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  1.  2
    Corrigendum: Multi-Modal Integration of EEG-fNIRS for Brain-Computer Interfaces – Current Limitations and Future Directions.Sangtae Ahn & Sung C. Jun - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  2. Visual Modulation of Human Responses to Support Surface Translation.Mustafa Emre Akçay, Vittorio Lippi & Thomas Mergner - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Vision is known to improve human postural responses to external perturbations. This study investigates the role of vision for the responses to continuous pseudorandom support surface translations in the body sagittal plane in three visual conditions: with the eyes closed, in stroboscopic illumination and with eyes open in continuous illumination with the room as static visual scene. In the frequency spectrum of the translation stimulus we distinguished on the basis of the response patterns between a low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high-frequency range. (...)
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  3. Wrist Position Sense in Two Dimensions: Between-Hand Symmetry and Anisotropic Accuracy Across the Space.Giulia A. Albanese, Michael W. R. Holmes, Francesca Marini, Pietro Morasso & Jacopo Zenzeri - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A deep investigation of proprioceptive processes is necessary to understand the relationship between sensory afferent inputs and motor outcomes. In this work, we investigate whether and how perception of wrist position is influenced by the direction along which the movement occurs. Most previous studies have tested Joint Position Sense through 1 degree of freedom wrist movements, such as flexion/extension or radial/ulnar deviation. However, the wrist joint has 3-DoF and many activities of daily living produce combined movements, requiring at least 2-DoF (...)
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  4.  3
    Sleep-Related Problems in Night Shift Nurses: Towards an Individualized Interventional Practice.Valentina Alfonsi, Serena Scarpelli, Maurizio Gorgoni, Mariella Pazzaglia, Anna Maria Giannini & Luigi De Gennaro - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Rotating shifts are common among nurses to ensure continuity of care. This scheduling system encompasses several adverse health and performance consequences. One of the most injurious effects of night-time shift work is the deterioration of sleep patterns due to both circadian rhythm disruption and increased sleep homeostatic pressure. Sleep problems lead to secondary effects on other aspects of wellbeing and cognitive functioning, increasing the risk of errors and workplace accidents. A wide range of interventions has been proposed to improve the (...)
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  5.  3
    Pathophysiological Bases of Comorbidity in Migraine.Claudia Altamura, Ilenia Corbelli, Marina de Tommaso, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Antonio Di Renzo, Massimo Filippi, Tommaso B. Jannini, Roberta Messina, Pasquale Parisi, Vincenzo Parisi, Francesco Pierelli, Innocenzo Rainero, Umberto Raucci, Elisa Rubino, Paola Sarchielli, Linxin Li, Fabrizio Vernieri, Catello Vollono & Gianluca Coppola - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Despite that it is commonly accepted that migraine is a disorder of the nervous system with a prominent genetic basis, it is comorbid with a plethora of medical conditions. Several studies have found bidirectional comorbidity between migraine and different disorders including neurological, psychiatric, cardio- and cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, metaboloendocrine, and immunological conditions. Each of these has its own genetic load and shares some common characteristics with migraine. The bidirectional mechanisms that are likely to underlie this extensive comorbidity between migraine and other (...)
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  6. Do Auditory Mismatch Responses Differ Between Acoustic Features?HyunJung An, Shing Ho Kei, Ryszard Auksztulewicz & Jan W. H. Schnupp - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Mismatch negativity is the electroencephalographic waveform obtained by subtracting event-related potential responses evoked by unexpected deviant stimuli from responses evoked by expected standard stimuli. While the MMN is thought to reflect an unexpected change in an ongoing, predictable stimulus, it is unknown whether MMN responses evoked by changes in different stimulus features have different magnitudes, latencies, and topographies. The present study aimed to investigate whether MMN responses differ depending on whether sudden stimulus change occur in pitch, duration, location or vowel (...)
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  7. Global Signal Topography of the Human Brain: A Novel Framework of Functional Connectivity for Psychological and Pathological Investigations.Yujia Ao, Yujie Ouyang, Chengxiao Yang & Yifeng Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The global signal, which was once regarded as a nuisance of functional magnetic resonance imaging, has been proven to convey valuable neural information. This raised the following question: what is a GS represented in local brain regions? In order to answer this question, the GS topography was developed to measure the correlation between global and local signals. It was observed that the GS topography has an intrinsic structure characterized by higher GS correlation in sensory cortices and lower GS correlation in (...)
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  8. Vector Phase Analysis Approach for Sleep Stage Classification: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Passive Brain–Computer Interface.Saad Arif, Muhammad Jawad Khan, Noman Naseer, Keum-Shik Hong, Hasan Sajid & Yasar Ayaz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A passive brain–computer interface based upon functional near-infrared spectroscopy brain signals is used for earlier detection of human drowsiness during driving tasks. This BCI modality acquired hemodynamic signals of 13 healthy subjects from the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain. Drowsiness activity is recorded using a continuous-wave fNIRS system and eight channels over the right DPFC. During the experiment, sleep-deprived subjects drove a vehicle in a driving simulator while their cerebral oxygen regulation state was continuously measured. Vector phase analysis (...)
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  9.  1
    Language Mapping Using Stereo Electroencephalography: A Review and Expert Opinion.Olivier Aron, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois & Louis Maillard - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Stereo-electroencephalography is a method that uses stereotactically implanted depth electrodes for extra-operative mapping of epileptogenic and functional networks. sEEG derived functional mapping is achieved using electrical cortical stimulations that are currently the gold standard for delineating eloquent cortex. As this stands true especially for primary cortices, ECS applied to higher order brain areas determine more subtle behavioral responses. While anterior and posterior language areas in the dorsal language stream seem to share characteristics with primary cortices, basal temporal language area in (...)
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  10. Neural Mechanisms of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: A Network-Based fMRI Approach.Semra A. Aytur, Kimberly L. Ray, Sarah K. Meier, Jenna Campbell, Barry Gendron, Noah Waller & Donald A. Robin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Over 100 million Americans suffer from chronic pain, which causes more disability than any other medical condition in the United States at a cost of $560–$635 billion per year. Opioid analgesics are frequently used to treat CP. However, long term use of opioids can cause brain changes such as opioid-induced hyperalgesia that, over time, increase pain sensation. Also, opioids fail to treat complex psychological factors that worsen pain-related disability, including beliefs about and emotional responses to pain. Cognitive behavioral therapy can (...)
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  11. A Methodological Review of fNIRS in Driving Research: Relevance to the Future of Autonomous Vehicles.Stephanie Balters, Joseph M. Baker, Joseph W. Geeseman & Allan L. Reiss - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    As automobile manufacturers have begun to design, engineer, and test autonomous driving systems of the future, brain imaging with functional near-infrared spectroscopy can provide unique insights about cognitive processes associated with evolving levels of autonomy implemented in the automobile. Modern fNIRS devices provide a portable, relatively affordable, and robust form of functional neuroimaging that allows researchers to investigate brain function in real-world environments. The trend toward “naturalistic neuroscience” is evident in the growing number of studies that leverage the methodological flexibility (...)
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  12.  1
    Resting State Functional Connectivity Associated With Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales, Sergio Elías Hernández, Yaqiong Xiao, José Luis González-Mora & Katya Rubia - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Neuroscience research has shown that meditation practices have effects on brain structure and function. However, few studies have combined information on the effects on structure and function in the same sample. Long-term daily meditation practice produces repeated activity of specific brain networks over years of practice, which may induce lasting structural and functional connectivity changes within relevant circuits. The aim of our study was therefore to identify differences in FC during the resting state between 23 Sahaja Yoga Meditation experts and (...)
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  13. Long-Term BCI Training of a Tetraplegic User: Adaptive Riemannian Classifiers and User Training.Camille Benaroch, Khadijeh Sadatnejad, Aline Roc, Aurélien Appriou, Thibaut Monseigne, Smeety Pramij, Jelena Mladenovic, Léa Pillette, Camille Jeunet & Fabien Lotte - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    While often presented as promising assistive technologies for motor-impaired users, electroencephalography -based Brain-Computer Interfaces remain barely used outside laboratories due to low reliability in real-life conditions. There is thus a need to design long-term reliable BCIs that can be used outside-of-the-lab by end-users, e.g., severely motor-impaired ones. Therefore, we propose and evaluate the design of a multi-class Mental Task -based BCI for longitudinal training of a tetraplegic user for the CYBATHLON BCI series 2019. In this BCI championship, tetraplegic pilots are (...)
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  14.  2
    Tapping Force Encodes Metrical Aspects of Rhythm.Alessandro Benedetto & Gabriel Baud-Bovy - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Humans possess the ability to extract highly organized perceptual structures from sequences of temporal stimuli. For instance, we can organize specific rhythmical patterns into hierarchical, or metrical, systems. Despite the evidence of a fundamental influence of the motor system in achieving this skill, few studies have attempted to investigate the organization of our motor representation of rhythm. To this aim, we studied—in musicians and non-musicians—the ability to perceive and reproduce different rhythms. In a first experiment participants performed a temporal order-judgment (...)
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  15.  1
    The Differential Effects of Auditory and Visual Stimuli on Learning, Retention and Reactivation of a Perceptual-Motor Temporal Sequence in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder.Mélody Blais, Mélanie Jucla, Stéphanie Maziero, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix & Jessica Tallet - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This study investigates the procedural learning, retention, and reactivation of temporal sensorimotor sequences in children with and without developmental coordination disorder. Twenty typically-developing children and 12 children with DCD took part in this study. The children were required to tap on a keyboard, synchronizing with auditory or visual stimuli presented as an isochronous temporal sequence, and practice non-isochronous temporal sequences to memorize them. Immediate and delayed retention of the audio-motor and visuo-motor non-isochronous sequences were tested by removing auditory or visual (...)
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  16. Map-Like Representations of an Abstract Conceptual Space in the Human Brain.Levan Bokeria, Richard N. Henson & Robert M. Mok - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  17. Epileptic High-Frequency Oscillations in Intracranial EEG Are Not Confounded by Cognitive Tasks.Ece Boran, Lennart Stieglitz & Johannes Sarnthein - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Rationale: High-frequency oscillations in intracranial EEG are used to delineate the epileptogenic zone during presurgical diagnostic assessment in patients with epilepsy. HFOs are historically divided into ripples, fast ripples, and their co-occurrence. In a previous study, we had validated the rate of FRandRs during deep sleep to predict seizure outcome. Here, we ask whether epileptic FRandRs might be confounded by physiological FRandRs that are unrelated to epilepsy.Methods: We recorded iEEG in the medial temporal lobe MTL in 17 patients while they (...)
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  18.  2
    Ventral Striatal Activation During Reward Anticipation of Different Reward Probabilities in Adolescents and Adults.Maria Bretzke, Hannes Wahl, Michael M. Plichta, Nicole Wolff, Veit Roessner, Nora C. Vetter & Judith Buse - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Adolescence has been linked to an enhanced tolerance of uncertainty and risky behavior and is possibly connected to an increased response toward rewards. However, previous research has produced inconsistent findings. To investigate whether these findings are due to different reward probabilities used in the experimental design, we extended a monetary incentive delay task by including three different reward probabilities. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 25 healthy adolescents and 22 adults were studied during anticipation of rewards in the VS. Differently colored (...)
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  19. Harnessing Neuroimaging to Reduce Socioeconomic Disparities in Chronic Disease: A Conceptual Framework for Improving Health Messaging.Samantha N. Brosso, Paschal Sheeran, Allison J. Lazard & Keely A. Muscatell - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Socioeconomic status -related health disparities persist for numerous chronic diseases, with lower-SES individuals exhibiting greater risk of morbidity and mortality compared to their higher-SES counterparts. One likely contributor is disparities in health messaging efforts, which are currently less effective for motivating health behavior change among those lower in SES. Drawing on communication neuroscience and social neuroscience research, we describe a conceptual framework to improve health messaging effectiveness in lower SES communities. The framework is based on evidence that health-message-induced activity in (...)
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  20.  1
    A Critical Review of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Neuromodulation in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples.Tad T. Brunyé, Joseph E. Patterson, Thomas Wooten & Erika K. Hussey - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a neuromodulation tool used for treating several clinical disorders, including insomnia, anxiety, and depression. More recently, a limited number of studies have examined CES for altering affect, physiology, and behavior in healthy, non-clinical samples. The physiological, neurochemical, and metabolic mechanisms underlying CES effects are currently unknown. Computational modeling suggests that electrical current administered with CES at the earlobes can reach cortical and subcortical regions at very low intensities associated with subthreshold neuromodulatory effects, and studies using electroencephalography (...)
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  21. Intraoperative Cognitive Mapping Tasks for Direct Electrical Stimulation in Clinical and Neuroscientific Contexts.Linghao Bu, Junfeng Lu, Jie Zhang & Jinsong Wu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Direct electrical stimulation has been widely applied in both guidance of lesion resection and scientific research; however, the design and selection of intraoperative cognitive mapping tasks have not been updated in a very long time. We introduce updated mapping tasks for language and non-language functions and provide recommendations for optimal design and selection of intraoperative mapping tasks. In addition, with DES becoming more critical in current neuroscientific research, a task design that has not been widely used in DES yet was (...)
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  22.  2
    Morphological Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Structures in Multiple System Atrophy Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.Chenghao Cao, Qi Wang, Hongmei Yu, Huaguang Yang, Yingmei Li, Miaoran Guo, Huaibi Huo & Guoguang Fan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the morphometric alterations in the cortical and subcortical structures in multiple system atrophy patients with mild cognitive impairment, and to explore the association with cognitive deficits.MethodsA total of 45 MSA patients and 29 healthy controls were recruited. FreeSurfer software was used to analyze cortical thickness, and voxel-based morphometry was used to analyze the gray matter volumes. Cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes were correlated with cognitive scores.ResultsCompared to healthy controls, both MSA subgroups exhibited widespread (...)
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  23.  1
    Time in Associative Learning: A Review on Temporal Maps.Midhula Chandran & Anna Thorwart - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Ability to recall the timing of events is a crucial aspect of associative learning. Yet, traditional theories of associative learning have often overlooked the role of time in learning association and shaping the behavioral outcome. They address temporal learning as an independent and parallel process. Temporal Coding Hypothesis is an attempt to bringing together the associative and non-associative aspects of learning. This account proposes temporal maps, a representation that encodes several aspects of a learned association, but attach considerable importance to (...)
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  24.  5
    Altered Dynamic Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Patients With Migraine Without Aura.Hong Chen, Guiqiang Qi, Yingxia Zhang, Ying Huang, Shaojin Zhang, Dongjun Yang, Junwei He, Lan Mu, Lin Zhou & Min Zeng - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Migraine is a chronic and idiopathic disorder leading to cognitive and affective problems. However, the neural basis of migraine without aura is still unclear. In this study, dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations analyses were performed in 21 patients with migraine without aura and 21 gender- and age-matched healthy controls to identify the voxel-level abnormal functional dynamics. Significantly decreased dALFF in the bilateral anterior insula, bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and left middle frontal cortex (...)
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  25. Investigating Arousal, Saccade Preparation, and Global Luminance Effects on Microsaccade Behavior.Jui-Tai Chen, Rachel Yep, Yu-Fan Hsu, Yih-Giun Cherng & Chin-An Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Microsaccades, small saccadic eye movements occurring during fixation, have been suggested to be modulated by various sensory, cognitive, and affective processes relating to arousal. Although the modulation of fatigue-related arousal on microsaccade behavior has previously been characterized, the influence of other aspects of arousal, such as emotional arousal, is less understood. Moreover, microsaccades are modulated by cognitive processes that could also be linked to arousal. To investigate the influence of emotional arousal, saccade preparation, and global luminance levels on microsaccade behavior, (...)
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  26.  6
    Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease Using a Random Forest Model Based on an Orthogonal Experimental Design: A Pilot Study.Zhonelue Chen, Gen Li, Chao Gao, Yuyan Tan, Jun Liu, Jin Zhao, Yun Ling, Xiaoliu Yu, Kang Ren & Shengdi Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to introduce an orthogonal experimental design to improve the efficiency of building and optimizing models for freezing of gait prediction.MethodsA random forest model was developed to predict FOG by using acceleration signals and angular velocity signals to recognize possible precursor signs of FOG. An OED was introduced to optimize the feature extraction parameters.ResultsThe main effects and interaction among the feature extraction hyperparameters were analyzed. The false-positive rate, hit rate, and mean prediction time were 27%, (...)
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  27.  1
    C-Gait for Detecting Freezing of Gait in the Early to Middle Stages of Parkinson’s Disease: A Model Prediction Study.Zi-Yan Chen, Hong-Jiao Yan, Lin Qi, Qiao-Xia Zhen, Cui Liu, Ping Wang, Yong-Hong Liu, Rui-Dan Wang, Yan-Jun Liu, Jin-Ping Fang, Yuan Su, Xiao-Yan Yan, Ai-Xian Liu, Jianing Xi & Boyan Fang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    GraphicalPatients with early- to middle-stage PD were enrolled for C-Gait assessment and traditional walking ability assessments. The correlation of C-Gait assessment and traditional walking tests were studied. Two models were established based on C-Gait assessment and traditional walking tests to explore the value of C-Gait assessment in predicting freezing of gait.ObjectiveEfficient methods for assessing walking adaptability in individuals with Parkinson’s disease are urgently needed. Therefore, this study aimed to assess C-Gait for detecting freezing of gait in patients with early- to (...)
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  28.  1
    A P300 Brain-Computer Interface Paradigm Based on Electric and Vibration Simple Command Tactile Stimulation.Chenxi Chu, Jingjing Luo, Xiwei Tian, Xiangke Han & Shijie Guo - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This paper proposed a novel tactile-stimuli P300 paradigm for Brain-Computer Interface, which potentially targeted at people with less learning ability or difficulty in maintaining attention. The new paradigm using only two types of stimuli was designed, and different targets were distinguished by frequency and spatial information. The classification algorithm was developed by introducing filters for frequency bands selection and conducting optimization with common spatial pattern on the tactile evoked EEG signals. It features a combination of spatial and frequency information, with (...)
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  29.  1
    Brain Entropy During Aging Through a Free Energy Principle Approach.Filippo Cieri, Xiaowei Zhuang, Jessica Z. K. Caldwell & Dietmar Cordes - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Neural complexity and brain entropy have gained greater interest in recent years. The dynamics of neural signals and their relations with information processing continue to be investigated through different measures in a variety of noteworthy studies. The BEN of spontaneous neural activity decreases during states of reduced consciousness. This evidence has been showed in primary consciousness states, such as psychedelic states, under the name of “the entropic brain hypothesis.” In this manuscript we propose an extension of this hypothesis to physiological (...)
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  30. Spontaneous Alpha and Theta Oscillations Are Related to Complementary Aspects of Cognitive Control in Younger and Older Adults.Grace M. Clements, Daniel C. Bowie, Mate Gyurkovics, Kathy A. Low, Monica Fabiani & Gabriele Gratton - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The resting-state human electroencephalogram power spectrum is dominated by alpha and theta oscillations, and also includes non-oscillatory broadband activity inversely related to frequency. Gratton proposed that alpha and theta oscillations are both related to cognitive control function, though in a complementary manner. Alpha activity is hypothesized to facilitate the maintenance of representations, such as task sets in preparation for expected task conditions. In contrast, theta activity would facilitate changes in representations, such as the updating of task sets in response to (...)
