Year:

  1.  27
    Revolutionary Poetry and Liquid Crystal Chemistry: Herman Gorter, Ada Prins and the Interface Between Literature and Science.Hub Zwart - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 23:1-18.
    In the Netherlands, the poet Herman Gorter is mostly known as the author of the neo-romantic poem May and the “sensitivistic” Poems, but internationally he became famous as a propagandist of radical Marxism: the author of influential brochures and of an “open letter” to comrade W.I. Lenin in 1920. During the 1890s, Gorter became increasingly dissatisfied with his poetry, considering it as ego-centric, disinterested and “bourgeois”, unconnected with what was happening in the real world. He wanted to put his poetry (...)
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  2.  13
    A new definition of reduction between two scientific theories: no reduction of chemistry to quantum mechanics.Antonino Drago - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):421-445.
    All suggested notions of reduction of two scientific theories are critically reviewed and analyzed. In particular those applied to the case of the alleged reduction of Chemistry to Quantum mechanics are examined. Since it is recognized that the weakness of this field of research is the lack of a definition of a scientific theory, it is suggested that a scientific theory is characterized by two choices regarding two dichotomies, that is, the kind of mathematics and the kind of logic. According (...)
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  3.  1
    Guest-editorial.Elena Ghibaudi & Luigi Cerruti - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):349-351.
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  4.  2
    The QSAR Similarity Principle in the Deep Learning Era: Confirmation or Revision?Giuseppina Gini - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):383-402.
    Structure–activity relationship and quantitative SAR are modeling methods largely used in assessing biological properties of chemical substances. QSAR is based on the hypothesis that the chemical structure is responsible for the activity; it follows that similar molecules are expected to have similar properties. Similarity plays an important role in read across, which categorizes molecules primarily on the basis of similarity. Similarity, and chemical similarity too, is a property differently perceived by humans. The various proposed metrics often disagree with human judgment, (...)
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  5.  7
    Philosophy, Natural Kinds, Microstructuralism, and the (Mis)Use of Chemical Examples: Intimacy Versus Integrity as Orientations Towards Chemical Practice.Clevis Headley - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):489-500.
    This essay critically considers the issue of natural kind essentialism. More specifically, the essay critically probes the philosophical use of chemical examples to support realism about natural kinds. My simple contention is that the natural kind debate can be understood in terms of two different cultures of academic production. These two cultures will be conceptualized using Thomas Kasulis’s distinction between intimacy and integrity as cultural orientations. Acknowledging Kasulis’s contention that, “What is foreground in one culture may be background in another”, (...)
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  6.  3
    How to investigate the underpinnings of sciences? The case of the element chlorine.Sarah Hijmans & Jean-Pierre Llored - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):447-456.
    In recent publications, Harré and Llored Challenges of cultural psychology, Routledge, London, pp 189–206, 2018a; Philosophy, 93:167–186, 2018b; The analysis of practices, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, 2019) take the role of philosophy of science as a digging out of the ‘hinges’, that are the tacit elements of a discipline. In this perspective, the philosophy of chemistry consists, at least partly, in making explicit the hinges on which chemistry turns and in examining their origins and logical status. In this (...)
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  7.  8
    Understanding Molecular Structure Requires Constructive Realism.Hirofumi Ochiai - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):457-465.
    Since molecules are inaccessible to immediate observation, our conception of the molecule is brought about by transdiction which entails invention of various transcendental ideas. In organic chemistry we think that molecules consist of atoms, bonds, functional groups, etc. This is, however, not the unique description of the molecule as is shown by quantum mechanical calculations, for example. Then, what description represents the real molecule? Before asking this question, we have to consider what the real molecule is in the first place. (...)
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  8.  7
    Chemistry is pluralistic.Klaus Ruthenberg & Ave Mets - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):403-419.
    Recently, philosophers have come forth with approaches to chemistry based on its actual practice, imparting to it a proper aim and character of its own. These approaches add to the currently growing movement of pluralist philosophies of science. We draw on recent pluralist accounts from chemistry and analyse three notions from modern chemical practice and theory in terms of these accounts, in order to complement the so far more general pluralist approaches with specific evidence. Our survey reveals that the concept (...)
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  9.  8
    A Relational-Constructionist Account of Protein Macrostructure and Function.Gil Santos, Gabriel Vallejos & Davide Vecchi - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):363-382.
