Ethics and International Affairs

ISSNs: 0892-6794, 1747-7093

39 found

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  1.  18
    Voluntary and Involuntary Migrants: On Migration, Safe Third Countries, and the Collective Unfreedom of the Proletariat.Michael Blake - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):427-451.
    The claims of those who are compelled to migrate are, in general, taken to be more urgent and pressing than the claims of those who were not forced to do so. This article does not defend the moral relevance of voluntarism to the morality of migration, but instead seeks to demonstrate two complexities that must be included in any plausible account of that moral relevance. The first is that the decision to start the migration journey is distinct from the decision (...)
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  2.  14
    Introduction: Voluntariness and Migration.Eszter Kollar & François Boucher - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):401-405.
    The concept of voluntariness permeates the ethics and politics of migration and is commonly used to distinguish refugees from migrants. Yet, neither the precise nature and conditions of voluntariness nor its ethical significance for migrant rights and state obligations has received enough attention. The articles in this collection move the debate forward by demonstrating the complex ethical judgments involved in delineating voluntary from forced migration and in drawing out its political and institutional implications. In addition to highlighting the interplay between (...)
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  3.  17
    Is Space Expansion the Road to Dystopia?Tony Milligan - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):470-489.
    This review essay contrasts two of the most notable recent contributions to literature on space and society: Daniel Deudney's Dark Skies (2020) and Brian Patrick Green's Space Ethics (2022). The Green volume is a course textbook, geared to giving students an overview of some of the key ethical issues concerning space and how the arguments on these matters are shaping up. Its aim is to provide an overview rather than a specific line of argument. Deudney's text, by contrast, is an (...)
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  4.  19
    Debating Worlds: Contested Narratives of Global Modernity and World Order, Daniel Deudney, G. John Ikenberry, and Karoline Postel-Vinay, eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2023), 312 pp., cloth $99, paperback $29.95, eBook $19.99. [REVIEW]Alister Miskimmon - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):490-492.
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  5.  18
    Voluntariness and Migration: A Restatement.Valeria Ottonelli & Tiziana Torresi - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):406-426.
    A key question in the theory of migration and in public debates on immigration policies is when migration can be said to be voluntary and when, conversely, it should be seen as nonvoluntary. In a previous article, we tried to answer this crucial question by providing a list of conditions we view as sufficient for migration to be considered nonvoluntary. According to our account, one condition that makes migration nonvoluntary is when people migrate because they lack acceptable alternatives to doing (...)
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  6.  21
    Contested Past, Contested Future: Identity Politics and Liberal Democracy.Nathan Pippenger - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):391-400.
    Events in recent years have underscored the dependence of the liberal international order (LIO) on the domestic fate of liberalism in countries like the United States—where, according to critics such as Mark Lilla and Francis Fukuyama, liberals have imperiled themselves through an unwise embrace of identity politics. These critics argue that identity politics undermines solidarity and empowers the illiberal right, and that it should be rejected in favor of a unifying creedal nationalism based on common liberal values. This analysis, I (...)
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  7.  12
    International Law and the Humanization of Warfare.Mitt Regan - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):375-390.
    The trend toward the “humanization” of international law reflects a greater emphasis on individuals rather than simply states as objects of concern. The advance of human rights law (HRL) has been an important impetus for this trend. Some observers suggest that humanization can be furthered even more by applying HRL rather than international humanitarian law (IHL) to hostilities between states and nonstate armed groups, unless a state explicitly declares that it is engaged in an armed conflict. This essay argues, however, (...)
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  8.  9
    Migration, Climate Change, and Voluntariness.Christine Straehle - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (4):452-469.
    Climate change challenges the means of subsistence for many, particularly in the Global South. To respond to the challenges of climate change, countries increasingly resort to resettling those most affected by land erosion, heat, drought, floods, and the like. In this article, I investigate to what extent resettlement can compensate for the harm that climate-induced migration brings. The first harm I identify is that to individual autonomy. I argue that climate change changes the options of those affected by it to (...)
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  9.  18
    An Operational Perspective on the Ethics of the Use of Autonomous Weapons.David A. Deptula - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):261-271.
    Rapid technological change is resulting in the development of ever increasingly capable autonomous weapon systems. As they become more sophisticated, the calls for developing restrictions on their use, up to and including their complete prohibition, are growing. Not unlike the call for restrictions on the sale and use of drones, most proposed restrictions are well-intentioned but are often ill-informed, with a high likelihood of degrading national security and putting additional lives at risk. Employed by experienced operators well-versed in the laws (...)