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  31.  1
    The Interrelation Between Peripersonal Action Space and Interpersonal Social Space: Psychophysiological Evidence and Clinical Implications.Yann Coello & Alice Cartaud - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The peripersonal space is an adaptive and flexible interface between the body and the environment that fulfills a dual-motor function: preparing the body for voluntary object-oriented actions to interact with incentive stimuli and preparing the body for defensive responses when facing potentially harmful stimuli. In this position article, we provide arguments for the sensorimotor rooting of the peripersonal space representation and highlight the variables that contribute to its flexible and adaptive characteristics. We also demonstrate that peripersonal space represents a mediation (...)
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  32.  5
    Characterizing the Action-Observation Network Through Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A Review.Emma E. Condy, Helga O. Miguel, John Millerhagen, Doug Harrison, Kosar Khaksari, Nathan Fox & Amir Gandjbakhche - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy is a neuroimaging technique that has undergone tremendous growth over the last decade due to methodological advantages over other measures of brain activation. The action-observation network, a system of brain structures proposed to have “mirroring” abilities, has been studied in humans through neural measures such as fMRI and electroencephalogram ; however, limitations of these methods are problematic for AON paradigms. For this reason, fNIRS is proposed as a solution to investigating the AON in humans. The present review (...)
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  33. Early Life Stress and the Fate of Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites.Jeremy D. Coplan, Roza George, Shariful A. Syed, Annalam V. Rozenboym, Jean E. Tang, Sasha L. Fulton & Tarique D. Perera - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Early life stress precedes alterations to neuro-immune activation, which may mediate an increased risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders, potentially through alterations of central kynurenine pathway metabolites, the latter being relatively unexplored. We hypothesized that ELS in a non-human primate model would lead to a reduction of neuroprotective and increases of neurotoxic KP metabolites. Twelve adult female bonnet macaques reared under conditions of maternal variable foraging demand were compared to 27 age- and weight-matched non-VFD-exposed female controls. Baseline behavioral observations of social (...)
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  34. Individual Differences in Working Memory and the N2pc.Jane W. Couperus, Kirsten O. Lydic, Juniper E. Hollis, Jessica L. Roy, Amy R. Lowe, Cindy M. Bukach & Catherine L. Reed - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The lateralized ERP N2pc component has been shown to be an effective marker of attentional object selection when elicited in a visual search task, specifically reflecting the selection of a target item among distractors. Moreover, when targets are known in advance, the visual search process is guided by representations of target features held in working memory at the time of search, thus guiding attention to objects with target-matching features. Previous studies have shown that manipulating working memory availability via concurrent tasks (...)
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  35. Executive Functions in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Comorbidity Overlaps Between Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Specific Learning Disorders.Giulia Crisci, Sara Caviola, Ramona Cardillo & Irene C. Mammarella - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The present study examines the comorbidity between specific learning disorders and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder by comparing the neuropsychological profiles of children with and without this comorbidity. Ninety-seven schoolchildren from 8 to 14 years old were tested: a clinical sample of 49 children with ADHD, SLD or SLD in comorbidity with ADHD, and 48 typically-developing children matched for age and intelligence. Participants were administered tasks and questionnaires to confirm their initial diagnosis, and a battery of executive function tasks testing (...)
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  36.  2
    Phonological Underspecification: An Explanation for How a Rake Can Become Awake.Alycia E. Cummings, Ying C. Wu & Diane A. Ogiela - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Neural markers, such as the mismatch negativity, have been used to examine the phonological underspecification of English feature contrasts using the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon model. However, neural indices have not been examined within the approximant phoneme class, even though there is evidence suggesting processing asymmetries between liquid and glide phonemes. The goal of this study was to determine whether glide phonemes elicit electrophysiological asymmetries related to [consonantal] underspecification when contrasted with liquid phonemes in adult English speakers. Specifically, /ɹɑ/ is categorized (...)
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  37.  1
    Determinants of Neural Plastic Changes Induced by Motor Practice.Wen Dai, Kento Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi Nakajima & Kazuyuki Kanosue - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Short-term motor practice leads to plasticity in the primary motor cortex. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that determine the increase in corticospinal tract excitability after motor practice, with special focus on two factors; “the level of muscle activity” and “the presence/absence of a goal of keeping the activity level constant.” Fifteen healthy subjects performed four types of rapid thumb adduction in separate sessions. In the “comfortable task” and “forceful task”, the subjects adducted their thumb using (...)
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  38. Spectral Resting-State EEG (rsEEG) in Chronic Aphasia Is Reliable, Sensitive, and Correlates With Functional Behavior.Sarah G. H. Dalton, James F. Cavanagh & Jessica D. Richardson - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    We investigated spectral resting-state EEG in persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia to determine its reliability, sensitivity, and relationship to functional behaviors. Resting-state EEG has not yet been characterized in this population and was selected given the demonstrated potential of resting-state investigations using other neuroimaging techniques to guide clinical decision-making. Controls and persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia completed two EEG recording sessions, separated by approximately 1 month, as well as behavioral assessments of language, sensorimotor, and cognitive domains. Power in the classic (...)
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  39. Diminished Feedback Evaluation and Knowledge Updating Underlying Age-Related Differences in Choice Behavior During Feedback Learning.Tineke de Haan, Berry van den Berg, Marty G. Woldorff, André Aleman & Monicque M. Lorist - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In our daily lives, we continuously evaluate feedback information, update our knowledge, and adapt our behavior in order to reach desired goals. This ability to learn from feedback information, however, declines with age. Previous research has indicated that certain higher-level learning processes, such as feedback evaluation, integration of feedback information, and updating of knowledge, seem to be affected by age, and recent studies have shown how the adaption of choice behavior following feedback can differ with age. The neural mechanisms underlying (...)
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  40. Neural Biomarkers Distinguish Severe From Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder Among High-Functioning Individuals.Tianye di ChenJia, Yuning Zhang, Miao Cao, Eva Loth, Chun-Yi Zac Lo, Wei Cheng, Zhaowen Liu, Weikang Gong, Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian & Jianfeng Feng - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Several previous studies have reported atypicality in resting-state functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder, yet the relatively small effect sizes prevent us from using these characteristics for diagnostic purposes. Here, canonical correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering were used to partition the high-functioning ASD group into subgroups. A support vector machine model was trained through the 10-fold strategy to predict Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores within the ASD discovery group, which was further validated in an independent sample. The neuroimage-based partition derived (...)
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  41. Use of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Assess Syntactic Processing by Monolingual and Bilingual Adults and Children.Guoqin Ding, Kathleen A. J. Mohr, Carla I. Orellana, Allison S. Hancock, Stephanie Juth, Rebekah Wada & Ronald B. Gillam - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This exploratory study assessed the use of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to examine hemodynamic response patterns during sentence processing. Four groups of participants: monolingual English children, bilingual Chinese-English children, bilingual Chinese-English adults and monolingual English adults were given an agent selection syntactic processing task. Bilingual child participants were classified as simultaneous or sequential bilinguals to examine the impact of first language, age of second-language acquisition, and the length of second language experience on behavioral performance and cortical activation. Participants were asked (...)
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  42. Evaluation of Response Processes to the Danish Version of the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale in Stroke Using the Three-Step Test-Interview.Frederik L. Dornonville de la Cour, Anne Norup, Trine Schow & Tonny Elmose Andersen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Validated self-report measures of post-stroke fatigue are lacking. The Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale was translated into Danish, and response process evidence of validity was evaluated. DMFS consists of 38 Likert-rated items distributed on five subscales: Impact of fatigue, Signs and direct consequences of fatigue, Mental fatigue, Physical fatigue, and Coping with fatigue. Response processes to DMFS were investigated using a Three-Step Test-Interview protocol, and data were analyzed using Framework Analysis. Response processes were indexed on the following categories: “congruent,” response processes (...)
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  43. Electroencephalographic Correlate of Mexican Spanish Emotional Speech Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder: To a Social Story and Robot-Based Intervention.Mathilde Marie Duville, Luz Maria Alonso-Valerdi & David I. Ibarra-Zarate - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Socio-emotional impairments are key symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This work proposes to analyze the neuronal activity related to the discrimination of emotional prosodies in autistic children as follows. Firstly, a database for single words uttered in Mexican Spanish by males, females, and children will be created. Then, optimal acoustic features for emotion characterization will be extracted, followed of a cubic kernel function Support Vector Machine in order to validate the speech corpus. As a result, human-specific acoustic properties of emotional (...)
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  44.  2
    Simultaneous Measurement of the BOLD Effect and Metabolic Changes in Response to Visual Stimulation Using the MEGA-PRESS Sequence at 3 T.Gerard Eric Dwyer, Alexander R. Craven, Justyna Bereśniewicz, Katarzyna Kazimierczak, Lars Ersland, Kenneth Hugdahl & Renate Grüner - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The blood oxygen level dependent effect that provides the contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging has been demonstrated to affect the linewidth of spectral peaks as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and through this, may be used as an indirect measure of cerebral blood flow related to neural activity. By acquiring MR-spectra interleaved with frames without water suppression, it may be possible to image the BOLD effect and associated metabolic changes simultaneously through changes in the linewidth of the unsuppressed water (...)
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  45.  1
    Working Memory Training Effects on White Matter Integrity in Young and Older Adults.Sabine Dziemian, Sarah Appenzeller, Claudia C. von Bastian, Lutz Jäncke & Nicolas Langer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    ObjectivesWorking memory is essential for daily life skills like reading comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. Healthy aging of the brain goes along with working memory decline that can affect older people’s independence in everyday life. Interventions in the form of cognitive training are a promising tool for delaying age-related working memory decline, yet the underlying structural plasticity of white matter is hardly studied.MethodsWe conducted a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study to investigate the effects of an intensive four-week adaptive working memory training (...)
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  46. Again, No Evidence for or Against the Existence of Ego Depletion: Opinion on “A Multi-Site Preregistered Paradigmatic Test of the Ego Depletion Effect”.Chris Englert & Alex Bertrams - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  47.  5
    Social Exclusion Down-Regulates Pain Empathy at the Late Stage of Empathic Responses: Electrophysiological Evidence.Min Fan, Jing Jie, Pinchao Luo, Yu Pang, Danna Xu, Gaowen Yu, Shaochen Zhao, Wei Chen & Xifu Zheng - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Social exclusion has a significant impact on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Some behavioral studies investigated how social exclusion affects pain empathy. Conclusions were inconsistent, and there is a lack of clarity in identifying which component of pain empathy is more likely to be affected. To investigate these issues, we used a Cyberball task to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Two groups participated in the same pain empathy task while we recorded event-related potentials when participants viewed static images of body parts (...)
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  48.  2
    A Dynamic Systems Framework for Gender/Sex Development: From Sensory Input in Infancy to Subjective Certainty in Toddlerhood.Anne Fausto-Sterling - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    From birth to 15 months infants and caregivers form a fundamentally intersubjective, dyadic unit within which the infant’s ability to recognize gender/sex in the world develops. Between about 18 and 36 months the infant accumulates an increasingly clear and subjective sense of self as female or male. We know little about how the precursors to gender/sex identity form during the intersubjective period, nor how they transform into an independent sense of self by 3 years of age. In this Theory and (...)
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  49.  1
    Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Cognitive Performance and Cerebral Oxygen Hemodynamics: A Systematic Review.Mathieu Figeys, Michael Zeeman & Esther Sung Kim - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: There is increasing evidence to support the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation applications in cognitive augmentation and rehabilitation. Neuromodulation achieved with tDCS may further regulate regional cerebral perfusion affiliated through the neurovascular unit; however, components of cerebral perfusion decrease across aging. A novel neuroimaging approach, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, can aid in quantifying these regional perfusional changes. To date, the interaction of the effects of tDCS on cognitive performance across the lifespan and obtained fNIRS hemodynamic responses remain unknown.Objective: This (...)
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  50. Maternal Distress and Offspring Neurodevelopment: Challenges and Opportunities for Pre-Clinical Research Models.Eamon Fitzgerald, Carine Parent, Michelle Z. L. Kee & Michael J. Meaney - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Pre-natal exposure to acute maternal trauma or chronic maternal distress can confer increased risk for psychiatric disorders in later life. Acute maternal trauma is the result of unforeseen environmental or personal catastrophes, while chronic maternal distress is associated with anxiety or depression. Animal studies investigating the effects of pre-natal stress have largely used brief stress exposures during pregnancy to identify critical periods of fetal vulnerability, a paradigm which holds face validity to acute maternal trauma in humans. While understanding these effects (...)
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  51.  1
    Stroke Lesion Impact on Lower Limb Function.Silvi Frenkel-Toledo, Shay Ofir-Geva, Lihi Mansano, Osnat Granot & Nachum Soroker - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The impact of stroke on motor functioning is analyzed at different levels. ‘Impairment’ denotes the loss of basic characteristics of voluntary movement. ‘Activity limitation’ denotes the loss of normal capacity for independent execution of daily activities. Recovery from impairment is accomplished by ‘restitution’ and recovery from activity limitation is accomplished by the combined effect of ‘restitution’ and ‘compensation.’ We aimed to unravel the long-term effects of variation in lesion topography on motor impairment of the hemiparetic lower limb, and gait capacity (...)
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  52. Extracting Phonetic Features From Natural Classes: A Mismatch Negativity Study of Mandarin Chinese Retroflex Consonants.Zhanao Fu & Philip J. Monahan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    How speech sounds are represented in the brain is not fully understood. The mismatch negativity has proven to be a powerful tool in this regard. The MMN event-related potential is elicited by a deviant stimulus embedded within a series of repeating standard stimuli. Listeners construct auditory memory representations of these standards despite acoustic variability. In most designs that test speech sounds, however, this variation is typically intra-category: All standards belong to the same phonetic category. In the current paper, inter-category variation (...)
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  53. Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment.Christopher J. Gaffney, Amber Drinkwater, Shalmali D. Joshi, Brandon O'Hanlon, Abbie Robinson, Kayle-Anne Sands, Kate Slade, Jason J. Braithwaite & Helen E. Nuttall - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Short-term limb immobilization results in skeletal muscle decline, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to determine the neurophysiologic basis of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle decline, and whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation could prevent any decline. Twenty-four healthy young males underwent unilateral limb immobilization for 72 h. Subjects were randomized between daily rTMS using six 20 Hz pulse trains of 1.5 s duration with a 60 s inter-train-interval delivered at 90% resting Motor Threshold, or Sham rTMS throughout immobilization. (...)
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  54. Automatic Detection of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type II in MRI: Is the Application of Surface-Based Morphometry and Machine Learning Promising?Zohreh Ganji, Mohsen Aghaee Hakak, Seyed Amir Zamanpour & Hoda Zare - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background and ObjectivesFocal cortical dysplasia is a type of malformations of cortical development and one of the leading causes of drug-resistant epilepsy. Postoperative results improve the diagnosis of lesions on structural MRIs. Advances in quantitative algorithms have increased the identification of FCD lesions. However, due to significant differences in size, shape, and location of the lesion in different patients and a big deal of time for the objective diagnosis of lesion as well as the dependence of individual interpretation, sensitive approaches (...)
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  55. Semantic Grounding of Novel Spoken Words in the Primary Visual Cortex.Max Garagnani, Evgeniya Kirilina & Friedemann Pulvermüller - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Embodied theories of grounded semantics postulate that, when word meaning is first acquired, a link is established between symbol and corresponding semantic information present in modality-specific—including primary—sensorimotor cortices of the brain. Direct experimental evidence documenting the emergence of such a link, however, is still missing. Here, we present new neuroimaging results that provide such evidence. We taught participants aspects of the referential meaning of previously unknown, senseless novel spoken words by associating them with either a familiar action or a familiar (...)
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  56.  1
    Driving Skills of Individuals With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder.Judith Gentle, Daniel Brady, Nigel Woodger, Sophie Croston & Hayley C. Leonard - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Learning to drive is a significant event for the transition to adulthood and delay or avoidance may have social, practical, and psychological implications. For those with Developmental Coordination Disorder, driving presents a considerable challenge, and the literature shows that there are differences in driving ability between individuals with and without DCD. The aim of the current research is to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the driving experiences of individuals with DCD. Nineteen participants with DCD and 36 controls aged (...)
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  57. Modulation of Peak Alpha Frequency Oscillations During Working Memory Is Greater in Females Than Males.Tara R. Ghazi, Kara J. Blacker, Thomas T. Hinault & Susan M. Courtney - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Peak alpha frequency is known to vary not just between individuals, but also within an individual over time. While variance in this metric between individuals has been tied to working memory performance, less understood are how short timescale modulations of peak alpha frequency during task performance may facilitate behavior. This gap in understanding may be bridged by consideration of a key difference between individuals: sex. Inconsistent findings in the literature regarding the relationship between peak alpha frequency and cognitive performance, as (...)
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  58.  1
    Baseline Differences in Anxiety Affect Attention and tDCS-Mediated Learning.Benjamin C. Gibson, Melissa Heinrich, Teagan S. Mullins, Alfred B. Yu, Jeffrey T. Hansberger & Vincent P. Clark - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Variable responses to transcranial direct current stimulation protocols across individuals are widely reported, but the reasons behind this variation are unclear. This includes tDCS protocols meant to improve attention. Attentional control is impacted by top-down and bottom-up processes, and this relationship is affected by state characteristics such as anxiety. According to Attentional Control Theory, anxiety biases attention towards bottom-up and stimulus-driven processing. The goal of this study was to explore the extent to which differences in state anxiety and related measures (...)
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  59. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) Does Not Affect Sports People’s Explosive Power: A Pilot Study.Andreina Giustiniani, Giuseppe Battaglia, Giuseppe Messina, Hely Morello, Salvatore Guastella, Angelo Iovane, Massimiliano Oliveri, Antonio Palma & Patrizia Proia - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Purpose: This study is aimed to preliminary investigate whether transcranial alternating current stimulation could affect explosive power considering genetic background in sport subjects.Methods: Seventeen healthy sports volunteers with at least 3 years of sports activities participated in the experiment. After 2 weeks of familiarization performed without any stimulation, each participant received either 50 Hz-tACS or sham-tACS. Before and after stimulation, subjects performed the following tests: the squat jump with the hands on the hips ; countermovement jump with the hands on (...)
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  60.  1
    A Neuromotor to Acoustical Jaw-Tongue Projection Model With Application in Parkinson’s Disease Hypokinetic Dysarthria.Andrés Gómez, Pedro Gómez, Daniel Palacios, Victoria Rodellar, Víctor Nieto, Agustín Álvarez & Athanasios Tsanas - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Aim: The present work proposes the study of the neuromotor activity of the masseter-jaw-tongue articulation during diadochokinetic exercising to establish functional statistical relationships between surface Electromyography, 3D Accelerometry, and acoustic features extracted from the speech signal, with the aim of characterizing Hypokinetic Dysarthria. A database of multi-trait signals of recordings from an age-matched control and PD participants are used in the experimental study. Hypothesis: The main assumption is that information between sEMG and 3D acceleration, and acoustic features may be quantified (...)