    One of the foundational problems of biochemistry concerns the conceptualisation of the relationship between the composition, structure and function of macromolecules like proteins. Part of the recent philosophical literature displays a reductionist bias, that is, the endorsement of a form of microstructuralism mirroring an out-dated biochemical conceptualisation. We shall argue that such microstructuralist approaches are ultimately committed to a potentialist form of micro-predeterminism whereby the macrostructure and function of proteins is accounted for solely in terms of the intrinsic properties and (...)
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  10.  5
    Prediction, accommodation and the periodic table: a reappraisal.Sergio Gabriele Maria Sereno - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):477-488.
    The history of the diffusion and confirmation of Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements has proven to be a challenging testbed for contemporary philosophical debates on the role of predictions in science. More than ten years of fruitful literature came after Scerri and Worrall :407–452, 2001) versus Maher and Lipton ; nevertheless, such a long-lasting debate left quite a few open questions. The aim of this contribution is to go through the various cases that emerged during the debate, in an effort (...)
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  11.  3
    Ontological Status of Time in Chemistry.N. Sukumar - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):353-361.
    While temporal considerations are of prime importance for chemical reactions, as well as for molecular stability, most chemical concepts are not explicitly formulated on a diachronic basis. It will be argued here that a formulation explicitly incorporating temporal and epistemological considerations enables us to treat chemical reactions and chemical substances on ontologically equivalent terms, instead of assigning a more fundamental status to the latter. After all, in collision theory, a chemical substance is just a collision complex that takes too long. (...)
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  12.  8
    Molecular models and scientific realism.Gabriela García Zerecero - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):467-476.
    The practice of theoretical research in chemistry largely consists in the construction of models without which experimentation would be impossible. The best-known theoretical models in chemistry are those of the molecular structures of chemical compounds. What is the correspondence between these models and the unobservable entities that they are meant to explain? What is the ontological status of molecular models? The anti-realists question the basis of the realists’ belief in these entities and the truth claims regarding them. Ultimately, the realist/anti-realist (...)
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  13.  14
    How Mendeleev issued his predictions: comment on Andrea Woody.Chris Campbell & Karoliina Pulkkinen - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):197-215.
    Much has been said about the accuracy of the famous predictions of the Russian chemist Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev, but far less has been written on how he made his predictions. Here we offer an explanation on how Mendeleev used his periodic system to predict both physical and chemical properties of little-known and entirely unknown chemical elements. We argue that there seems to be compelling evidence in favour of Mendeleev genuinely relying on his periodic system in the course of issuing his (...)
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  14.  5
    Organising the Metals and Nonmetals.René E. Vernon - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):217-233.
    The periodic table can be simply demarcated into four classes of metal and four classes of nonmetal. Such a treatment has been obstructed by the traditional view of metalloids as in-between elements; understandable but needless boundary squabbles; and a group-by-group view of the reactive nonmetals. Setting aside these limiting notions reveals some interesting patterns and facilitates teaching and learning the periodic table.
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  15.  4
    Elements of Chemistry: Eric Scerri: The Periodic Table: Its Story and its Significance. 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 472 Pp, £22.99, ISBN: 978-0-19-091436-3.John Emsley - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):275-277.
  16.  12
    Structure, shape, topology: entangled concepts in molecular chemistry.Elena Ghibaudi, Luigi Cerruti & Giovanni Villani - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):279-307.
    The concepts of molecular structure and molecular shape are ubiquitous in the chemical literature, where they are often taken as synonyms, with unavoidable drawbacks in chemistry teaching. A third concept, molecular topology, is less frequent but it is a reference term in molecular research domains such as Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships. The present paper proposes an epistemological analysis of these three notions, aimed at clarifying the nature of their relationship, as well as the contiguities and differences between them. At first, we (...)
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  17.  9
    A Nuclear Periodic Table.K. Hagino & Y. Maeno - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):267-273.
    There has been plenty of empirical evidence which shows that the single-particle picture holds to a good approximation in atomic nuclei. In this picture, protons and neutrons move independently inside a mean-field potential generated by an interaction among the nucleons. This leads to the concept of nuclear shells, similar to the electronic shells in atoms. In particular, the magic numbers due to closures of the nucleonic shells, corresponding to noble gases in elements, have been known to play an important role (...)
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  18.  4
    Correction to: 4D-cubic lattice of chemical elements.Haresh Lalvani - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):195-195.
    In the original publication of the article under the Acknowledgements section, a contributor name was missed out. The corrected statement should read as follows.
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  19.  12
    4D-Cubic Lattice of Chemical Elements.Haresh Lalvani - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):147-194.