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  10.  21
    Mapping the Lethal Autonomous Weapons Debate: An Introduction.Josephine Jackson - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):254-260.
    The UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) can, on the one hand, be considered vital for the global governance process—in the sense of urging international cooperation on the ethical, developmental, and standards aspects of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS). On the other hand, the CCW may also embody a global trend that does not augur well for international solidarity, namely the lack of credible and comprehensive collaboration to advance global objectives of peace and security. In 2022, a majority of (...)
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  11.  8
    Regulating Weapons: An Aristotelian Account.Anthony F. Lang - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):309-320.
    Regulating war has long been a concern of the international community. From the Hague Conventions to the Geneva Conventions and the multiple treaties and related institutions that have emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, efforts to mitigate the horrors of war have focused on regulating weapons, defining combatants, and ensuring access to the battlefield for humanitarians. But regulation and legal codes alone cannot be the end point of an engaged ethical response to new weapons developments. This short essay reviews (...)
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  12.  14
    Hope, Pessimism, and the Shape of a Just Climate Future.Dominic Lenzi - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):344-361.
    The urgency of climate change has never been greater, nor the moral case for responding to it more compelling. This review essay critically compares Darrel Moellendorf's Mobilizing Hope and Catriona McKinnon's Climate Change and Political Theory. Moellendorf's book defends the moral importance of poverty alleviation through sustainable economic growth and argues for a mass climate movement based on the promise of a more prosperous future. By contrast, McKinnon provides a political vocabulary to articulate the many faces of climate injustice, and (...)
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  13.  24
    Banning Autonomous Weapons: A Legal and Ethical Mandate.Mary Ellen O'Connell - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):287-298.
    ChatGPT launched in November 2022, triggering a global debate on the use of artificial intelligence (AI). A debate on AI-enabled lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) has been underway far longer. Two sides have emerged: one in favor and one opposed to an international law ban on LAWS. This essay explains the position of advocates of a ban without attempting to persuade opponents. Supporters of a ban believe LAWS are already unlawful and immoral to use without the need of a new (...)
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  14.  9
    How to End a War: Essays on Justice, Peace, and Repair, Graham Parsons and Mark A. Wilson, eds. (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2023), 207 pp., cloth $110, eBook $110. [REVIEW]Lonneke Peperkamp - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):362-364.
  15.  6
    Backfire: How Sanctions Reshape the World Against U.S. Interests, Agathe Demarais (New York: Columbia University Press, 2022) 304 pp., cloth $30, eBook $29.99. [REVIEW]Timothy M. Peterson - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):366-369.
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  16.  6
    Accountability for the Taking of Human Life with LAWS in War.Esther D. Reed - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):299-308.
    Accountability for developing, deploying, and using any emerging weapons system is affirmed as a guiding principle by the Group of Governmental Experts on Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems. Yet advances in emerging technologies present accountability challenges throughout the life cycle of a weapons system. Mindful of a lack of progress at the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons since 2019, this essay argues for a mechanism capable of imputing accountability when individual agent accountability is exceeded, forensic (...)
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  17.  12
    Crimes of Dispassion: Autonomous Weapons and the Moral Challenge of Systematic Killing.Neil Renic & Elke Schwarz - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):321-343.
    Systematic killing has long been associated with some of the darkest episodes in human history. Increasingly, however, it is framed as a desirable outcome in war, particularly in the context of military AI and lethal autonomy. Autonomous weapons systems, defenders argue, will surpass humans not only militarily but also morally, enabling a more precise and dispassionate mode of violence, free of the emotion and uncertainty that too often weaken compliance with the rules and standards of war. We contest this framing. (...)
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  18.  14
    Toward a Balanced Approach: Bridging the Military, Policy, and Technical Communities.Arun Seraphin & Wilson Miles - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):272-286.
    The development of new technologies that enable autonomous weapon systems poses a challenge to policymakers and technologists trying to balance military requirements with international obligations and ethical norms. Some have called for new international agreements to restrict or ban lethal autonomous weapon systems. Given the tactical and strategic value of the technologies and the proliferation of threats, the military continues to explore the development of new autonomous technologies to execute national security missions. The rapid global diffusion and dual-use nature of (...)
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  19.  6
    The Hegemon's Tool Kit: US Leadership and the Politics of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime, Rebecca Davis Gibbons (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2022), 240 pp., cloth $49.95, eBook $32.99. [REVIEW]Lauren Sukin - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (3):364-366.
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  20.  24
    The Ethics of Economic Espionage.Ross W. Bellaby - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):116-133.