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  61.  5
    Rethinking the Mechanisms Underlying the McGurk Illusion.Mariel G. Gonzales, Kristina C. Backer, Brenna Mandujano & Antoine J. Shahin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The McGurk illusion occurs when listeners hear an illusory percept, resulting from mismatched pairings of audiovisual speech stimuli. Hearing a third percept—distinct from both the auditory and visual input—has been used as evidence of AV fusion. We examined whether the McGurk illusion is instead driven by visual dominance, whereby the third percept, e.g., “da,” represents a default percept for visemes with an ambiguous place of articulation, like/ga/. Participants watched videos of a talker uttering various consonant vowels with and without audios (...)
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  62. Trajectories of Mother-Infant Communication: An Experiential Measure of the Impacts of Early Life Adversity.Lauren Granata, Alissa Valentine, Jason L. Hirsch, Jennifer Honeycutt & Heather Brenhouse - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Caretaking stability in the early life environment supports neurobehavioral development, while instability and neglect constitute adverse environments that can alter maturational processes. Research in humans suggests that different types of early life adversity can have differential effects on caretaker relationships and later cognitive and social development; however, identifying mechanistic underpinnings will require animal models with translational validity. Two common rodent models, maternal separation and limited bedding, influence the mother-infant relationship during a critical window of development. We hypothesized that these paradigms (...)
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  63.  1
    Modulating Frontal Networks’ Timing-Dependent-Like Plasticity With Paired Associative Stimulation Protocols: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.Giacomo Guidali, Camilla Roncoroni & Nadia Bolognini - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Starting from the early 2000s, paired associative stimulation protocols have been used in humans to study brain connectivity in motor and sensory networks by exploiting the intrinsic properties of timing-dependent cortical plasticity. In the last 10 years, PAS have also been developed to investigate the plastic properties of complex cerebral systems, such as the frontal ones, with promising results. In the present work, we review the most recent advances of this technique, focusing on protocols targeting frontal cortices to investigate connectivity (...)
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  64. Feature-Based Attentional Weighting and Re-Weighting in the Absence of Visual Awareness.Lasse Güldener, Antonia Jüllig, David Soto & Stefan Pollmann - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Visual attention evolved as an adaptive mechanism allowing us to cope with a rapidly changing environment. It enables the facilitated processing of relevant information, often automatically and governed by implicit motives. However, despite recent advances in understanding the relationship between consciousness and visual attention, the functional scope of unconscious attentional control is still under debate. Here, we present a novel masking paradigm in which volunteers were to distinguish between varying orientations of a briefly presented, masked grating stimulus. Combining signal detection (...)
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  65. How Can We Prove the Causality of Interbrain Synchronization?Hila Z. Gvirts Provolovski & Rotem Perlmutter - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  66.  4
    Absence of Nonlinear Coupling Between Electric Vestibular Stimulation and Evoked Forces During Standing Balance.Kelci B. Hannan, Makina K. Todd, Nicole J. Pearson, Patrick A. Forbes & Christopher J. Dakin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The vestibular system encodes motion and orientation of the head in space and is essential for negotiating in and interacting with the world. Recently, random waveform electric vestibular stimulation has become an increasingly common means of probing the vestibular system. However, many of the methods used to analyze the behavioral response to this type of stimulation assume a linear relationship between frequencies in the stimulus and its associated response. Here we examine this stimulus-response frequency linearity to determine the validity of (...)
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  67.  1
    Functional Network Alterations as Markers for Predicting the Treatment Outcome of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Focal Epilepsy.Jiaxin Hao, Wenyi Luo, Yuhai Xie, Yu Feng, Wei Sun, Weifeng Peng, Jun Zhao, Puming Zhang, Jing Ding & Xin Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background and PurposeTranscranial direct current stimulation is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique for focal epilepsy. Because epilepsy is a disease affecting the brain network, our study was aimed to evaluate and predict the treatment outcome of cathodal tDCS by analyzing the ctDCS-induced functional network alterations.MethodsEither the active 5-day, −1.0 mA, 20-min ctDCS or sham ctDCS targeting at the most active interictal epileptiform discharge regions was applied to 27 subjects suffering from focal epilepsy. The functional networks before and after ctDCS were (...)
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  68. Progression of Visual Pathway Degeneration in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.Shereif Haykal, Nomdo M. Jansonius & Frans W. Cornelissen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Primary open-angle glaucoma patients exhibit widespread white matter degeneration throughout their visual pathways. Whether this degeneration starts at the pre- or post-geniculate pathways remains unclear. In this longitudinal study, we assess the progression of WM degeneration exhibited by the pre-geniculate optic tracts and the post-geniculate optic radiations of POAG patients over time, aiming to determine the source and pattern of spread of this degeneration.Methods: Diffusion-weighted MRI scans were acquired for 12 POAG patients and 14 controls at two time-points 5.4 (...)
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  69. Long-Term Mutual Training for the Cybathlon Bci Race with a Tetraplegic Pilot: A Case Study on Inter-Session Transfer and Intra-Session Adaptation.Lea Hehenberger, Reinmar J. Kobler, Catarina Lopes-Dias, Nitikorn Srisrisawang, Peter Tumfart, John B. Uroko, Paul R. Torke & Gernot R. Müller-Putz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    CYBATHLON is an international championship where people with severe physical disabilities compete with the aid of state-of-the-art assistive technology. In one of the disciplines, the BCI Race, tetraplegic pilots compete in a computer game race by controlling an avatar with a brain-computer interface. This competition offers a perfect opportunity for BCI researchers to study long-term training effects in potential end-users, and to evaluate BCI performance in a realistic environment. In this work, we describe the BCI system designed by the team (...)
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  70. The Role of the Cerebellum in Social and Non-Social Action Sequences: A Preliminary LF-rTMS Study.Elien Heleven, Kim van Dun, Sara De Witte, Chris Baeken & Frank Van Overwalle - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    An increasing number of studies demonstrated the involvement of the cerebellum in sequence processing. The current preliminary study is the first to investigate the causal involvement of the cerebellum in sequence generation, using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. By targeting the posterior cerebellum, we hypothesized that the induced neuro-excitability modulation would lead to altered performance on a Picture and Story sequencing task, which involve the generation of the correct chronological order of various social and non-social stories depicted in cartoons or (...)
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  71. Phase-Dependent Crossed Inhibition Mediating Coordination of Anti-Phase Bilateral Rhythmic Movement: A Mini Review.Koichi Hiraoka - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The activity of the left and right central pattern generators is efficiently coordinated during locomotion. To achieve this coordination, the interplay between the CPG controlling one leg and that controlling another must be present. Previous findings in aquatic vertebrates and mammalians suggest that the alternate activation of the left and right CPGs is mediated by the commissural interneurons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. Especially, V0 commissural interneurons mediate crossed inhibition during the alternative activity of the left and right (...)
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  72.  1
    Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Exercise Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Executive Function in Sedentary Females.Min Hu, Ningning Zeng, Zhongke Gu, Yuqing Zheng, Kai Xu, Lian Xue, Lu Leng, Xi Lu, Ying Shen & Junhao Huang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Previous research has demonstrated that regular exercise modulates motor cortical plasticity and cognitive function, but the influence of short-term high-intensity interval training remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of short-term HIIT on neuroplasticity and executive function was assessed in 32 sedentary females. Half of the participants undertook 2 weeks of HIIT. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor cortical plasticity via short intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation. We further adapted the Stroop task using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (...)
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  73.  2
    Structural and Functional Changes Are Related to Cognitive Status in Wilson’s Disease.Sheng Hu, Chunsheng Xu, Ting Dong, Hongli Wu, Yi Wang, Anqin Wang, Hongxing Kan & Chuanfu Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Patients with Wilson’s disease suffer from prospective memory impairment, and some of patients develop cognitive impairment. However, very little is known about how brain structure and function changes effect PM in WD. Here, we employed multimodal neuroimaging data acquired from 22 WD patients and 26 healthy controls who underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated gray matter volumes with voxel-based morphometry, DTI metrics using the fiber tractography method, and RS-fMRI using the seed-based (...)
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  74.  1
    Neural Correlates of the Shamanic State of Consciousness.Emma R. Huels, Hyoungkyu Kim, UnCheol Lee, Tarik Bel-Bahar, Angelo V. Colmenero, Amanda Nelson, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, George A. Mashour & Richard E. Harris - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Psychedelics have been recognized as model interventions for studying altered states of consciousness. However, few empirical studies of the shamanic state of consciousness, which is anecdotally similar to the psychedelic state, exist. We investigated the neural correlates of shamanic trance using high-density electroencephalography in 24 shamanic practitioners and 24 healthy controls during rest, shamanic drumming, and classical music listening, followed by an assessment of altered states of consciousness. EEG data were used to assess changes in absolute power, connectivity, signal diversity, (...)
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  75. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Valence, Arousal, and Subjective Significance in Processing of an Emotional Stroop Task.Kamil K. Imbir, Joanna Duda-Goławska, Maciej Pastwa, Marta Jankowska & Jarosław Żygierewicz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The present study is the first to measure event-related potentials associated with the processing of the emotional Stroop task with the use of an orthogonal factorial manipulation for emotional valence, arousal, and subjective significance. The current study aimed to investigate concurrently the role of the three dimensions describing the emotion-laden words for interference control measured in the classical version of the EST paradigm. The results showed that reaction times were affected by the emotional valence of presented words and the interactive (...)
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  76.  1
    Neural Basis and Motor Imagery Intervention Methodology Based on Neuroimaging Studies in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorders: A Review.Keisuke Irie, Amiri Matsumoto, Shuo Zhao, Toshihiro Kato & Nan Liang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Although the neural bases of the brain associated with movement disorders in children with developmental coordination disorder are becoming clearer, the information is not sufficient because of the lack of extensive brain function research. Therefore, it is controversial about effective intervention methods focusing on brain function. One of the rehabilitation techniques for movement disorders involves intervention using motor imagery. MI is often used for movement disorders, but most studies involve adults and healthy children, and the MI method for children with (...)
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  77. Neuronal Actions of Transspinal Stimulation on Locomotor Networks and Reflex Excitability During Walking in Humans With and Without Spinal Cord Injury.Md Anamul Islam, Timothy S. Pulverenti & Maria Knikou - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This study investigated the neuromodulatory effects of transspinal stimulation on soleus H-reflex excitability and electromyographic activity during stepping in humans with and without spinal cord injury. Thirteen able-bodied adults and 5 individuals with SCI participated in the study. EMG activity from both legs was determined for steps without, during, and after a single-pulse or pulse train transspinal stimulation delivered during stepping randomly at different phases of the step cycle. The soleus H-reflex was recorded in both subject groups under control conditions (...)
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  78. Hemodynamic Signal Changes During Motor Imagery Task Performance Are Associated With the Degree of Motor Task Learning.Naoki Iso, Takefumi Moriuchi, Kengo Fujiwara, Moemi Matsuo, Wataru Mitsunaga, Takashi Hasegawa, Fumiko Iso, Kilchoon Cho, Makoto Suzuki & Toshio Higashi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    PurposeThis study aimed to investigate whether oxygenated hemoglobin generated during a motor imagery task is associated with the motor learning level of the task.MethodsWe included 16 right-handed healthy participants who were trained to perform a ball rotation task. Hemodynamic brain activity was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor changes in oxy-Hb concentration during the BR MI task. The experimental protocol used a block design, and measurements were performed three times before and after the initial training of the BR task as (...)
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  79. Temporal Binding in Multisensory and Motor-Sensory Contexts: Toward a Unified Model.Kishore Kumar Jagini - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Our senses receive a manifold of sensory signals at any given moment in our daily lives. For a coherent and unified representation of information and precise motor control, our brain needs to temporally bind the signals emanating from a common causal event and segregate others. Traditionally, different mechanisms were proposed for the temporal binding phenomenon in multisensory and motor-sensory contexts. This paper reviews the literature on the temporal binding phenomenon in both multisensory and motor-sensory contexts and suggests future research directions (...)
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  80.  1
    Transcutaneous Auricular Neurostimulation (tAN): A Novel Adjuvant Treatment in Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome.Dorothea D. Jenkins, Navid Khodaparast, Georgia H. O’Leary, Stephanie N. Washburn, Alejandro Covalin & Bashar W. Badran - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Maternal opioid use during pregnancy is a growing national problem and can lead to newborns developing neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome soon after birth. Recent data demonstrates that nearly every 15 min a baby is born in the United States suffering from NOWS. The primary treatment for NOWS is opioid replacement therapy, commonly oral morphine, which has neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. There is an urgent need for non-opioid treatments for NOWS. Transcutaneous auricular neurostimulation, a novel and non-invasive form of (...)
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  81.  1
    Generalizing Longitudinal Age Effects on Brain Structure – A Two-Study Comparison Approach.Christiane Jockwitz, Susan Mérillat, Franziskus Liem, Jessica Oschwald, Katrin Amunts, Lutz Jäncke & Svenja Caspers - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Cross-sectional studies indicate that normal aging is accompanied by decreases in brain structure. Longitudinal studies, however, are relatively rare and inconsistent regarding their outcomes. Particularly the heterogeneity of methods, sample characteristics and the high inter-individual variability in older adults prevent the deduction of general trends. Therefore, the current study aimed to compare longitudinal age-related changes in brain structure in two large independent samples of healthy older adults ; the Longitudinal Healthy Aging Brain database project at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, (...)
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  82.  2
    The Intersection of Offline Learning and Rehabilitation.Brian P. Johnson, Leonardo G. Cohen & Kelly P. Westlake - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  83.  1
    Can Machines Find the Bilingual Advantage? Machine Learning Algorithms Find No Evidence to Differentiate Between Lifelong Bilingual and Monolingual Cognitive Profiles.Samuel Kyle Jones, Jodie Davies-Thompson & Jeremy Tree - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Bilingualism has been identified as a potential cognitive factor linked to delayed onset of dementia as well as boosting executive functions in healthy individuals. However, more recently, this claim has been called into question following several failed replications. It remains unclear whether these contradictory findings reflect how bilingualism is defined between studies, or methodological limitations when measuring the bilingual effect. One key issue is that despite the claims that bilingualism yields general protection to cognitive processes, studies reporting putative bilingual differences (...)
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  84. The Role of Virtual Reality in Screening, Diagnosing, and Rehabilitating Spatial Memory Deficits.Miles Jonson, Sinziana Avramescu, Derek Chen & Fahad Alam - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Impairment of spatial memory, including an inability to recall previous locations and navigate the world, is often one of the first signs of functional disability on the road to cognitive impairment. While there are many screening and diagnostic tools which attempt to measure spatial memory ability, they are often not representative of real-life situations and can therefore lack applicability. One potential solution to this problem involves the use of virtual reality, which immerses individuals in a virtually-simulated environment, allowing for scenarios (...)
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  85. Multimodal Assessment of Precentral Anodal TDCS: Individual Rise in Supplementary Motor Activity Scales With Increase in Corticospinal Excitability.Anke Ninija Karabanov, Keiichiro Shindo, Yuko Shindo, Estelle Raffin & Hartwig Roman Siebner - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundTranscranial direct current stimulation targeting the primary motor hand area may induce lasting shifts in corticospinal excitability, but after-effects show substantial inter-individual variability. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can probe after-effects of TDCS on regional neural activity on a whole-brain level.ObjectiveUsing a double-blinded cross-over design, we investigated whether the individual change in corticospinal excitability after TDCS of M1-HAND is associated with changes in task-related regional activity in cortical motor areas.MethodsSeventeen healthy volunteers received 20 min of real or sham TDCS on separate (...)
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  86. Perceptual Asymmetries and Auditory Processing of Estonian Quantities.Liis Kask, Nele Põldver, Pärtel Lippus & Kairi Kreegipuu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Similar to visual perception, auditory perception also has a clearly described “pop-out” effect, where an element with some extra feature is easier to detect among elements without an extra feature. This phenomenon is better known as auditory perceptual asymmetry. We investigated such asymmetry between shorter or longer duration, and level or falling of pitch of linguistic stimuli that carry a meaning in one language, but not in another. For the mismatch negativity experiment, we created four different types of stimuli by (...)
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  87. Alteration in Resting-State EEG Microstates Following 24 Hours of Total Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Young Male Subjects.Ming Ke, Jianpan Li & Lubin Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Purpose: The cognitive effects of total sleep deprivation on the brain remain poorly understood. Electroencephalography is a very useful tool for detecting spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. Quasi-stable electrical distributions, known as microstates, carry useful information about the dynamics of large-scale brain networks. In this study, microstate analysis was used to study changes in brain activity after 24 h of total sleep deprivation.Participants and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent EEG scans before and after 24 h (...)
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  88.  2
    Is Reconsolidation a General Property of Memory?Gayoung Kim, Minjae Kwon, Wonjun Kang & Sue-Hyun Lee - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Memory reconsolidation holds great hope for memory modification approaches and clinical treatments of mental disorders associated with maladaptive memories. However, it remains controversial as to whether reconsolidation is a general property of all types of memory. Especially, discrepancies have been reported in research focusing on whether declarative memory undergoes reconsolidation, and whether old memories can be reorganized after retrieval. Here, we discuss how these inconsistent results can be reconciled and what information we need to uncover for the general use of (...)
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  89. Effects of Emotional Stimulations on the Online Operation of a P300-Based Brain–Computer Interface.Minju Kim, Jongsu Kim, Dojin Heo, Yunjoo Choi, Taejun Lee & Sung-Phil Kim - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Using P300-based brain–computer interfaces in daily life should take into account the user’s emotional state because various emotional conditions are likely to influence event-related potentials and consequently the performance of P300-based BCIs. This study aimed at investigating whether external emotional stimuli affect the performance of a P300-based BCI, particularly built for controlling home appliances. We presented a set of emotional auditory stimuli to subjects, which had been selected for each subject based on individual valence scores evaluated a priori, while they (...)
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  90. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Dual-Task Interference Depend on the Dual-Task Content.Takehide Kimura, Fuminari Kaneko & Takashi Nagamine - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Recently, some studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation reduces dual-task interference. Since there are countless combinations of dual-tasks, it remains unclear whether stable effects by tDCS can be observed on dual-task interference. An aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effects of tDCS on dual-task interference change depend on the dual-task content. We adopted two combinations of dual-tasks, i.e., a word task while performing a tandem task and a classic Stroop task while performing a tandem task. (...)
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  91. Editorial: Neuro-Cognitive Architecture of Numerical Cognition and Its Development.Elise Klein, Reuven Babai, Anja Ischebeck & Korbinian Moeller - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  92. Examination of the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Responses to the Fist-Edge-Palm Task in Naïve Subjects Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.Satoshi Kobayashi, Yudai Iwama, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Setogawa, Taketoshi Ono & Hisao Nishijo - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The Fist-Edge-Palm task, a manual hand task, has been used to detect frontal dysfunctions in clinical situations: its performance failures are observed in various prefrontal cortex -related disorders, including schizophrenia. However, previous imaging studies reported that the performance of the FEP task activated motor-related areas, but not the PFC. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationships between the performance of the FEP task and PFC functions. Hemodynamic activity in the PFC, including the dorsolateral PFC and frontal pole, was recorded. Healthy (...)
