcoin protocol operates as a system of power. I trace the ideological underpinnings of the protocol in the Cypherpunk movement to consider how notions of power shaped the protocol. The protocol by design encompasses structures, namely Proof of Work and Trustlessness that reproduce asymmetrical constraints on the entities that comprise it. These constraining structures generate constraining mechanisms, those of cost effectiveness and deanonymisation, which further restrict (...)
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