    The ethical value of intelligence lies in its crucial role in safeguarding individuals from harm by detecting, locating, and preventing threats. As part of this undertaking, intelligence can include protecting the economic well-being of the political community and its people. Intelligence, however, also entails causing people harm when it violates their vital interests through its operations. The challenge, therefore, is how to reconcile this tension, which Cécile Fabre's recent book Spying through a Glass Darkly does by arguing for the “ongoing (...)
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  21.  7
    The Wealth of Refugees: How Displaced People Can Build Economies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021), Alexander Betts, 448 pp., cloth $25.95, eBook $17.99. [REVIEW]Brad K. Blitz - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):247-249.
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  22.  13
    Multilateralism and the Global Co-Responsibility of Care in Times of a Pandemic: The Legal Duty to Cooperate.Thana C. de Campos-Rudinsky - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):206-231.
    This article challenges the orthodox view of international law, according to which states have no legal duty to cooperate. It argues for this legal duty in the context of COVID-19, based on the ethical principles of solidarity, stewardship, and subsidiarity. More specifically, the article argues that states have a legal duty to cooperate during a pandemic (as solidarity requires); and while this duty entails an extraterritorial responsibility to care for and assist other nations (as stewardship requires), the legal duty to (...)
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  23.  14
    Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Informer: Revisiting the Ethics of Espionage in the Context of Insurgencies and New Wars.Ron Dudai - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):134-146.
    This essay starts by accepting Cécile Fabre's argument in her book Spying through a Glass Darkly that intelligence work, including using incentives and pressures to encourage betrayal and treason, can be morally justified based on the criteria of necessity, effectiveness, and proportionality. However, while assessments of spying tend to be based on Cold War notions, I explore it here in the messier reality of counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, and “new wars.” In addition, I suggest a methodological expansion: adding a sociological perspective to (...)
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  24.  16
    Facial Recognition in War Contexts: Mass Surveillance and Mass Atrocity.Juan Espindola - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):177-192.
    The use of facial recognition technology (FRT) as a form of intelligence has recently made a prominent public appearance in the theater of war. During the early months of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, Ukrainian authorities relied on FRT as part of the country's defensive activities, harnessing the technology for a variety of purposes, such as unveiling covert Russian agents operating amid the Ukrainian population; revealing the identity of Russian soldiers who committed war crimes; and even identifying dead Russian soldiers. This (...)
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  25.  7
    Introduction: Probing the Limits of Ethical Espionage.Juan Espindola - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):113-115.
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  26.  17
    Reply to Critics.Cécile Fabre - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):193-205.
    A normative defense of espionage and counterintelligence activities in the service of foreign policy goals must show at least two things. First, it must show which foreign policy goals, if any, provide a justification for such activities. Second, it must provide an account of the means that intelligence agencies are morally permitted, indeed morally obliged, to use during those activities. I first discuss Ross Bellaby's probing critique of my defense of economic espionage. I then turn to the other four essays, (...)
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  27.  15
    Technology in Espionage and Counterintelligence: Some Cautionary Lessons from Armed Conflict.Alex Leveringhaus - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):147-160.
    This essay contends that the ethics around the use of spy technology to gather intelligence (TECHINT) during espionage and counterintelligence operations is ambiguous. To build this argument, the essay critically scrutinizes Cécile Fabre's recent and excellent book Spying through a Glass Darkly, which argues that there are no ethical differences between the use of human intelligence (HUMINT) obtained from or by human assets and TECHINT in these operations. As the essay explains, Fabre arrives at this position by treating TECHINT as (...)
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  28.  13
    Cyber Intelligence and Influence: In Defense of “Cyber Manipulation Operations” to Parry Atrocities.Rhiannon Neilsen - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):161-176.
    Intelligence operations overwhelmingly focus on obtaining secrets (espionage) and the unauthorized disclosure of secrets by a public official in one political community to another (treason). It is generally understood that the principal responsibility of spies is to successfully procure secrets about the enemy. Yet, in this essay, I ask: Are spies and traitors ethically justified in using cyber operations not merely to acquire secrets (cyber espionage) but also to covertly manipulate or falsify information (cyber manipulation) to prevent atrocities? I suggest (...)
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  29.  20
    Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Judgment.Zeynep Pamuk - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):232-243.
    Will existing forms of artificial intelligence (AI) lead to genuine intelligence? How is AI changing our society and politics? This essay examines the answers to these questions in Brian Cantwell Smith's The Promise of Artificial Intelligence and Mark Coeckelbergh's The Political Philosophy of AI with a focus on their central concern with judgment—whether AI can possess judgment and how developments in AI are affecting human judgment. First, I argue that the existentialist conception of judgment that Smith defends is highly idealized. (...)