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  93.  1
    Eros, Beauty, and Phon-Aesthetic Judgements of Language Sound. We Like It Flat and Fast, but Not Melodious. Comparing Phonetic and Acoustic Features of 16 European Languages.Vita V. Kogan & Susanne M. Reiterer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This article concerns sound aesthetic preferences for European foreign languages. We investigated the phonetic-acoustic dimension of the linguistic aesthetic pleasure to describe the “music” found in European languages. The Romance languages, French, Italian, and Spanish, take a lead when people talk about melodious language – the music-like effects in the language. On the other end of the melodiousness spectrum are German and Arabic that are often considered sounding harsh and un-attractive. Despite the public interest, limited research has been conducted on (...)
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  94. The Use of Quantitative Sensation Testing to Identify the Physiological Differences Between the Median and Ulnar Nerves.Magdalena Koszewicz, Mariusz Szydlo, Jerzy Gosk, Malgorzata Wieczorek, Krzysztof Slotwinski & Slawomir Budrewicz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    IntroductionSimilarities in morphology, physiological function, and neurophysiological findings between median and ulnar nerves are not unequivocal. Our previous study confirmed differences in motor fiber parameters between these nerves in healthy persons. We made an attempt to assess and compare the physiological parameters of different sensation modalities in median and ulnar nerves.MethodsThe study was performed in 31 healthy, right-handed volunteers: 17 women, 14 men, mean age 44.8 ± 15.5 years. Standard sensory conduction tests in the median and ulnar nerves were performed (...)
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  95.  2
    Personalized Virtual Reality Human-Computer Interaction for Psychiatric and Neurological Illnesses: A Dynamically Adaptive Virtual Reality Environment That Changes According to Real-Time Feedback From Electrophysiological Signal Responses.Jacob Kritikos, Georgios Alevizopoulos & Dimitris Koutsouris - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Virtual reality constitutes an alternative, effective, and increasingly utilized treatment option for people suffering from psychiatric and neurological illnesses. However, the currently available VR simulations provide a predetermined simulative framework that does not take into account the unique personality traits of each individual; this could result in inaccurate, extreme, or unpredictable responses driven by patients who may be overly exposed and in an abrupt manner to the predetermined stimuli, or result in indifferent, almost non-existing, reactions when the stimuli do not (...)
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  96. Handgrip Based Action Information Modulates Attentional Selection: An ERP Study.Sanjay Kumar, M. Jane Riddoch & Glyn W. Humphreys - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Prior work shows that the possibility of action to an object facilitates attentional deployment. We sought to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this modulation of attention by examining ERPs to target objects that were either congruently or incongruently gripped for their use in the presence of a congruently or incongruently gripped distractor. Participants responded to the presence or absence of a target object matching a preceding action word with a distractor object presented in the opposite location. Participants were faster in (...)
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  97.  1
    Deep-Learning-Based Multivariate Pattern Analysis (dMVPA): A Tutorial and a Toolbox.Karl M. Kuntzelman, Jacob M. Williams, Phui Cheng Lim, Ashok Samal, Prahalada K. Rao & Matthew R. Johnson - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis has been hugely beneficial for cognitive neuroscience by making new experiment designs possible and by increasing the inferential power of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and other neuroimaging methodologies. In a similar time frame, “deep learning” has produced a parallel revolution in the field of machine learning and has been employed across a wide variety of applications. Traditional MVPA also uses a form of machine learning, but most commonly with much simpler techniques based on (...)
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  98. Subject-Independent Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Brain–Computer Interfaces Based on Convolutional Neural Networks.Jinuk Kwon & Chang-Hwan Im - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy has attracted increasing attention in the field of brain–computer interfaces owing to their advantages such as non-invasiveness, user safety, affordability, and portability. However, fNIRS signals are highly subject-specific and have low test-retest reliability. Therefore, individual calibration sessions need to be employed before each use of fNIRS-based BCI to achieve a sufficiently high performance for practical BCI applications. In this study, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network -based approach for implementing a subject-independent fNIRS-based BCI. A total (...)
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  99.  1
    “Mickey Mousing” in the Brain: Motion-Sound Synesthesia and the Subcortical Substrate of Audio-Visual Integration.Bruno Laeng, Camilla Barthel Flaaten, Kjersti Maehlum Walle, Anne Hochkeppler & Karsten Specht - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Motion-sound synesthesia is characterized by illusory auditory sensations linked to the pattern and rhythms of motion of visually experienced but soundless object, like an optical flow array, a ball bouncing or a horse galloping. In an MRI study with a group of three synesthetes and a group of eighteen control participants, we found structural changes in the brains of synesthetes in the subcortical multisensory areas of the superior and inferior colliculi. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed activity in (...)
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  100. Combining Observation and Physical Practice: Benefits of an Interleaved Schedule for Visuomotor Adaptation and Motor Memory Consolidation.Beverley C. Larssen, Daniel K. Ho, Sarah N. Kraeutner & Nicola J. Hodges - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Visuomotor adaptation to novel environments can occur via non-physical means, such as observation. Observation does not appear to activate the same implicit learning processes as physical practice, rather it appears to be more strategic in nature. However, there is evidence that interspersing observational practice with physical practice can benefit performance and memory consolidation either through the combined benefits of separate processes or through a change in processes activated during observation trials. To test these ideas, we asked people to practice aiming (...)
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  101.  1
    Vividness of Visual Imagery and Personality Impact Motor-Imagery Brain Computer Interfaces.Nikki Leeuwis, Alissa Paas & Maryam Alimardani - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Brain-computer interfaces are communication bridges between a human brain and external world, enabling humans to interact with their environment without muscle intervention. Their functionality, therefore, depends on both the BCI system and the cognitive capacities of the user. Motor-imagery BCIs rely on the users’ mental imagination of body movements. However, not all users have the ability to sufficiently modulate their brain activity for control of a MI-BCI; a problem known as BCI illiteracy or inefficiency. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon (...)
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  102.  1
    Altered Inhibitory Mechanisms in Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence From Lexical Decision and Simple Reaction Time Tasks.Alban Letanneux, Jean-Luc Velay, François Viallet & Serge Pinto - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    IntroductionAlthough the motor signs of Parkinson’s disease are well defined, nonmotor symptoms, including higher-level language deficits, have also been shown to be frequent in patients with PD. In the present study, we used a lexical decision task to find out whether access to the mental lexicon is impaired in patients with PD, and whether task performance is affected by bradykinesia.Materials and MethodsParticipants were 34 nondemented patients with PD, either without medication or under optimum medication. A total of 19 age-matched control (...)
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  103.  1
    Intraoperative Characterization of Subthalamic Nucleus-to-Cortex Evoked Potentials in Parkinson’s Disease Deep Brain Stimulation.Lila H. Levinson, David J. Caldwell, Jeneva A. Cronin, Brady Houston, Steve I. Perlmutter, Kurt E. Weaver, Jeffrey A. Herron, Jeffrey G. Ojemann & Andrew L. Ko - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is a clinically effective tool for treating medically refractory Parkinson’s disease, but its neural mechanisms remain debated. Previous work has demonstrated that STN DBS results in evoked potentials in the primary motor cortex, suggesting that modulation of cortical physiology may be involved in its therapeutic effects. Due to technical challenges presented by high-amplitude DBS artifacts, these EPs are often measured in response to low-frequency stimulation, which is generally ineffective at PD symptom management. This (...)
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  104.  1
    The Developmental Origins of Opioid Use Disorder and Its Comorbidities.Sophia C. Levis, Stephen V. Mahler & Tallie Z. Baram - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Opioid use disorder rarely presents as a unitary psychiatric condition, and the comorbid symptoms likely depend upon the diverse risk factors and mechanisms by which OUD can arise. These factors are heterogeneous and include genetic predisposition, exposure to prescription opioids, and environmental risks. Crucially, one key environmental risk factor for OUD is early life adversity. OUD and other substance use disorders are widely considered to derive in part from abnormal reward circuit function, which is likely also implicated in comorbid mental (...)
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  105. Learned Overweight Internal Model Can Be Activated to Maintain Equilibrium When Tactile Cues Are Uncertain: Evidence From Cortical and Behavioral Approaches.Olivia Lhomond, Benjamin Juan, Theo Fornerone, Marion Cossin, Dany Paleressompoulle, François Prince & Laurence Mouchnino - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Human adaptive behavior in sensorimotor control is aimed to increase the confidence in feedforward mechanisms when sensory afferents are uncertain. It is thought that these feedforward mechanisms rely on predictions from internal models. We investigate whether the brain uses an internal model of physical laws to help estimate body equilibrium when tactile inputs from the foot sole are depressed by carrying extra weight. As direct experimental evidence for such a model is limited, we used Judoka athletes thought to have built (...)
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  106. Negative Effects of Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency on Spontaneous Brain Microstates: Evidence From Resting-State EEG.Hao Li, Jingyi Yue, Yufeng Wang, Feng Zou, Meng Zhang & Xin Wu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The prevalence of mobile phone addiction has increased rapidly in recent years, and it has had a certain negative impact on emotions and cognitive capacities. At the level of neural circuits, the continued increase in activity in the brain regions associated with addiction leads to neural adaptations and structural changes. At present, the spontaneous brain microstates that could be negatively influenced by MPA are unclear. In this study, the temporal characteristics of four resting-state electroencephalogram microstates related to mobile phone addiction (...)
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  107.  1
    MindLink-Eumpy: An Open-Source Python Toolbox for Multimodal Emotion Recognition.Ruixin Li, Yan Liang, Xiaojian Liu, Bingbing Wang, Wenxin Huang, Zhaoxin Cai, Yaoguang Ye, Lina Qiu & Jiahui Pan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Emotion recognition plays an important role in intelligent human–computer interaction, but the related research still faces the problems of low accuracy and subject dependence. In this paper, an open-source software toolbox called MindLink-Eumpy is developed to recognize emotions by integrating electroencephalogram and facial expression information. MindLink-Eumpy first applies a series of tools to automatically obtain physiological data from subjects and then analyzes the obtained facial expression data and EEG data, respectively, and finally fuses the two different signals at a decision (...)
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  108. Neural Mechanisms of Reward-by-Cueing Interactions: ERP Evidence.Xian Li, Meichen Zhang, Lulu Wu, Qin Zhang & Ping Wei - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Inhibition of return refers to the phenomenon that a person is slower to respond to targets at a previously cued location. The present study aimed to explore whether target-reward association is subject to IOR, using event-related potentials to explore the underlying neural mechanism. Each participant performed a localization task and a color discrimination task in an exogenous cueing paradigm, with the targets presented in colors previously associated with high- or low-reward probability. The results of both tasks revealed that the N1, (...)
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  109.  5
    Common and Specific Alterations of Amygdala Subregions in Major Depressive Disorder With and Without Anxiety: A Combined Structural and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.Yao Yao Li, Xiao Kang Ni, Ya Feng You, Yan hua Qing, Pei Rong Wang, Jia shu Yao, Ke Ming Ren, Lei Zhang, Zhi wei Liu, Tie jun Song, Jinhui Wang, Yu-Feng Zang, Yue di Shen & Wei Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Anxious major depressive disorder is a common subtype of major depressive disorder; however, its unique neural mechanism is not well-understood currently. Using multimodal MRI data, this study examined common and specific alterations of amygdala subregions between patients with and without anxiety. No alterations were observed in the gray matter volume or intra-region functional integration in either patient group. Compared with the controls, both patient groups showed decreased functional connectivity between the left superficial amygdala and the left putamen, and between the (...)
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  110. Optimal Model Mapping for Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MRI.Yen-Peng Liao, Shin-Ichi Urayama, Tadashi Isa & Hidenao Fukuyama - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In general, only one diffusion model would be applied to whole field-of-view voxels in the intravoxel incoherent motion-magnetic resonance imaging study. However, the choice of the applied diffusion model can significantly influence the estimated diffusion parameters. The quality of the diffusion analysis can influence the reliability of the perfusion analysis. This study proposed an optimal model mapping method to improve the reliability of the perfusion parameter estimation in the IVIM study. Six healthy volunteers. Volunteers were examined using a 3.0 Tesla (...)
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  111. Enlarged Area of Mesencephalic Iron Deposits in Adults Who Stutter.Jan Liman, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Mathias Baehr, Walter Paulus, Nicole E. Neef & Martin Sommer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    PurposeChildhood onset speech fluency disorder is possibly related to dopaminergic dysfunction. Mesencephalic hyperechogenicity detected by transcranial ultrasound might be seen as an indirect marker of dopaminergic dysfunction. We here determined whether adults who stutter since childhood show ME.MethodsWe performed TCS in ten AWS and ten matched adults who never stuttered. We also assessed motor performance in finger tapping and in the 25 Foot Walking test.ResultsCompared to controls, AWS showed enlarged ME on either side. Finger tapping was slower in AWS. Walking (...)
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  112.  2
    Revisiting the L-Dopa Response as a Predictor of Motor Outcomes After Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease.Zhengyu Lin, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Linbin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Haiyan Zhou, Qingfang Sun, Bomin Sun, Peng Huang & Dianyou Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between preoperative response to the L-dopa challenge test and efficacy of deep brain stimulation on motor function in Parkinson’s disease.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 38 patients with idiopathic PD who underwent DBS surgery with a median follow-up duration of 7 months. Twenty underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna DBS, and 18 underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS. The Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Part was assessed before surgery and at the last follow-up (...)
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  113. Theory of Mind and Its Elusive Structural Substrate.Fernando Lizcano-Cortés, Jalil Rasgado-Toledo, Averi Giudicessi & Magda Giordano - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Is brain structure related to function? Can one predict the other? These are questions that are still waiting to be answered definitively. In this paper we seek to investigate these questions, in particular, we are interested in the relation between brain structure and theory of mind. ToM is defined as the ability to attribute mental states to others. Previous studies have observed correlations between performance on ToM tasks, and gray-matter size/volume in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction and precuneus. Despite these (...)
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  114. EEG Correlates of Long-Distance Dependency Formation in Mandarin Wh-Questions.Chia-Wen Lo & Jonathan R. Brennan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Event-related potential components are sensitive to the processes underlying how questions are understood. We use so-called “covert” wh-questions in Mandarin to probe how such components generalize across different kinds of constructions. This study shows that covert Mandarin wh-questions do not elicit anterior negativities associated with memory maintenance, even when such a dependency is unambiguously cued. N = 37 native speakers of Mandarin Chinese read Chinese questions and declarative sentences word-by-word during EEG recording. In contrast to prior studies, no sustained anterior (...)
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  115.  1
    Sex Differences in Re-Experiencing Symptoms Between Husbands and Wives Who Lost Their Only Child in China: A Resting-State Functional Connectivity Study of Hippocampal Subfields.Yifeng Luo, Yu Liu, Zhao Qing, Li Zhang, Yifei Weng, Xiaojie Zhang, Hairong Shan, Lingjiang Li, Rongfeng Qi, Zhihong Cao & Guangming Lu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Losing one’s only child may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder, of which re-experiencing is the core symptom. However, neuroimaging studies of sex differences in re-experiencing in the context of the trauma of losing one’s only child and PTSD are scarce; comparisons of the functional networks from the hippocampal subfields to the thalamus might clarify the neural basis.Methods: Thirty couples without any psychiatric disorder who lost their only child, 55 patients with PTSD, and 50 normal controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic (...)
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  116. A Novel Recurrent Neural Network to Classify EEG Signals for Customers' Decision-Making Behavior Prediction in Brand Extension Scenario.Qingguo Ma, Manlin Wang, Linfeng Hu, Linanzi Zhang & Zhongling Hua - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    It was meaningful to predict the customers' decision-making behavior in the field of market. However, due to individual differences and complex, non-linear natures of the electroencephalogram signals, it was hard to classify the EEG signals and to predict customers' decisions by using traditional classification methods. To solve the aforementioned problems, a recurrent t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding neural network was proposed in current study to classify the EEG signals in the designed brand extension paradigm and to predict the participants' decisions. The (...)
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  117. Remedial Training of the Less-Impaired Arm in Chronic Stroke Survivors With Moderate to Severe Upper-Extremity Paresis Improves Functional Independence: A Pilot Study.Candice Maenza, David A. Wagstaff, Rini Varghese, Carolee Winstein, David C. Good & Robert L. Sainburg - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The ipsilesional arm of stroke patients often has functionally limiting deficits in motor control and dexterity that depend on the side of the brain that is lesioned and that increase with the severity of paretic arm impairment. However, remediation of the ipsilesional arm has yet to be integrated into the usual standard of care for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke, largely due to a lack of translational research examining the effects of ipsilesional-arm intervention. We now ask whether ipsilesional-arm training, tailored (...)
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  118.  2
    Global Variability in Deep Brain Stimulation Practices for Parkinson’s Disease.Abhimanyu Mahajan, Ankur Butala, Michael S. Okun, Zoltan Mari & Kelly A. Mills - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    IntroductionDeep brain stimulation has become a standard treatment option for select patients with Parkinson’s disease. The selection process and surgical procedures employed have, to date, not been standardized.MethodsA comprehensive 58-question web-based survey was developed with a focus on DBS referral practices and peri-operative management. The survey was distributed to the Parkinson’s Foundation Centers of Excellence, members of the International Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Society, and the Parkinson Study Group between December 2015 and May 2016.ResultsThere were 207 individual respondents drawn (...)
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  119.  5
    Neural Correlates of Long-Term Memory Enhancement Following Retrieval Practice.Eugenia Marin-Garcia, Aaron T. Mattfeld & John D. E. Gabrieli - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Retrieval practice, relative to further study, leads to long-term memory enhancement known as the “testing effect.” The neurobiological correlates of the testing effect at retrieval, when the learning benefits of testing are expressed, have not been fully characterized. Participants learned Swahili-English word-pairs and were assigned randomly to either the Study-Group or the Test-Group. After a week delay, all participants completed a cued-recall test while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Test-Group had superior memory for the word-pairs compared to the Study-Group. (...)
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  120.  2
    A Systematic Review on the Effect of Transcranial Direct Current and Magnetic Stimulation on Fear Memory and Extinction.Vuk Marković, Carmelo M. Vicario, Fatemeh Yavari, Mohammad A. Salehinejad & Michael A. Nitsche - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. Present treatments such as cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacological treatments show only moderate success, which emphasizes the importance for the development of new treatment protocols. Non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation have been probed as therapeutic option for anxiety disorders in recent years. Mechanistic information about their mode of action, and most efficient protocols is however limited. Here the fear extinction model can (...)
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  121.  2
    A Study on the Effect of Mental Practice Using Motor Evoked Potential-Based Neurofeedback.Daiki Matsuda, Takefumi Moriuchi, Yuta Ikio, Wataru Mitsunaga, Kengo Fujiwara, Moemi Matsuo, Jiro Nakamura, Tomotaka Suzuki, Kenichi Sugawara & Toshio Higashi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of mental practice can be enhanced by providing neurofeedback based on transcranial magnetic stimulation -induced motor evoked potentials. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed subjects were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: a group that was given correct TMS feedback and a group that was given randomized false TMS feedback. The subjects imagined pushing the switch with just timing, when the target circle overlapped a cross at the center of (...)
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  122.  1
    No Impact of Stochastic Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation on Arterial Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in the Elderly Population.Akiyoshi Matsugi, Koji Nagino, Tomoyuki Shiozaki, Yohei Okada, Nobuhiko Mori, Junji Nakamura, Shinya Douchi, Kosuke Oku, Kiyoshi Nagano & Yoshiki Tamaru - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    ObjectiveNoisy galvanic vestibular stimulation is often used to improve postural stability in disorders, such as neurorehabilitation montage. For the safe use of nGVS, we investigated whether arterial pressure and heart rate vary during static supine and slow whole-body tilt with random nGVS in a healthy elderly population.MethodsThis study was conducted with a double-blind, sham-controlled, cross-over design. Seventeen healthy older adults were recruited. They were asked to maintain a static supine position on a bed for 10 min, and the bed was (...)
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  123.  2
    Excitability of the Ipsilateral Primary Motor Cortex During Unilateral Goal-Directed Movement.Takuya Matsumoto, Tatsunori Watanabe, Takayuki Kuwabara, Keisuke Yunoki, Xiaoxiao Chen, Nami Kubo & Hikari Kirimoto - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    IntroductionPrevious transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have revealed that the activity of the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to an active hand plays an important role in motor control. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ipsi-M1 excitability would be influenced by goal-directed movement and laterality during unilateral finger movements.MethodTen healthy right-handed subjects performed four finger tapping tasks with the index finger: simple tapping task, Real-word task, Pseudoword task, and Visually guided tapping task. In the Tap task, the subject (...)
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  124. Evoked Potentials Differentiate Developmental Coordination Disorder From Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Stop-Signal Task: A Pilot Study.Emily J. Meachon, Marcel Meyer, Kate Wilmut, Martina Zemp & Georg W. Alpers - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are unique neurodevelopmental disorders with overlaps in executive functions and motor control. The conditions co-occur in up to 50% of cases, raising questions of the pathological mechanisms of DCD versus ADHD. Few studies have examined these overlaps in adults with DCD and/or ADHD. Therefore, to provide insights about executive functions and motor control between adults with DCD, ADHD, both conditions, or typically developed controls, this study used a stop-signal task and parallel EEG measurement. We (...)
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  125.  2
    Asymmetric Influence of Vocalic Context on Mandarin Sibilants: Evidence From ERP Studies.Yaxuan Meng, Sandra Kotzor, Chenzi Xu, Hilary S. Z. Wynne & Aditi Lahiri - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In the present study, we examine the interactive effect of vowels on Mandarin fricative sibilants using a passive oddball paradigm to determine whether the HEIGHT features of vowels can spread on the surface and influence preceding consonants with unspecified features. The stimuli are two pairs of Mandarin words contrasting in vowel HEIGHT. Each word in the same pair was presented both as standard and deviant, resulting in four conditions. In line with the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon model, asymmetric patterns of processing (...)
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  126. Changes in Patients’ Desired Control of Their Deep Brain Stimulation and Subjective Global Control Over the Course of Deep Brain Stimulation.Amanda R. Merner, Thomas Frazier, Paul J. Ford, Scott E. Cooper, Andre Machado, Brittany Lapin, Jerrold Vitek & Cynthia S. Kubu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Objective: To examine changes in patients’ desired control of the deep brain stimulator and perception of global life control throughout DBS.Methods: A consecutive cohort of 52 patients with Parkinson’s disease was recruited to participate in a prospective longitudinal study over three assessment points. Semi-structured interviews assessing participants’ desire for stimulation control and perception of global control were conducted at all three points. Qualitative data were coded using content analysis. Visual analog scales were embedded in the interviews to quantify participants’ perceptions (...)
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  127. Object-Location Memory Training in Older Adults Leads to Greater Deactivation of the Dorsal Default Mode Network.Ania Mikos, Brigitta Malagurski, Franziskus Liem, Susan Mérillat & Lutz Jäncke - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Substantial evidence indicates that cognitive training can be efficacious for older adults, but findings regarding training-related brain plasticity have been mixed and vary depending on the imaging modality. Recent years have seen a growth in recognition of the importance of large-scale brain networks on cognition. In particular, task-induced deactivation within the default mode network is thought to facilitate externally directed cognition, while aging-related decrements in this neural process are related to reduced cognitive performance. It is not yet clear whether task-induced (...)
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  128.  8
    What to Expect When the Unexpected Becomes Expected: Harmonic Surprise and Preference Over Time in Popular Music.Scott A. Miles, David S. Rosen, Shaun Barry, David Grunberg & Norberto Grzywacz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Previous work demonstrates that music with more surprising chords tends to be perceived as more enjoyable than music with more conventional harmonic structures. In that work, harmonic surprise was computed based upon a static distribution of chords. This would assume that harmonic surprise is constant over time, and the effect of harmonic surprise on music preference is similarly static. In this study we assess that assumption and establish that the relationship between harmonic surprise and music preference is not constant as (...)
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  129.  1
    Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation to Treat Medication-Refractory Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease.Rene Molina, Chris J. Hass, Stephanie Cernera, Kristen Sowalsky, Abigail C. Schmitt, Jaimie A. Roper, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Enrico Opri, Christopher W. Hess, Robert S. Eisinger, Kelly D. Foote, Aysegul Gunduz & Michael S. Okun - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Treating medication-refractory freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease remains challenging despite several trials reporting improvements in motor symptoms using subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation. Pedunculopontine nucleus region DBS has been used for medication-refractory FoG, with mixed findings. FoG, as a paroxysmal phenomenon, provides an ideal framework for the possibility of closed-loop DBS.Methods: In this clinical trial, five subjects with medication-refractory FoG underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation to address levodopa-responsive PD symptoms with open-loop stimulation. Additionally, PPN (...)
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  130. The Neural Correlates of Cued Reward Omission.Jessica A. Mollick, Luke J. Chang, Anjali Krishnan, Thomas E. Hazy, Kai A. Krueger, Guido K. W. Frank, Tor D. Wager & Randall C. O’Reilly - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Compared to our understanding of positive prediction error signals occurring due to unexpected reward outcomes, less is known about the neural circuitry in humans that drives negative prediction errors during omission of expected rewards. While classical learning theories such as Rescorla–Wagner or temporal difference learning suggest that both types of prediction errors result from a simple subtraction, there has been recent evidence suggesting that different brain regions provide input to dopamine neurons which contributes to specific components of this prediction error (...)
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  131. Examining Different Motor Learning Paradigms for Improving Balance Recovery Abilities Among Older Adults, Random Vs. Block Training—Study Protocol of a Randomized Non-Inferiority Controlled Trial.Hadas Nachmani, Inbal Paran, Moti Salti, Ilan Shelef & Itshak Melzer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Introduction: Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among older adults. Studies showed that older adults can reduce the risk of falls after participation in an unexpected perturbation-based balance training, a relatively novel approach that challenged reactive balance control. This study aims to investigate the effect of the practice schedule on reactive balance function and its transfer to proactive balance function. Our primary hypothesis is that improvements in reactive balance control following block PBBT will be not inferior (...)
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  132. Age-Related Differences in Strategy in the Hand Mental Rotation Task.Izumi Nagashima, Kotaro Takeda, Yusuke Harada, Hideki Mochizuki & Nobuaki Shimoda - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Mental imagery of movement is a potentially valuable rehabilitation task, but its therapeutic efficacy may depend on the specific cognitive strategy employed. Individuals use two main strategies to perform the hand mental rotation task, which involves determining whether a visual image depicts a left or right hand. One is the motor imagery strategy, which involves mentally simulating one’s own hand movements. In this case, task performance as measured by response time is subject to a medial–lateral effect wherein the RT is (...)
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  133. Preserving Right Pre-Motor and Posterior Prefrontal Cortices Contribute to Maintaining Overall Basic Emotion.Riho Nakajima, Masashi Kinoshita, Hirokazu Okita, Zhanwen Liu & Mitsutoshi Nakada - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, and anger are universal, regardless of the human species, and are governed by specific brain regions. A recent report revealed that mentalizing, which is the ability to estimate other individuals’ emotional states via facial expressions, can be preserved with the help of awake surgery. However, it is still questionable whether we can maintain the ability to understand others’ emotions by preserving the positive mapping sites of intraoperative assessment. Here, we demonstrated the cortical regions related (...)
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  134. Operation-Specific Lexical Consistency Effect in Fronto-Insular-Parietal Network During Word Problem Solving.Chan-Tat Ng, Tzu-Chen Lung & Ting-Ting Chang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The practice of mathematical word problem is ubiquitous and thought to impact academic achievement. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate how lexical consistency of word problem description is modulated in adults' brain responses during word problem solution. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, we examined compare word problems that included relational statements, such as “A dumpling costs 9 dollars. A wonton is 2 dollars less than a dumpling. How much does a wonton (...)
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  135. No Impact of Cerebellar Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation at Three Different Timings on Motor Learning in a Sequential Finger-Tapping Task.Carine Nguemeni, Annika Stiehl, Shawn Hiew & Daniel Zeller - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Recently, attention has grown toward cerebellar neuromodulation in motor learning using transcranial direct current stimulation. An important point of discussion regarding this modulation is the optimal timing of tDCS, as this parameter could significantly influence the outcome. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effects of the timing of cerebellar anodal tDCS on motor learning using a sequential finger-tapping task.Methods: One hundred and twenty two healthy young, right-handed subjects were randomized into four groups. They performed 2 days of FTT (...)
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  136. Tremor-Suppression Orthoses for the Upper Limb: Current Developments and Future Challenges.Hoai Son Nguyen & Trieu Phat Luu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Introduction: Pathological tremor is the most common motor disorder in adults and characterized by involuntary, rhythmic muscular contraction leading to shaking movements in one or more parts of the body. Functional Electrical Stimulation and biomechanical loading using wearable orthoses have emerged as effective and non-invasive methods for tremor suppression. A variety of upper-limb orthoses for tremor suppression have been introduced; however, a systematic review of the mechanical design, algorithms for tremor extraction, and the experimental design is still missing.Methods: To address (...)
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  137.  1
    To Go or Not to Go: Degrees of Dynamic Inhibitory Control Revealed by the Function of Grip Force and Early Electrophysiological Indices.Trung Van Nguyen, Che-Yi Hsu, Satish Jaiswal, Neil G. Muggleton, Wei-Kuang Liang & Chi-Hung Juan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A critical issue in executive control is how the nervous system exerts flexibility to inhibit a prepotent response and adapt to sudden changes in the environment. In this study, force measurement was used to capture “partial” unsuccessful trials that are highly relevant in extending the current understanding of motor inhibition processing. Moreover, a modified version of the stop-signal task was used to control and eliminate potential attentional capture effects from the motor inhibition index. The results illustrate that the non-canceled force (...)
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  138.  2
    Dissociating Sensorimotor Recovery and Compensation During Exoskeleton Training Following Stroke.Nadir Nibras, Chang Liu, Denis Mottet, Chunji Wang, David Reinkensmeyer, Olivier Remy-Neris, Isabelle Laffont & Nicolas Schweighofer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The quality of arm movements typically improves in the sub-acute phase of stroke affecting the upper extremity. Here, we used whole arm kinematic analysis during reaching movements to distinguish whether these improvements are due to true recovery or to compensation. Fifty-three participants with post-acute stroke performed ∼80 reaching movement tests during 4 weeks of training with the ArmeoSpring exoskeleton. All participants showed improvements in end-effector performance, as measured by movement smoothness. Four ArmeoSpring angles, shoulder horizontal rotation, shoulder elevation, elbow rotation, (...)
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  139. Frequency- and Area-Specific Phase Entrainment of Intrinsic Cortical Oscillations by Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.Yuka O. Okazaki, Yumi Nakagawa, Yuji Mizuno, Takashi Hanakawa & Keiichi Kitajo - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Synchronous oscillations are ubiquitous throughout the cortex, but the frequency of oscillations differs from area to area. To elucidate the mechanistic architectures underlying various rhythmic activities, we tested whether spontaneous neural oscillations in different local cortical areas and large-scale networks can be phase-entrained by direct perturbation with distinct frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. While recording the electroencephalogram, we applied single-pulse TMS and rTMS at 5, 11, and 23 Hz over the motor or visual cortex. We assessed local and global (...)
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  140. Predicting Student Performance Using Machine Learning in fNIRS Data.Amanda Yumi Ambriola Oku & João Ricardo Sato - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Increasing student involvement in classes has always been a challenge for teachers and school managers. In online learning, some interactivity mechanisms like quizzes are increasingly used to engage students during classes and tasks. However, there is a high demand for tools that evaluate the efficiency of these mechanisms. In order to distinguish between high and low levels of engagement in tasks, it is possible to monitor brain activity through functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The main advantages of this technique are portability, low (...)
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  141. Modulatory Effects of Prediction Accuracy on Electroencephalographic Brain Activity During Prediction.Kentaro Ono, Junya Hashimoto, Ryosuke Hiramoto, Takafumi Sasaoka & Shigeto Yamawaki - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Prediction is essential for the efficiency of many cognitive processes; however, this process is not always perfect. Predictive coding theory suggests that the brain generates and updates a prediction to respond to an upcoming event. Although an electrophysiological index of prediction, the stimulus preceding negativity, has been reported, it remains unknown whether the SPN reflects the prediction accuracy, or whether it is associated with the prediction error, which corresponds to a mismatch between a prediction and an actual input. Thus, the (...)
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  142.  1
    Case Report: Chemotherapy Indication in a Case of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Presenting Optic Pathway Glioma: A One-Year Clinical Case Study Using Differential Tractography Approach.Amir Mohammad Pajavand, Guive Sharifi, Amir Anvari, Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Mohammad A. Shamsi, Saeedeh Nateghinia & Tohid Emami Meybodi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with peripheral and central nervous system tumors. It is noteworthy that the regions in which these tumors frequently arise are the optic pathways and the brainstem. Thus, we decided to trace the procedure of diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging alterations along with Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry examinations of the OPs after surgery and chemotherapy over 1 year, which enabled us to evaluate chemotherapy's efficacy in an NF1 patient with an OP tumor. In this study, a 25-year-old woman (...)
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  143. Increase in Beta Power Reflects Attentional Top-Down Modulation After Psychosocial Stress Induction.Ismael Palacios-García, Jaime Silva, Mario Villena-González, Germán Campos-Arteaga, Claudio Artigas-Vergara, Nicolas Luarte, Eugenio Rodríguez & Conrado A. Bosman - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Selective attention depends on goal-directed and stimulus-driven modulatory factors, each relayed by different brain rhythms. Under certain circumstances, stress-related states can change the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-driven factors. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. In this study, we explored how psychosocial stress can modulate brain rhythms during an attentional task and a task-free period. We recorded the EEG and ECG activity of 42 healthy participants subjected to either the Trier Social Stress Test, a controlled procedure to (...)
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  144. Data Augmentation: Using Channel-Level Recombination to Improve Classification Performance for Motor Imagery EEG.Yu Pei, Zhiguo Luo, Ye Yan, Huijiong Yan, Jing Jiang, Weiguo Li, Liang Xie & Erwei Yin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The quality and quantity of training data are crucial to the performance of a deep-learning-based brain-computer interface system. However, it is not practical to record EEG data over several long calibration sessions. A promising time- and cost-efficient solution is artificial data generation or data augmentation. Here, we proposed a DA method for the motor imagery EEG signal called brain-area-recombination. For the BAR, each sample was first separated into two ones by left/right brain channels, and the artificial samples were generated by (...)
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  145.  4
    Individual Magnetoencephalography Response Profiles to Short-Duration L-Dopa in Parkinson’s Disease.Edgar Peña, Tareq M. Mohammad, Fedaa Almohammed, Tahani AlOtaibi, Shahpar Nahrir, Sheraz Khan, Vahe Poghosyan, Matthew D. Johnson & Jawad A. Bajwa - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Clinical responses to dopamine replacement therapy for individuals with Parkinson’s disease are often difficult to predict. We characterized changes in MDS-UPDRS motor factor scores resulting from a short-duration L-Dopa response, and investigated how the inter-subject clinical differences could be predicted from motor cortical magnetoencephalography. MDS-UPDRS motor factor scores and resting-state MEG recordings were collected during SDR from twenty individuals with a PD diagnosis. We used a novel subject-specific strategy based on linear support vector machines to quantify motor cortical oscillatory frequency (...)
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  146.  3
    Right Temporoparietal Junction Plays a Role in the Modulation of Emotional Mimicry by Group Membership.Shenli Peng, Beibei Kuang, Ling Zhang & Ping Hu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Our prior research demonstrated that the right temporoparietal junction exerted a modulatory role in ingroup bias in emotional mimicry. In this study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether the rTPJ is a neural region for emotional mimicry or for the modulation of emotional mimicry by group membership in a sham-controlled, double-blinded, between-subject design. Both experiments employed non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation to temporarily change the cortical excitability over the rTPJ and facial electromyography to measure facial muscle activations as (...)
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  147.  2
    The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Scalp Event-Related Potentials: A Systematic Review.Hiran Perera-W. A., Khazriyati Salehuddin, Rozainee Khairudin & Alexandre Schaefer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Several decades of behavioral research have established that variations in socioeconomic status are related to differences in cognitive performance. Neuroimaging and psychophysiological techniques have recently emerged as a method of choice to better understand the neurobiological processes underlying this phenomenon. Here we present a systematic review of a particular sub-domain of this field. Specifically, we used the PICOS approach to review studies investigating potential relationships between SES and scalp event-related brain potentials. This review found evidence that SES is related to (...)
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  148. Effect of Repetitive Passive Movement Before Motor Skill Training on Corticospinal Excitability and Motor Learning Depend on BDNF Polymorphisms.Manh Van Pham, Shota Miyaguchi, Hiraku Watanabe, Kei Saito, Naofumi Otsuru & Hideaki Onishi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A decrease in cortical excitability tends to be easily followed by an increase induced by external stimuli via a mechanism aimed at restoring it; this phenomenon is called “homeostatic plasticity.” In recent years, although intervention methods aimed at promoting motor learning using this phenomenon have been studied, an optimal intervention method has not been established. In the present study, we examined whether subsequent motor learning can be promoted further by a repetitive passive movement, which reduces the excitability of the primary (...)
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  149.  2
    Stable Anatomy Detection in Multimodal Imaging Through Sparse Group Regularization: A Comparative Study of Iron Accumulation in the Aging Brain.Matthew Pietrosanu, Li Zhang, Peter Seres, Ahmed Elkady, Alan H. Wilman, Linglong Kong & Dana Cobzas - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Multimodal neuroimaging provides a rich source of data for identifying brain regions associated with disease progression and aging. However, present studies still typically analyze modalities separately or aggregate voxel-wise measurements and analyses to the structural level, thus reducing statistical power. As a central example, previous works have used two quantitative MRI parameters—R2* and quantitative susceptibility —to study changes in iron associated with aging in healthy and multiple sclerosis subjects, but failed to simultaneously account for both. In this article, we propose (...)
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  150. Brain-Machine Interfaces to Assist the Blind.Maurice Ptito, Maxime Bleau, Ismaël Djerourou, Samuel Paré, Fabien C. Schneider & Daniel-Robert Chebat - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The loss or absence of vision is probably one of the most incapacitating events that can befall a human being. The importance of vision for humans is also reflected in brain anatomy as approximately one third of the human brain is devoted to vision. It is therefore unsurprising that throughout history many attempts have been undertaken to develop devices aiming at substituting for a missing visual capacity. In this review, we present two concepts that have been prevalent over the last (...)