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  30.  7
    Vigilantes beyond Borders: NGOs as Enforcers of International Law, Mette Eilstrup-Sangiovanni and J. C. Sharman (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2022), 248 pp., cloth $99.95, paperback $29.95, eBook $29.95. [REVIEW]Hans Peter Schmitz - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (2):244-246.
  31.  9
    Can Technology Democratize Finance?Nick Bernards - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):81-95.
    This essay reviews two recent books—Marion Laboure and Nicolas Deffrennes's Democratizing Finance and Eswar S. Prasad's The Future of Money—on financial technology (fintech) and the future of money. Both books present overviews of recent developments in fintech and assess the prospects of technological change to deliver a more accessible, equitable financial system—described in both cases as the “democratization of finance.” I raise two key concerns about the limits of the “democratization” implied here. First, the vision of democratized finance implicit in (...)
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  32.  26
    Ecocide, the Anthropocene, and the International Criminal Court.Adam Branch & Liana Minkova - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):51-79.
    The recent proposal by the Independent Expert Panel of the Stop Ecocide initiative to include the crime of ecocide in the International Criminal Court's Rome Statute has raised expectations for preventing and remedying severe environmental harm through international prosecution. As alluring as this image is, we argue that ecocide prosecutions may be the most difficult, perhaps even impossible, in precisely the cases that the ICC would need to be concerned with; namely, the gravest global incidents of environmental harm, including those (...)
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  33.  23
    War: A Genealogy of Western Ideas and Practices, Beatrice Heuser (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022), 448 pp., cloth $45, eBook $44.99. [REVIEW]Jennifer Kling - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):99-102.
  34.  14
    Making Space for Justice: Social Movements, Collective Imagination, and Political Hope, Michele Moody-Adams (New York: Columbia University Press, 2022), 328 pp., cloth $120, paperback $28, eBook $27.99. [REVIEW]Johanna C. Luttrell - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):102-105.
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  35.  22
    Nuclear Ethics Revisited.Joseph S. Nye - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):5-17.
    Scott Sagan asked me to revisit Nuclear Ethics, a book I published in 1986, in light of current developments in world affairs. In doing so, I found that much had changed but the basic usability paradox of nuclear deterrence remains the same. As do the ethical dilemmas. To deter, there must be some prospect of use, but easy usability could produce highly immoral consequences. Some risk is unavoidable and the moral task is how best to lower it. Nuclear weapons pose (...)
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  36.  5
    Ascending Order: Rising Powers and the Politics of Status in International Institutions, Rohan Mukherjee (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2022), 280 pp., cloth $99.99, eBook $99.99. [REVIEW]John G. Oates - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):97-99.
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  37.  22
    The Myth of “Just” Nuclear Deterrence: Time for a New Strategy to Protect Humanity from Existential Nuclear Risk.Joan Rohlfing - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):39-49.
    Nuclear weapons are different from every other type of weapons technology. Their awesome destructive potential and the unparalleled consequences of their use oblige us to think critically about the ethics of nuclear possession, planning, and use. Joe Nye has given the ethics of nuclear weapons deep consideration. He posits that we have a basic moral obligation to future generations to preserve roughly equal access to important values, including equal chances of survival, and proposes criteria for achieving conditional or “just deterrence” (...)
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  38.  41
    Just and Unjust Nuclear Deterrence.Scott D. Sagan - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):19-28.
    In this essay, I propose five principles to make U.S. nuclear deterrence policy more just and effective in the future: sever the link between the mass killing of innocent civilians and nuclear deterrence by focusing targeting on adversaries’ military power and senior political leadership, not their population; never use or plan to use a nuclear weapon against any target that could be destroyed or neutralized by conventional weapons; reject “belligerent reprisal” threats against civilians even in response to enemy attacks on (...)
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  39.  17
    The Ethics of Choosing Deterrence.Sharon K. Weiner - 2023 - Ethics and International Affairs 37 (1):29-38.
    Any threat to use nuclear weapons inherently carries the possibility of escalation to a level such that both parties in a conflict, and likely many others, would be destroyed. Yet nuclear weapons are also seen as necessary for securing the very things that would be destroyed if the weapons were ever used. The fix for this nuclear dilemma relies on the strategy of deterrence. Deterrence provides a rationale for why nuclear weapons are necessary, even though they may seem dangerous. But (...)
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