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  151.  1
    Systematic Review of Fatigue in Individuals With Cerebral Palsy.Luca Puce, Ilaria Pallecchi, Karim Chamari, Lucio Marinelli, Tiziano Innocenti, Riccardo Pedrini, Laura Mori & Carlo Trompetto - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In this systematic review, we collected and analyzed literature works comparing self-reported fatigue and objectively-measured fatigue in individuals with cerebral palsy and in age-matched typically developing/typically developed controls. The search was conducted on four electronic databases/platforms using the key words “cerebral palsy” combined with “fatig*,” where the asterisk was used as a wildcard. As a critical appraisal tool, the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies was used. A total of 22 studies passed the critical appraisal rating and (...)
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  152.  5
    Functional Disconnection of the Angular Gyrus Related to Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.Fei Qi, Dongsheng Zhang, Jie Gao, Min Tang, Man Wang, Yu Su, Yumeng Lei, Zhirong Shao & Xiaoling Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is related to a variety of cognitive impairments that may even progress to dementia. Studies have found the angular gyrus is a cross-modal integration hub that is involved in a variety of cognitive processes. However, few studies have focused on the patterns of resting-state functional connections of the AG in patients with T2DM. This study explored the functional connection between the AG and the whole brain and the relationship between the FC and clinical/cognitive variables in patients (...)
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  153. Massive Cerebral Infarction Following Facial Injection of Autologous Fat: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.Huan Qian, Yuxiao Ling, Mengwen Zhang, Cameron Lenahan, Chen Wang, Zhe Zheng, Anwen Shao & Jianmin Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Facial fat grafting techniques often offer impressive surgical results. However, fatal complications, such as irreversible cerebral ischemia, blindness, and hemiplegia are associated with them. We have presented a case report of a patient who presented with a massive cerebral infarction, a serious complication of facial autologous fat injection. The patient was a 28-year-old female who experienced motor dysfunction of the left extremities, which was accompanied with loss of consciousness immediately following fat grafting for facial augmentation. Imaging studies suggested that the (...)
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  154. Can a Theater Acting Intervention Enhance Inhibitory Control in Older Adults? A Brain-Behavior Investigation.Aishwarya Rajesh, Tony Noice, Helga Noice, Andrew Jahn, Ana M. Daugherty, Wendy Heller & Arthur F. Kramer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Purpose: Studies of reactive and proactive modes of inhibitory control tend to show age-related declines and are accompanied by abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. We explored which mode of inhibitory control would be more amenable to change and accrue greater benefits following engagement in a 4-week theater acting intervention in older adults. These gains were evaluated by performance on the AX-CPT task. We hypothesized that an increase in proactive control would relate to an increase in AY errors and a decrease (...)
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  155. Asymmetries in Accessing Vowel Representations Are Driven by Phonological and Acoustic Properties: Neural and Behavioral Evidence From Natural German Minimal Pairs.Miriam Riedinger, Arne Nagels, Alexander Werth & Mathias Scharinger - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In vowel discrimination, commonly found discrimination patterns are directional asymmetries where discrimination is faster if differing vowels are presented in a certain sequence compared to the reversed sequence. Different models of speech sound processing try to account for these asymmetries based on either phonetic or phonological properties. In this study, we tested and compared two of those often-discussed models, namely the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon model and the Natural Referent Vowel framework. While most studies presented isolated vowels, we investigated a large (...)
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  156. Prognostic Factors and Models for Changes in Cognitive Performance After Multi-Domain Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review.Mandy Roheger, Hannah Liebermann-Jordanidis, Fabian Krohm, Anne Adams & Elke Kalbe - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Cognitive Training may contribute to the maintenance and even enhancement of cognitive functions in healthy older adults. However, the question who benefits most from multi-domain CTs is still highly under-investigated.Objective: The goal is to investigate prognostic factors and models for changes in cognitive test performance in healthy older adults after a multi-domain CT.Methods: The data bases MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, CENTRAL, and PsycInfo were searched up to July 2019. Studies investigating prognostic factors and/or models on cognitive outcomes (...)
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  157.  1
    Phase–Amplitude Coupling, Mental Health and Cognition: Implications for Adolescence.Dashiell D. Sacks, Paul E. Schwenn, Larisa T. McLoughlin, Jim Lagopoulos & Daniel F. Hermens - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Identifying biomarkers of developing mental disorder is crucial to improving early identification and treatment—a key strategy for reducing the burden of mental disorders. Cross-frequency coupling between two different frequencies of neural oscillations is one such promising measure, believed to reflect synchronization between local and global networks in the brain. Specifically, in adults phase–amplitude coupling has been shown to be involved in a range of cognitive processes, including working and long-term memory, attention, language, and fluid intelligence. Evidence suggests that increased PAC (...)
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  158.  1
    Multi-Modal Mapping of the Face Selective Ventral Temporal Cortex–A Group Study With Clinical Implications for ECS, ECoG, and fMRI.Takahiro Sanada, Christoph Kapeller, Michael Jordan, Johannes Grünwald, Takumi Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi Ogawa, Ryogo Anei & Christoph Guger - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Face recognition is impaired in patients with prosopagnosia, which may occur as a side effect of neurosurgical procedures. Face selective regions on the ventral temporal cortex have been localized with electrical cortical stimulation, electrocorticography, and functional magnetic resonance imagining. This is the first group study using within-patient comparisons to validate face selective regions mapping, utilizing the aforementioned modalities. Five patients underwent surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy and joined the study. Subdural grid electrodes were implanted on their ventral temporal cortices to (...)
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  159.  2
    Lost in Translation: Simple Steps in Experimental Design of Neurorehabilitation-Based Research Interventions to Promote Motor Recovery Post-Stroke.Natalia Sánchez & Carolee J. Winstein - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Stroke continues to be a leading cause of disability. Basic neurorehabilitation research is necessary to inform the neuropathophysiology of impaired motor control, and to develop targeted interventions with potential to remediate disability post-stroke. Despite knowledge gained from basic research studies, the effectiveness of research-based interventions for reducing motor impairment has been no greater than standard of practice interventions. In this perspective, we offer suggestions for overcoming translational barriers integral to experimental design, to augment traditional protocols, and re-route the rehabilitation trajectory (...)
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  160. Feeling Touched: Empathy Is Associated With Performance in a Tactile Acuity Task.Michael Schaefer, Marcel Joch & Nikolas Rother - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The concept of empathy describes our capacity to understand the emotions and intentions of others and to relate to our conspecifics. Numerous studies investigated empathy as a state as well as a stable personality trait. For example, recent studies in neuroscience suggest, among other brain areas such as the insula or the ACC, a role of the somatosensory cortices for empathy. Since the classic understanding of the primary somatosensory cortex is to represent touch on the body surface, we here aimed (...)
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  161.  5
    7T MRI and Computational Modeling Supports a Critical Role of Lead Location in Determining Outcomes for Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report.Lauren E. Schrock, Remi Patriat, Mojgan Goftari, Jiwon Kim, Matthew D. Johnson, Noam Harel & Jerrold L. Vitek - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation is an established therapy for Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms. The ideal site for implantation within STN, however, remains controversial. While many argue that placement of a DBS lead within the sensorimotor territory of the STN yields better motor outcomes, others report similar effects with leads placed in the associative or motor territory of the STN, while still others assert that placing a DBS lead “anywhere within a 6-mm-diameter cylinder centered at the presumed middle of the (...)
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  162. Case Report: Multimodal Functional and Structural Evaluation Combining Pre-Operative nTMS Mapping and Neuroimaging With Intraoperative CT-Scan and Brain Shift Correction for Brain Tumor Surgical Resection.Suhan Senova, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Pierre Brugières, Samar S. Ayache, Sanaa Tazi, Blanche Bapst, Kou Abhay, Olivier Langeron, Kohtaroh Edakawa, Stéphane Palfi & Benjamin Bardel - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Maximum safe resection of infiltrative brain tumors in eloquent area is the primary objective in surgical neuro-oncology. This goal can be achieved with direct electrical stimulation to perform a functional mapping of the brain in patients awake intraoperatively. When awake surgery is not possible, we propose a pipeline procedure that combines advanced techniques aiming at performing a dissection that respects the anatomo-functional connectivity of the peritumoral region. This procedure can benefit from intraoperative monitoring with computerized tomography scan and brain (...)
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  163.  1
    The Brain Alteration of Seafarer Revealed by Activated Functional Connectivity Mode in fMRI Data Analysis.Yuhu Shi, Weiming Zeng & Nizhuan Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    As a special occupational group, the working and living environments faced by seafarers are greatly different from those of land. It is easy to affect the psychological and physiological activities of seafarers, which inevitably lead to changes in the brain functional activities of seafarers. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the neural activity rules of seafarers’ brain. In view of this, this paper studied the seafarers’ brain alteration at the activated voxel level based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (...)
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  164. Language Familiarity and Proficiency Leads to Differential Cortical Processing During Translation Between Distantly Related Languages.Katsumasa Shinozuka, Kiyomitsu Niioka, Tatsuya Tokuda, Yasushi Kyutoku, Koki Okuno, Tomoki Takahashi & Ippeita Dan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In the midst of globalization, English is regarded as an international language, or Lingua Franca, but learning it as a second language remains still difficult to speakers of other languages. This is true especially for the speakers of languages distantly related to English such as Japanese. In this sense, exploring neural basis for translation between the first language and L2 is of great interest. There have been relatively many previous researches revealing brain activation patterns during translations between L1 and English (...)
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  165.  2
    Electroencephalography as a Biomarker for Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury Patients.Marcel Simis, Deniz Doruk Camsari, Marta Imamura, Thais Raquel Martins Filippo, Daniel Rubio De Souza, Linamara Rizzo Battistella & Felipe Fregni - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundFunctional changes after spinal cord injury are related to changes in cortical plasticity. These changes can be measured with electroencephalography and has potential to be used as a clinical biomarker.MethodIn this longitudinal study participants underwent a total of 30 sessions of robotic-assisted gait training over a course of 6 weeks. The duration of each session was 30 min. Resting state EEG was recorded before and after 30-session rehabilitation therapy. To measure gait, we used the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (...)
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  166. Advancements in the Protocol for Rate of Force Development/Relaxation Scaling Factor Evaluation.Darjan Smajla, Jure Žitnik & Nejc Šarabon - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Brief submaximal actions are important for wide range of functional movements. Until now, rate of force development and relaxation scaling factor have been used for neuromuscular assessment using 100–120 isometric pulses which requires a high level of attention from the participant and may be influenced by physiological and/or psychological fatigue. All previous studies have been conducted on a smaller number of participants which calls into question the eligibility of some of the outcome measures reported to date. Our aims were: to (...)
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  167. Neural Signatures of Performance Feedback in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): An ERP Study.Anja Sommer, Lukas Ecker & Christian Plewnia - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Research on cognitive control has sparked increasing interest in recent years, as it is an important prerequisite for goal oriented human behavior. The paced auditory serial addition task has been used to test and train cognitive control functions. This adaptive, challenging task includes continuous performance feedback. Therefore, additional cognitive control capacities are required to process this information along with the already high task-load. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, are still unclear. To explore the neural signatures of the PASAT and particularly (...)
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  168. Prevalence and Therapy Rates for Stuttering, Cluttering, and Developmental Disorders of Speech and Language: Evaluation of German Health Insurance Data.Martin Sommer, Andrea Waltersbacher, Andreas Schlotmann, Helmut Schröder & Adam Strzelczyk - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    PurposeTo evaluate the prevalence and treatment patterns of speech and language disorders in Germany.MethodsA retrospective analysis of data collected from 32% of the German population, insured by the statutory German health insurance. We used The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, German Modification codes for stuttering, cluttering, and developmental disorders of speech and language to identify prevalent and newly diagnosed cases each year. Prescription and speech therapy reimbursement data were used to evaluate treatment patterns.ResultsIn 2017, (...)
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  169.  2
    Experience of After-Effect of Memory Update Reduces Sensitivity to Errors During Sensory-Motor Adaptation Task.Kenya Tanamachi, Jun Izawa, Satoshi Yamamoto, Daisuke Ishii, Arito Yozu & Yutaka Kohno - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Motor learning is the process of updating motor commands in response to a trajectory error induced by a perturbation to the body or vision. The brain has a great capability to accelerate learning by increasing the sensitivity of the memory update to the perceived trajectory errors. Conventional theory suggests that the statistics of perturbations or the statistics of the experienced errors induced by the external perturbations determine the learning speeds. However, the potential effect of another type of error perception, a (...)
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  170.  1
    Error-Related Cognitive Control and Behavioral Adaptation Mechanisms in the Context of Motor Functioning and Anxiety.Marta Topor, Bertram Opitz & Hayley C. Leonard - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Motor proficiency reflects the ability to perform precise and coordinated movements in different contexts. Previous research suggests that different profiles of motor proficiency may be associated with different cognitive functioning characteristics thus suggesting an interaction between cognitive and motor processes. The current study investigated this interaction in the general population of healthy adults with different profiles of motor proficiency by focusing on error-related cognitive control and behavioral adaptation mechanisms. In addition, the impact of these processes was assessed in terms of (...)
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  171. Long Multi-Stage Training for a Motor-Impaired User in a BCI Competition.Federica Turi, Maureen Clerc & Théodore Papadopoulo - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    In a Mental Imagery Brain-Computer Interface the user has to perform a specific mental task that generates electroencephalography components, which can be translated in commands to control a BCI system. The development of a high-performance MI-BCI requires a long training, lasting several weeks or months, in order to improve the ability of the user to manage his/her mental tasks. This works aims to present the design of a MI-BCI combining mental imaginary and cognitive tasks for a severely motor impaired user, (...)
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  172. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Psychiatry: Is There a Need for Electric Field Standardization?Zsolt Turi, Claus Normann, Katharina Domschke & Andreas Vlachos - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation are used in clinical practice for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, rTMS-based therapies that lead to a significant and sustained reduction in neuropsychiatric symptoms remain scarce. While it is generally accepted that the stimulation frequency plays a crucial role in producing the therapeutic effects of rTMS, less attention has been dedicated to determining the role of the electric field strength. Conventional threshold-based intensity selection approaches, such as the resting motor threshold, produce variable stimulation intensities (...)
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  173.  1
    Case Report: Aperiodic Fluctuations of Neural Activity in the Ictal MEG of a Child With Drug-Resistant Fronto-Temporal Epilepsy.Saskia van Heumen, Jeremy T. Moreau, Elisabeth Simard-Tremblay, Steffen Albrecht, Roy W. R. Dudley & Sylvain Baillet - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Successful surgical treatment of patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy remains challenging, especially in cases for which it is difficult to define the area of cortex from which seizures originate, the seizure onset zone. Various diagnostic methods are needed to select surgical candidates and determine the extent of resection. Interictal magnetoencephalography with source imaging has proven to be useful for presurgical evaluation, but the use of ictal MEG data remains limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether pre-ictal (...)
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  174.  10
    Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Optogenetics, Ethical Issues Affecting DBS Research, Neuromodulatory Approaches for Depression, Adaptive Neurostimulation, and Emerging DBS Technologies.Vinata Vedam-Mai, Karl Deisseroth, James Giordano, Gabriel Lazaro-Munoz, Winston Chiong, Nanthia Suthana, Jean-Philippe Langevin, Jay Gill, Wayne Goodman, Nicole R. Provenza, Casey H. Halpern, Rajat S. Shivacharan, Tricia N. Cunningham, Sameer A. Sheth, Nader Pouratian, Katherine W. Scangos, Helen S. Mayberg, Andreas Horn, Kara A. Johnson, Christopher R. Butson, Ro’ee Gilron, Coralie de Hemptinne, Robert Wilt, Maria Yaroshinsky, Simon Little, Philip Starr, Greg Worrell, Prasad Shirvalkar, Edward Chang, Jens Volkmann, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa, Andrea A. Kühn, Luming Li, Matthew Johnson, Kevin J. Otto, Robert Raike, Steve Goetz, Chengyuan Wu, Peter Silburn, Binith Cheeran, Yagna J. Pathak, Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Aysegul Gunduz, Joshua K. Wong, Stephanie Cernera, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Wissam Deeb, Addie Patterson, Kelly D. Foote & Michael S. Okun - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    We estimate that 208,000 deep brain stimulation devices have been implanted to address neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide. DBS Think Tank presenters pooled data and determined that DBS expanded in its scope and has been applied to multiple brain disorders in an effort to modulate neural circuitry. The DBS Think Tank was founded in 2012 providing a space where clinicians, engineers, researchers from industry and academia discuss current and emerging DBS technologies and logistical and ethical issues facing the field. The (...)
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  175. Infantile Iron Deficiency Affects Brain Development in Monkeys Even After Treatment of Anemia.Roza M. Vlasova, Qian Wang, Auriel Willette, Martin A. Styner, Gabriele R. Lubach, Pamela J. Kling, Michael K. Georgieff, Raghavendra B. Rao & Christopher L. Coe - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A high percent of oxidative energy metabolism is needed to support brain growth during infancy. Unhealthy diets and limited nutrition, as well as other environmental insults, can compromise these essential developmental processes. In particular, iron deficiency anemia has been found to undermine both normal brain growth and neurobehavioral development. Even moderate ID may affect neural maturation because when iron is limited, it is prioritized first to red blood cells over the brain. A primate model was used to investigate the neural (...)
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  176. Studying Implicit Attitudes Towards Smoking: Event-Related Potentials in the Go/NoGo Association Task.Tobias A. Wagner-Altendorf, Arie H. van der Lugt, Jane F. Banfield, Jacqueline Deibel, Anna Cirkel, Marcus Heldmann & Thomas F. Münte - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Cigarette smoking and other addictive behaviors are among the main preventable risk factors for several severe and potentially fatal diseases. It has been argued that addictive behavior is controlled by an automatic-implicit cognitive system and by a reflective-explicit cognitive system, that operate in parallel to jointly drive human behavior. The present study addresses the formation of implicit attitudes towards smoking in both smokers and non-smokers, using a Go/NoGo association task, and behavioral and electroencephalographic measures. The GNAT assesses, via quantifying participants’ (...)
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  177.  3
    Altered Frequency-Dependent Brain Activation and White Matter Integrity Associated With Cognition in Characterizing Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Stages.Siyu Wang, Jiang Rao, Yingying Yue, Chen Xue, Guanjie Hu, Wenzhang Qi, Wenying Ma, Honglin Ge, Fuquan Zhang, Xiangrong Zhang & Jiu Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundSubjective cognitive decline, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and amnestic mild cognitive impairment are regarded to be at high risk of converting to Alzheimer’s disease. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations can reflect functional deterioration while diffusion tensor imaging is capable of detecting white matter integrity. Our study aimed to investigate the structural and functional alterations to further reveal convergence and divergence among SCD, naMCI, and aMCI and how these contribute to cognitive deterioration.MethodsWe analyzed ALFF under slow-4 and slow-5 bands and white matter (...)
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  178.  5
    Brain Hemispheres Swap Dominance for Processing Semantically Meaningful Pitch.Xiao-Dong Wang, Hong Xu, Zhen Yuan, Hao Luo, Ming Wang, Hua-Wei Li & Lin Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The question of what determines brain laterality for auditory cognitive processing is unresolved. Here, we demonstrate a swap of hemisphere dominance from right to left during semantic interpretation of Chinese lexical tones in native speakers using simultaneously recorded mismatch negativity response and behavioral reaction time during dichotic listening judgment. The mismatch negativity, which is a brain wave response and indexes auditory processing at an early stage, indicated right hemisphere dominance. In contrast, the behavioral reaction time, which reflects auditory processing at (...)
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  179.  2
    Spontaneous Activity in Primary Visual Cortex Relates to Visual Creativity.Yibo Wang, Junchao Li, Zengjian Wang, Bishan Liang, Bingqing Jiao, Peng Zhang, Yingying Huang, Hui Yang, Rengui Yu, Sifang Yu, Delong Zhang & Ming Liu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Cognitive and neural processes underlying visual creativity have attracted substantial attention. The current research uses a critical time point analysis to examine how spontaneous activity in the primary visual area is related to visual creativity. We acquired the functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 16 participants at the resting state and during performing a visual creative synthesis task. According to the CTPA, we then classified spontaneous activity in the PVA into critical time points, which reflect the most useful and important (...)
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  180.  1
    Spatial-Temporal Functional Mapping Combined With Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potentials in Predicting Cortical Stimulation Results.Yujing Wang, Mark A. Hays, Christopher Coogan, Joon Y. Kang, Adeen Flinker, Ravindra Arya, Anna Korzeniewska & Nathan E. Crone - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Functional human brain mapping is commonly performed during invasive monitoring with intracranial electroencephalographic electrodes prior to resective surgery for drug­ resistant epilepsy. The current gold standard, electrocortical stimulation mapping, is time ­consuming, sometimes elicits pain, and often induces after discharges or seizures. Moreover, there is a risk of overestimating eloquent areas due to propagation of the effects of stimulation to a broader network of language cortex. Passive iEEG spatial-temporal functional mapping has recently emerged as a potential alternative to ESM. However, (...)
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  181. Effects of Perturbation Velocity, Direction, Background Muscle Activation, and Task Instruction on Long-Latency Responses Measured From Forearm Muscles.Jacob Weinman, Paria Arfa-Fatollahkhani, Andrea Zonnino, Rebecca C. Nikonowicz & Fabrizio Sergi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The central nervous system uses feedback processes that occur at multiple time scales to control interactions with the environment. The long-latency response is the fastest process that directly involves cortical areas, with a motoneuron response measurable 50 ms following an imposed limb displacement. Several behavioral factors concerning perturbation mechanics and the active role of muscles prior or during the perturbation can modulate the long-latency response amplitude in the upper limbs, but the interactions among many of these factors had not been (...)
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  182. Cognitive Impairment in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder With Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Evidence Based on Multi-Indicator ERPs.Yujiao Wen, Xuemin Zhang, Yifan Xu, Dan Qiao, Shanshan Guo, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Min Han & Zhifen Liu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder in adolescents is reported to be as high as 20%; thus, MDD constitutes a significant social and public health burden. MDD is often associated with nonsuicidal self-injury behavior, but the contributing factors including cognitive function have not been investigated in detail. To this end, the present study evaluated cognitive impairment and psychosocial factors in associated with MDD with NSSI behavior. Eighteen and 21 drug-naïve patients with first-episode MDD with or without NSSI and 24 (...)
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  183.  2
    Safety and Tolerability of Burst-Cycling Deep Brain Stimulation for Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease.Joshua K. Wong, Wei Hu, Ryan Barmore, Janine Lopes, Kathryn Moore, Joseph Legacy, Parisa Tahafchi, Zachary Jackson, Jack W. Judy, Robert S. Raike, Anson Wang, Takashi Tsuboi, Michael S. Okun & Leonardo Almeida - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Freezing of gait is a common symptom in Parkinson’s disease and can be difficult to treat with dopaminergic medications or with deep brain stimulation. Novel stimulation paradigms have been proposed to address suboptimal responses to conventional DBS programming methods. Burst-cycling deep brain stimulation delivers current in various frequencies of bursts, while maintaining an intra-burst frequency identical to conventional DBS.Objective: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of BCDBS in PD patients with FOG.Methods: Ten PD subjects with STN or GPi DBS (...)
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  184. Early Rearing Conditions Affect Monoamine Metabolite Levels During Baseline and Periods of Social Separation Stress: A Non-Human Primate Model.Elizabeth K. Wood, Natalia Gabrielle, Jacob Hunter, Andrea N. Skowbo, Melanie L. Schwandt, Stephen G. Lindell, Christina S. Barr, Stephen J. Suomi & J. Dee Higley - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A variety of studies show that parental absence early in life leads to deleterious effects on the developing CNS. This is thought to be largely because evolutionary-dependent stimuli are necessary for the appropriate postnatal development of the young brain, an effect sometimes termed the “experience-expectant brain,” with parents providing the necessary input for normative synaptic connections to develop and appropriate neuronal survival to occur. Principal among CNS systems affected by parental input are the monoamine systems. In the present study, N (...)
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  185. Principal Components Analysis Using Data Collected From Healthy Individuals on Two Robotic Assessment Platforms Yields Similar Behavioral Patterns.Michael D. Wood, Leif E. R. Simmatis, Jill A. Jacobson, Sean P. Dukelow, J. Gordon Boyd & Stephen H. Scott - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundKinarm Standard Tests is a suite of upper limb tasks to assess sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, which produces granular performance data that reflect spatial and temporal aspects of behavior. We have previously used principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality of multivariate data using the Kinarm End-Point Lab. Here, we performed PCA using data from the Kinarm Exoskeleton Lab, and determined agreement of PCA results across EP and EXO platforms in healthy participants. We additionally examined whether further dimensionality reduction (...)
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  186.  2
    A New Subject-Specific Discriminative and Multi-Scale Filter Bank Tangent Space Mapping Method for Recognition of Multiclass Motor Imagery.Fan Wu, Anmin Gong, Hongyun Li, Lei Zhao, Wei Zhang & Yunfa Fu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Objective: Tangent Space Mapping using the geometric structure of the covariance matrices is an effective method to recognize multiclass motor imagery. Compared with the traditional CSP method, the Riemann geometric method based on TSM takes into account the nonlinear information contained in the covariance matrix, and can extract more abundant and effective features. Moreover, the method is an unsupervised operation, which can reduce the time of feature extraction. However, EEG features induced by MI mental activities of different subjects are not (...)
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  187. Bringing Together Robotics, Neuroscience, and Psychology: Lessons Learned From an Interdisciplinary Project.Olga A. Wudarczyk, Murat Kirtay, Anna K. Kuhlen, Rasha Abdel Rahman, John-Dylan Haynes, Verena V. Hafner & Doris Pischedda - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The diversified methodology and expertise of interdisciplinary research teams provide the opportunity to overcome the limited perspectives of individual disciplines. This is particularly true at the interface of Robotics, Neuroscience, and Psychology as the three fields have quite different perspectives and approaches to offer. Nonetheless, aligning backgrounds and interdisciplinary expectations can present challenges due to varied research cultures and practices. Overcoming these challenges stands at the beginning of each productive collaboration and thus is a mandatory step in cognitive neurorobotics. In (...)
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  188.  1
    Enhancement of Event-Related Desynchronization in Motor Imagery Based on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation.Jiaxin Xie, Maoqin Peng, Jingqing Lu, Chao Xiao, Xin Zong, Manqing Wang, Dongrui Gao, Yun Qin & Tiejun Liu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Due to the individual differences controlling brain-computer interfaces, the applicability and accuracy of BCIs based on motor imagery are limited. To improve the performance of BCIs, this article examined the effect of transcranial electrical stimulation on brain activity during MI. This article designed an experimental paradigm that combines tES and MI and examined the effects of tES based on the measurements of electroencephalogram features in MI processing, including the power spectral density and dynamic event-related desynchronization. Finally, we investigated the effect (...)
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  189. Theta Oscillations and Source Connectivity During Complex Audiovisual Object Encoding in Working Memory.Yuanjun Xie, Yanyan Li, Haidan Duan, Xiliang Xu, Wenmo Zhang & Peng Fang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Working memory is a limited capacity memory system that involves the short-term storage and processing of information. Neuroscientific studies of working memory have mostly focused on the essential roles of neural oscillations during item encoding from single sensory modalities. However, the characteristics of neural oscillations during multisensory encoding in working memory are rarely studied. Our study investigated the oscillation characteristics of neural signals in scalp electrodes and mapped functional brain connectivity while participants encoded complex audiovisual objects in a working memory (...)
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  190.  3
    Distributed Functional Connectome of White Matter in Patients With Functional Dyspepsia.Qiang Xu, Yifei Weng, Chang Liu, Lianli Qiu, Yulin Yang, Yifei Zhou, Fangyu Wang, Guangming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang & Rongfeng Qi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Purpose: We aimed to find out the distributed functional connectome of white matter in patients with functional dyspepsia.Methods: 20 patients with FD and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included into the study. The functional connectome of white matter and graph theory were used to these participants. Two-sample t-test was used for the detection the abnormal graph properties in FD. Pearson correlation was used for the relationship between properties and the clinical and neuropshychological information.Results: Patients with FD and healthy (...)
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  191.  4
    BCCT: A GUI Toolkit for Brain Structural Covariance Connectivity Analysis on MATLAB.Qiang Xu, Qirui Zhang, Gaoping Liu, Xi-Jian Dai, Xinyu Xie, Jingru Hao, Qianqian Yu, Ruoting Liu, Zixuan Zhang, Yulu Ye, Rongfeng Qi, Long Jiang Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang & Guangming Lu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Brain structural covariance network can delineate the brain synchronized alterations in a long-range time period. It has been used in the research of cognition or neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, causal analysis of structural covariance network, winner-take-all and cortex–subcortex covariance network, and modulation analysis of structural covariance network have expended the technology breadth of SCN. However, the lack of user-friendly software limited the further application of SCN for the research. In this work, we developed the graphical user interface toolkit of brain structural (...)
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  192.  1
    Magnetoencephalography Responses to Unpredictable and Predictable Rare Somatosensory Stimuli in Healthy Adult Humans.Qianru Xu, Chaoxiong Ye, Jarmo A. Hämäläinen, Elisa M. Ruohonen, Xueqiao Li & Piia Astikainen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Mismatch brain responses to unpredicted rare stimuli are suggested to be a neural indicator of prediction error, but this has rarely been studied in the somatosensory modality. Here, we investigated how the brain responds to unpredictable and predictable rare events. Magnetoencephalography responses were measured in adults frequently presented with somatosensory stimuli that were occasionally replaced by two consecutively presented rare stimuli [unpredictable rare stimulus and predictable rare stimulus ; p = 0.1 for each]. The FRE and PR were electrical stimulations (...)
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  193. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders; Neurophysiological, Chemical, and Anatomical Considerations.Yuji Yamada & Tomiki Sumiyoshi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Backgrounds: Transcranial direct current stimulation is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders, e.g., mood disorders and schizophrenia. Therapeutic effects of tDCS are suggested to be produced by bi-directional changes in cortical activities, i.e., increased/decreased cortical excitability via anodal/cathodal stimulation. Although tDCS provides a promising approach for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, its neurobiological mechanisms remain to be explored.Objectives: To review recent findings from neurophysiological, chemical, and brain-network studies, and consider how tDCS ameliorates psychiatric conditions.Findings: (...)
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  194. Intraoperative Brain Mapping by Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potential.Yukihiro Yamao, Riki Matsumoto, Takayuki Kikuchi, Kazumichi Yoshida, Takeharu Kunieda & Susumu Miyamoto - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    To preserve postoperative brain function, it is important for neurosurgeons to fully understand the brain's structure, vasculature, and function. Intraoperative high-frequency electrical stimulation during awake craniotomy is the gold standard for mapping the function of the cortices and white matter; however, this method can only map the “focal” functions and cannot monitor large-scale cortical networks in real-time. Recently, an in vivo electrophysiological method using cortico-cortical evoked potentials induced by single-pulse electrical cortical stimulation has been developed in an extraoperative setting. By (...)
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  195. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of COVID-19 Explained by SARS-CoV-2 Proteins’ Mimicry of Human Protein Interactions.Hale Yapici-Eser, Yunus Emre Koroglu, Ozgur Oztop-Cakmak, Ozlem Keskin, Attila Gursoy & Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The first clinical symptoms focused on the presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 have been respiratory failure, however, accumulating evidence also points to its presentation with neuropsychiatric symptoms, the exact mechanisms of which are not well known. By using a computational methodology, we aimed to explain the molecular paths of COVID-19 associated neuropsychiatric symptoms, based on the mimicry of the human protein interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteins.Methods: Available 11 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins’ structures have been extracted from Protein Data Bank. HMI-PRED, (...)
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  196.  6
    Decoding Multiple Sound-Categories in the Auditory Cortex by Neural Networks: An fNIRS Study.So-Hyeon Yoo, Hendrik Santosa, Chang-Seok Kim & Keum-Shik Hong - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    This study aims to decode the hemodynamic responses evoked by multiple sound-categories using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The six different sounds were given as stimuli. The oxy-hemoglobin concentration changes are measured in both hemispheres of the auditory cortex while 18 healthy subjects listen to 10-s blocks of six sound-categories. Long short-term memory networks were used as a classifier. The classification accuracy was 20.38 ± 4.63% with six class classification. Though LSTM networks’ performance was a little higher than chance levels, it is (...)
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  197. Contrasting Electroencephalography-Derived Entropy and Neural Oscillations With Highly Skilled Meditators.Jacob H. Young, Martha E. Arterberry & Joshua P. Martin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Meditation is an umbrella term for a number of mental training practices designed to improve the monitoring and regulation of attention and emotion. Some forms of meditation are now being used for clinical intervention. To accompany the increased clinical interest in meditation, research investigating the neural basis of these practices is needed. A central hypothesis of contemplative neuroscience is that meditative states, which are unique on a phenomenological level, differ on a neurophysiological level. To identify the electrophysiological correlates of meditation (...)
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  198. Improving Emotion Regulation Through Real-Time Neurofeedback Training on the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex: Evidence From Behavioral and Brain Network Analyses.Linlin Yu, Quanshan Long, Yancheng Tang, Shouhang Yin, Zijun Chen, Chaozhe Zhu & Antao Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    We investigated if emotion regulation can be improved through self-regulation training on non-emotional brain regions, as well as how to change the brain networks implicated in this process. During the training period, the participants were instructed to up-regulate their right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity according to real-time functional near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback signals, and there was no emotional element. The results showed that the training significantly increased emotion regulation, resting-state functional connectivity within the emotion regulation network and frontoparietal network, and rsFC (...)
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  199.  1
    Neural Representation of the English Vowel Feature [High]: Evidence From /Ε/ Vs. /Ɪ.Yan H. Yu & Valerie L. Shafer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Many studies have observed modulation of the amplitude of the neural index mismatch negativity related to which member of a phoneme contrast [phoneme A, phoneme B] serves as the frequent and which serves as the infrequent stimulus in an oddball paradigm. Explanations for this amplitude modulation range from acoustic to linguistic factors. We tested whether exchanging the role of the mid vowel /ε/ vs. high vowel /ɪ/ of English modulated MMN amplitude and whether the pattern of modulation was compatible with (...)
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  200.  1
    An Intracortical Implantable Brain-Computer Interface for Telemetric Real-Time Recording and Manipulation of Neuronal Circuits for Closed-Loop Intervention.Hamed Zaer, Ashlesha Deshmukh, Dariusz Orlowski, Wei Fan, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Andreas Nørgaard Glud, Morten Bjørn Jensen, Esben Schjødt Worm, Slávka Lukacova, Trine Werenberg Mikkelsen, Lise Moberg Fitting, John R. Adler, M. Bret Schneider, Martin Snejbjerg Jensen, Quanhai Fu, Vinson Go, James Morizio, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen & Albrecht Stroh - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Recording and manipulating neuronal ensemble activity is a key requirement in advanced neuromodulatory and behavior studies. Devices capable of both recording and manipulating neuronal activity brain-computer interfaces should ideally operate un-tethered and allow chronic longitudinal manipulations in the freely moving animal. In this study, we designed a new intracortical BCI feasible of telemetric recording and stimulating local gray and white matter of visual neural circuit after irradiation exposure. To increase the translational reliance, we put forward a Göttingen minipig model. The (...)
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  201.  1
    Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Patient Perspective.Chencheng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Xian Qiu, Yingying Zhang, Zhengyu Lin, Peng Huang, Yixin Pan, Eric A. Storch, Bomin Sun & Dianyou Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundPublic health guidelines have recommended that elective medical procedures, including deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson’s disease, should not be scheduled during the coronavirus pandemic to prevent further virus spread and overload on health care systems. However, delaying DBS surgery for PD may not be in the best interest of individual patients and is not called for in regions where virus spread is under control and inpatient facilities are not overloaded.MethodsWe administered a newly developed phone questionnaire to 20 consecutive patients (...)
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  202. The Effects of Priming Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation on Movement-Related and Mirror Visual Feedback-Induced Sensorimotor Desynchronization.Jack Jiaqi Zhang & Kenneth N. K. Fong - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The potential benefits of priming intermittent theta burst stimulation with continuous theta burst stimulation have not been examined in regard to sensorimotor oscillatory activities recorded in electroencephalography. The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of priming iTBS delivered to the motor cortex on movement-related and mirror visual feedback -induced sensorimotor event-related desynchronization, compared with iTBS alone, on healthy adults. Twenty participants were randomly allocated into Group 1: priming iTBS—cTBS followed by iTBS, and Group 2: non-priming iTBS—sham (...)
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  203.  1
    Clinical Recognition of Sensory Ataxia and Cerebellar Ataxia.Qing Zhang, Xihui Zhou, Yajun Li, Xiaodong Yang & Qammer H. Abbasi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Ataxia is a kind of external characteristics when the human body has poor coordination and balance disorder, it often indicates diseases in certain parts of the body. Many internal factors may causing ataxia; currently, observed external characteristics, combined with Doctor’s personal clinical experience play main roles in diagnosing ataxia. In this situation, different kinds of diseases may be confused, leading to the delay in treatment and recovery. Modern high precision medical instruments would provide better accuracy but the economic cost is (...)
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  204.  2
    Differential Effects of Physical and Social Enriched Environment on Angiogenesis in Male Rats After Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.Xin Zhang, Jing-Ying Liu, Wei-Jing Liao & Xiu-Ping Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Different housing conditions, including housing space and the physiological and social environment, may affect rodent behavior. Here, we examined the effects of different housing conditions on post-stroke angiogenesis and functional recovery to clarify the ambiguity about environmental enrichment and its components. Male rats in the model groups underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The MCAO rats were divided into four groups: the physical enrichment group, the social enrichment group, the combined physical and social enrichment group and the (...)
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  205.  5
    Contextual Cueing Accelerated and Enhanced by Monetary Reward: Evidence From Event-Related Brain Potentials.Guang Zhao, Qian Zhuang, Jie Ma, Shen Tu & Shiyi Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The vital role of reward in guiding visual attention has been supported by previous literatures. Here, we examined the motivational impact of monetary reward feedback stimuli on visual attention selection using an event-related potential component called stimulus-preceding negativity and a standard contextual cueing paradigm. It has been proposed that SPN reflects affective and motivational processing. We focused on whether incidentally learned context knowledge could be affected by reward. Both behavior and brain data demonstrated that contexts followed by reward feedback not (...)
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  206.  1
    Brain Development From Newborn to Adolescence: Evaluation by Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging.Xueying Zhao, Jingjing Shi, Fei Dai, Lei Wei, Boyu Zhang, Xuchen Yu, Chengyan Wang, Wenzhen Zhu & He Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging is a diffusion model specifically designed for brain magnetic resonance imaging. Despite recent studies suggesting that NODDI modeling might be more sensitive to brain development than diffusion tensor imaging, these studies were limited to a relatively small age range and mainly based on the manually operated region of interest analysis. Therefore, this study applied NODDI to investigate brain development in a large sample size of 214 subjects ranging in ages from 0 to 14. The (...)
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  207. Phonological Variations Are Compensated at the Lexical Level: Evidence From Auditory Neural Activity.Hatice Zora, Tomas Riad, Sari Ylinen & Valéria Csépe - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Dealing with phonological variations is important for speech processing. This article addresses whether phonological variations introduced by assimilatory processes are compensated for at the pre-lexical or lexical level, and whether the nature of variation and the phonological context influence this process. To this end, Swedish nasal regressive place assimilation was investigated using the mismatch negativity component. In nasal regressive assimilation, the coronal nasal assimilates to the place of articulation of a following segment, most clearly with a velar or labial place (...)
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  208. Recognition of Consumer Preference by Analysis and Classification EEG Signals.Mashael Aldayel, Mourad Ykhlef & Abeer Al-Nafjan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Neuromarketing has gained attention to bridge the gap between conventional marketing studies and electroencephalography -based brain-computer interface research. It determines what customers actually want through preference prediction. The performance of EEG-based preference detection systems depends on a suitable selection of feature extraction techniques and machine learning algorithms. In this study, We examined preference detection of neuromarketing dataset using different feature combinations of EEG indices and different algorithms for feature extraction and classification. For EEG feature extraction, we employed discrete wavelet transform (...)
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  209. Comorbidity Between Math and Reading Problems: Is Phonological Processing a Mutual Factor?Tonje Amland, Arne Lervåg & Monica Melby-Lervåg - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    There is a relationship between reading and math skills, as well as comorbidity between reading and math disorders. A mutual foundation for this comorbidity could be that the quality of phonological representations is important for both early reading and arithmetic. In this study, we examine this hypothesis in a sample traced longitudinally from preschool to first grade. The results show that phonological awareness does not explain development in arithmetic, but that there is an indirect effect between phoneme awareness in preschool (...)
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  210.  1
    The Oscillatory Basis of Working Memory Function and Dysfunction in Epilepsy.Olivia N. Arski, Julia M. Young, Mary-Lou Smith & George M. Ibrahim - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Working memory deficits are pervasive co-morbidities of epilepsy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these impairments remain elusive, it is thought that WM depends on oscillatory interactions within and between nodes of large-scale functional networks. These include the hippocampus and default mode network as well as the prefrontal cortex and frontoparietal central executive network. Here, we review the functional roles of neural oscillations in subserving WM and the putative mechanisms by which epilepsy disrupts normative activity, leading to aberrant oscillatory signatures. We (...)
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  211.  4
    Two-Level Domain Adaptation Neural Network for EEG-Based Emotion Recognition.Guangcheng Bao, Ning Zhuang, Li Tong, Bin Yan, Jun Shu, Linyuan Wang, Ying Zeng & Zhichong Shen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Emotion recognition plays an important part in human-computer interaction. Currently, the main challenge in electroencephalogram -based emotion recognition is the non-stationarity of EEG signals, which causes performance of the trained model decreasing over time. In this paper, we propose a two-level domain adaptation neural network to construct a transfer model for EEG-based emotion recognition. Specifically, deep features from the topological graph, which preserve topological information from EEG signals, are extracted using a deep neural network. These features are then passed through (...)
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  212.  5
    Dance on the Brain: Enhancing Intra- and Inter-Brain Synchrony.Julia C. Basso, Medha K. Satyal & Rachel Rugh - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Dance has traditionally been viewed from a Eurocentric perspective as a mode of self-expression that involves the human body moving through space, performed for the purposes of art, and viewed by an audience. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we synthesize findings from anthropology, sociology, psychology, dance pedagogy, and neuroscience to propose The Synchronicity Hypothesis of Dance, which states that humans dance to enhance both intra- and inter-brain synchrony. We outline a neurocentric definition of dance, which suggests that dance involves (...)
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  213. A Functional MRI Paradigm for Efficient Mapping of Memory Encoding Across Sensory Conditions.Meta M. Boenniger, Kersten Diers, Sibylle C. Herholz, Mohammad Shahid, Tony Stöcker, Monique M. B. Breteler & Willem Huijbers - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    We introduce a new and time-efficient memory-encoding paradigm for functional magnetic resonance imaging. This paradigm is optimized for mapping multiple contrasts using a mixed design, using auditory and visual stimuli. We demonstrate that the paradigm evokes robust neuronal activity in typical sensory and memory networks. We were able to detect auditory and visual sensory-specific encoding activities in auditory and visual cortices. Also, we detected stimulus-selective activation in environmental-, voice-, scene-, and face-selective brain regions. A subsequent recognition task allowed the detection (...)
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  214. Case Report: Deep Brain Stimulation to the Ventral Internal Capsule/Ventral Striatum Induces Repeated Transient Episodes of Voltage-Dependent Tourette-Like Behaviors.Joan A. Camprodon, Tina Chou, Abigail A. Testo, Thilo Deckersbach, Jeremiah M. Scharf & Darin D. Dougherty - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Deep Brain Stimulation is an invasive device-based neuromodulation technique that allows the therapeutic direct stimulation of subcortical and deep cortical structures following the surgical placement of stimulating electrodes. DBS is approved by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for the treatment of movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder, while new indications, including Major Depressive Disorder, are in experimental development. We report the case of a patient with MDD who received DBS to the ventral internal capsule and ventral striatum bilaterally and presented with (...)
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  215. Development and Validation of a Dynamic Nomogram to Predict the Risk of Neonatal White Matter Damage.Wenjun Cao, Chenghan Luo, Mengyuan Lei, Min Shen, Wenqian Ding, Mengmeng Wang, Min Song, Jian Ge & Qian Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    PurposeWhite matter damage was defined as the appearance of rough and uneven echo enhancement in the white matter around the ventricle. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for neonatal WMD.Materials and MethodsWe collected data for 1,733 infants hospitalized at the Department of Neonatology at The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2017 to 2020. Infants were randomly assigned to training or validation cohorts at a ratio of 7:3. Multivariate logistic regression and (...)
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  216.  4
    International Legal Approaches to Neurosurgery for Psychiatric Disorders.Jennifer A. Chandler, Laura Y. Cabrera, Paresh Doshi, Shirley Fecteau, Joseph J. Fins, Salvador Guinjoan, Clement Hamani, Karen Herrera-Ferrá, C. Michael Honey, Judy Illes, Brian H. Kopell, Nir Lipsman, Patrick J. McDonald, Helen S. Mayberg, Roland Nadler, Bart Nuttin, Albino J. Oliveira-Maia, Cristian Rangel, Raphael Ribeiro, Arleen Salles & Hemmings Wu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders, also sometimes referred to as psychosurgery, is rapidly evolving, with new techniques and indications being investigated actively. Many within the field have suggested that some form of guidelines or regulations are needed to help ensure that a promising field develops safely. Multiple countries have enacted specific laws regulating NPD. This article reviews NPD-specific laws drawn from North and South America, Asia and Europe, in order to identify the typical form and contents of these laws and to (...)
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  217.  2
    Comparison of Facial Muscle Activation Patterns Between Healthy and Bell’s Palsy Subjects Using High-Density Surface Electromyography.Han Cui, Weizheng Zhong, Zhuoxin Yang, Xuemei Cao, Shuangyan Dai, Xingxian Huang, Liyu Hu, Kai Lan, Guanglin Li & Haibo Yu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Facial muscle activities are essential for the appearance and communication of human beings. Therefore, exploring the activation patterns of facial muscles can help understand facial neuromuscular disorders such as Bell’s palsy. Given the irregular shape of the facial muscles as well as their different locations, it should be difficult to detect the activities of whole facial muscles with a few electrodes. In this study, a high-density surface electromyogram system with 90 electrodes was used to record EMG signals of facial muscles (...)
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  218.  1
    Cortical Tracking of the Speech Envelope in Logopenic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia.Heather R. Dial, G. Nike Gnanateja, Rachel S. Tessmer, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Bharath Chandrasekaran & Maya L. Henry - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative language disorder primarily characterized by impaired phonological processing. Sentence repetition and comprehension deficits are observed in lvPPA and linked to impaired phonological working memory, but recent evidence also implicates impaired speech perception. Currently, neural encoding of the speech envelope, which forms the scaffolding for perception, is not clearly understood in lvPPA. We leveraged recent analytical advances in electrophysiology to examine speech envelope encoding in lvPPA. We assessed cortical tracking of the speech envelope (...)
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  219.  5
    Directly Exploring the Neural Correlates of Feedback-Related Reward Saliency and Valence During Real-Time fMRI-Based Neurofeedback.Bruno Direito, Manuel Ramos, João Pereira, Alexandre Sayal, Teresa Sousa & Miguel Castelo-Branco - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Introduction: The potential therapeutic efficacy of real-time fMRI Neurofeedback has received increasing attention in a variety of psychological and neurological disorders and as a tool to probe cognition. Despite its growing popularity, the success rate varies significantly, and the underlying neural mechanisms are still a matter of debate. The question whether an individually tailored framework positively influences neurofeedback success remains largely unexplored.Methods: To address this question, participants were trained to modulate the activity of a target brain region, the visual motion (...)
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  220.  2
    Perceived Mental Workload Classification Using Intermediate Fusion Multimodal Deep Learning.Tenzing C. Dolmans, Mannes Poel, Jan-Willem J. R. van ’T. Klooster & Bernard P. Veldkamp - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    A lot of research has been done on the detection of mental workload using various bio-signals. Recently, deep learning has allowed for novel methods and results. A plethora of measurement modalities have proven to be valuable in this task, yet studies currently often only use a single modality to classify MWL. The goal of this research was to classify perceived mental workload using a deep neural network that flexibly makes use of multiple modalities, in order to allow for feature sharing (...)
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  221. Sex-Specific Functional Connectivity in the Reward Network Related to Distinct Gender Roles.Yin Du, Yinan Wang, Mengxia Yu, Xue Tian & Jia Liu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Gender roles are anti-dichotomous and malleable social constructs that should theoretically be constructed independently from biological sex. However, it is unclear whether and how the factor of sex is related to neural mechanisms involved in social constructions of gender roles. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate sex specificity in gender role constructions and the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We measured gender role orientation using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state functional magnetic (...)
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  222. International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation.Adam D. Farmer, Adam Strzelczyk, Alessandra Finisguerra, Alexander V. Gourine, Alireza Gharabaghi, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas M. Burger, Andrés M. Jaramillo, Ann Mertens, Arshad Majid, Bart Verkuil, Bashar W. Badran, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Charly Gaul, Christian Beste, Christopher M. Warren, Daniel S. Quintana, Dorothea Hämmerer, Elena Freri, Eleni Frangos, Eleonora Tobaldini, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Felix Rosenow, Fioravante Capone, Fivos Panetsos, Gareth L. Ackland, Gaurav Kaithwas, Georgia H. O'Leary, Hannah Genheimer, Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Ilse Van Diest, Jean Schoenen, Jessica Redgrave, Jiliang Fang, Jim Deuchars, Jozsef C. Széles, Julian F. Thayer, Kaushik More, Kristl Vonck, Laura Steenbergen, Lauro C. Vianna, Lisa M. McTeague, Mareike Ludwig, Maria G. Veldhuizen, Marijke De Couck, Marina Casazza, Marius Keute, Marom Bikson, Marta Andreatta, Martina D'Agostini, Mathias Weymar, Matthew Betts, Matthias Prigge, Michael Kaess, Michael Roden, Michelle Thai, Nathaniel M. Schuster & Nico Montano - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between (...)
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  223. International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation.Adam D. Farmer, Adam Strzelczyk, Alessandra Finisguerra, Alexander V. Gourine, Alireza Gharabaghi, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas M. Burger, Andrés M. Jaramillo, Ann Mertens, Arshad Majid, Bart Verkuil, Bashar W. Badran, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Charly Gaul, Christian Beste, Christopher M. Warren, Daniel S. Quintana, Dorothea Hämmerer, Elena Freri, Eleni Frangos, Eleonora Tobaldini, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Felix Rosenow, Fioravante Capone, Fivos Panetsos, Gareth L. Ackland, Gaurav Kaithwas, Georgia H. O'Leary, Hannah Genheimer, Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Ilse Van Diest, Jean Schoenen, Jessica Redgrave, Jiliang Fang, Jim Deuchars, Jozsef C. Széles, Julian F. Thayer, Kaushik More, Kristl Vonck, Laura Steenbergen, Lauro C. Vianna, Lisa M. McTeague, Mareike Ludwig, Maria G. Veldhuizen, Marijke De Couck, Marina Casazza, Marius Keute, Marom Bikson, Marta Andreatta, Martina D'Agostini, Mathias Weymar, Matthew Betts, Matthias Prigge, Michael Kaess, Michael Roden, Michelle Thai, Nathaniel M. Schuster & Nico Montano - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between (...)
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  224.  1
    Influence of Background Musical Emotions on Attention in Congenital Amusia.Natalia B. Fernandez, Patrik Vuilleumier, Nathalie Gosselin & Isabelle Peretz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Congenital amusia in its most common form is a disorder characterized by a musical pitch processing deficit. Although pitch is involved in conveying emotion in music, the implications for pitch deficits on musical emotion judgements is still under debate. Relatedly, both limited and spared musical emotion recognition was reported in amusia in conditions where emotion cues were not determined by musical mode or dissonance. Additionally, assumed links between musical abilities and visuo-spatial attention processes need further investigation in congenital amusics. Hence, (...)
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  225. The Brain Emotional Systems in Addictions: From Attachment to Dominance/Submission Systems.Teodosio Giacolini, David Conversi & Antonio Alcaro - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Human development has become particularly complex during the evolution. In this complexity, adolescence is an extremely important developmental stage. Adolescence is characterized by biological and social changes that create the prerequisites to psychopathological problems, including both substance and non-substance addictive behaviors. Central to the dynamics of the biological changes during adolescence are the synergy between sexual and neurophysiological development, which activates the motivational/emotional systems of Dominance/Submission. The latter are characterized by the interaction between the sexual hormones, the dopaminergic system and (...)
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  226. Neural Correlates of Knee Extension and Flexion Force Control: A Kinetically-Instrumented Neuroimaging Study.Dustin R. Grooms, Cody R. Criss, Janet E. Simon, Adam L. Haggerty & Timothy R. Wohl - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Background: The regulation of muscle force is a vital aspect of sensorimotor control, requiring intricate neural processes. While neural activity associated with upper extremity force control has been documented, extrapolation to lower extremity force control is limited. Knowledge of how the brain regulates force control for knee extension and flexion may provide insights as to how pathology or intervention impacts central control of movement.Objectives: To develop and implement a neuroimaging-compatible force control paradigm for knee extension and flexion.Methods: A magnetic resonance (...)
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  227.  1
    More Than Words: Extra-Sylvian Neuroanatomic Networks Support Indirect Speech Act Comprehension and Discourse in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.Meghan Healey, Erica Howard, Molly Ungrady, Christopher A. Olm, Naomi Nevler, David J. Irwin & Murray Grossman - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Indirect speech acts—responding “I forgot to wear my watch today” to someone who asked for the time—are ubiquitous in daily conversation, but are understudied in current neurobiological models of language. To comprehend an indirect speech act like this one, listeners must not only decode the lexical-semantic content of the utterance, but also make a pragmatic, bridging inference. This inference allows listeners to derive the speaker’s true, intended meaning—in the above dialog, for example, that the speaker cannot provide the time. In (...)
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  228.  2
    Interpersonal Agreement and Disagreement During Face-to-Face Dialogue: An fNIRS Investigation.Joy Hirsch, Mark Tiede, Xian Zhang, J. Adam Noah, Alexandre Salama-Manteau & Maurice Biriotti - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Although the neural systems that underlie spoken language are well-known, how they adapt to evolving social cues during natural conversations remains an unanswered question. In this work we investigate the neural correlates of face-to-face conversations between two individuals using functional near infrared spectroscopy and acoustical analyses of concurrent audio recordings. Nineteen pairs of healthy adults engaged in live discussions on two controversial topics where their opinions were either in agreement or disagreement. Participants were matched according to their a priori opinions (...)
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  229. Windows of Integration Hypothesis Revisited.Rony Hirschhorn, Ofer Kahane, Inbal Gur-Arie, Nathan Faivre & Liad Mudrik - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    In the ongoing research of the functions of consciousness, special emphasis has been put on integration of information: the ability to combine different signals into a coherent, unified one. Several theories of consciousness hold that this ability depends on – or at least goes hand in hand with – conscious processing. Yet some empirical findings have suggested otherwise, claiming that integration of information could take place even without awareness. Trying to reconcile this apparent contradiction, the “windows of integration” hypothesis claims (...)
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  230.  77
    Causal Inferences in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Research: Challenges and Perspectives.Justyna Hobot, Michał Klincewicz, Kristian Sandberg & Michał Wierzchoń - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14:574.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to make inferences about relationships between brain areas and their functions because, in contrast to neuroimaging tools, it modulates neuronal activity. The central aim of this article is to critically evaluate to what extent it is possible to draw causal inferences from repetitive TMS data. To that end, we describe the logical limitations of inferences based on rTMS experiments. The presented analysis suggests that rTMS alone does not provide the sort of premises that are sufficient (...)
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  231. Walking Speed Reliably Measures Clinically Significant Changes in Gait by Directional Deep Brain Stimulation.Christopher P. Hurt, Daniel J. Kuhman, Barton L. Guthrie, Carla R. Lima, Melissa Wade & Harrison C. Walker - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Introduction: Although deep brain stimulation often improves levodopa-responsive gait symptoms, robust therapies for gait dysfunction from Parkinson's disease remain a major unmet need. Walking speed could represent a simple, integrated tool to assess DBS efficacy but is often not examined systematically or quantitatively during DBS programming. Here we investigate the reliability and functional significance of changes in gait by directional DBS in the subthalamic nucleus.Methods: Nineteen patients underwent unilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS surgery with an eight-contact directional lead in the most (...)
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  232. Muscle Synergies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Reveal Demand-Specific Alterations in the Modular Organization of Locomotion.Lars Janshen, Alessandro Santuz & Adamantios Arampatzis - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    For patients with multiple sclerosis, deficits in gait significantly reduce the quality of life. Using the concept of muscle synergies, this study investigated the modular organization of motor control during level and inclined walking in MS patients compared with healthy participants to identify the potential demand-specific adjustments in motor control in MSP. We hypothesized a widening of the time-dependent activation patterns in MSP to increase the overlap of temporally-adjacent muscle synergies, especially during inclined walking, as