    A 4-dimensional periodic table of chemical elements is presented. The 120 elements in the n = 8 system are located on vertices of a 4D-cubic lattice and specified by Cartesian coordinates based on the four quantum numbers. Each quantum number is represented by a vector along a different spatial direction in 4D Euclidean space. The 4D PT has a fixed topology governed by Euler–Poincare-type equation and the chemical elements have a fixed connectivity with neighboring elements within the 4D PT. Various (...)
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  20.  6
    Binódic periodic system: a mathematical approach.Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):235-266.
    This article discusses the mathematizing of the chemical periodic system as a grid, which leads to a quadratic function or “binódica function” formed by pairs of periods or binodos. We describe the periodic law as an increasing function of the principal quantum number. It works subject to the dialectical laws that generate; first: gradual quantitative changes:, with “duplication” of periods:. Second: radical quantitative changes:, with the emergence of new quantum transitions, growth and a change in the format of the binodos. (...)
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  21.  16
    Conceptual confusion in the chemistry curriculum: exemplifying the problematic nature of representing chemical concepts as target knowledge.Keith S. Taber - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):309-334.
    This paper considers the nature of a curriculum as presented in formal curriculum documents, and the inherent difficulties of representing formal disciplinary knowledge in a prescription for teaching and learning. The general points are illustrated by examining aspects of a specific example, taken from the chemistry subject content included in the science programmes of study that are part of the National Curriculum in England. In particular, it is suggested that some statements in the official curriculum document are problematic if we (...)
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  22.  1
    A scale of atomic electronegativity in terms of atomic nucleophilicity index.Hiteshi Tandon, Tanmoy Chakraborty & Vandana Suhag - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):335-346.
    Electronegativity is an important physico-chemical concept to study the chemical structure and reactivity. Although, the conundrum related to measurement of electronegativity still persists. In view of this fact, a simple yet rigorous scale of electronegativity, invoking an inverse relationship with atomic nucleophilicity index, has been proposed for 103 elements of the periodic table. The computed data follows periodicity distinctly satisfying all the sine qua non of a standard scale of electronegativity. Further, electronegativity values display a sound similarity with the standard (...)
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  23.  27
    Reporting the discovery of new chemical elements: working in different worlds, only 25 years apart.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):137-146.
    In his account of scientific revolutions, Thomas Kuhn suggests that after a revolutionary change of theory, it is as if scientists are working in a different world. In this paper, we aim to show that the notion of world change is insightful. We contrast the reporting of the discovery of neon in 1898 with the discovery of hafnium in 1923. The one discovery was made when elements were identified by their atomic weight; the other discovery was made after scientists came (...)
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  24.  7
    Boyle, Spinoza and Glauber: On the Philosophical Redintegration of Saltpeter—a Reply to Antonio Clericuzio.Filip A. A. Buyse - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):59-76.
    The so-called ‘redintegration experiment’ is traditionally at the center of the comments on the supposed Boyle/Spinoza controversy. A. Clericuzio influentially argued in his publications that, in De nitro, Boyle accounted for the ‘redintegration’ of saltpeter on the grounds of the chemical properties of corpuscles and “did not make any attempt to deduce them from mechanical principles”. By way of contrast, this paper argues that with his De nitro Boyle wanted to illustrate and promote his new corpuscular or mechanical philosophy, and (...)
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  25.  6
    Boyle, Spinoza and Glauber: on the philosophical redintegration of saltpeter—a reply to Antonio Clericuzio.Filip A. A. Buyse - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):59-76.
    The so-called ‘redintegration experiment’ is traditionally at the center of the comments on the supposed Boyle/Spinoza controversy. A. Clericuzio influentially argued in his publications that, in De nitro, Boyle accounted for the ‘redintegration’ of saltpeter on the grounds of the chemical properties of corpuscles and “did not make any attempt to deduce them from mechanical principles”. By way of contrast, this paper argues that with his De nitro Boyle wanted to illustrate and promote his new corpuscular or mechanical philosophy, and (...)
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  26.  6
    Teaching of chemistry before and after the periodic table.Jerry Ray Dias - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):99-106.
    An Example of Teaching of Chemistry Before and After Mendeleev’s 1869 Periodic Table of Elements is presented. Prior to Mendeleev’s publication in 1869, only 63 elements were known. The ensuing discovery of the electron and the correspondence of the number of electrons to equivalent weight and atomic number is of singular importance to the impact of the Periodic Table of Elements and the way modern chemistry is taught. Without the identity of the electron and its alliance to atomic number, modern (...)
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  27.  5
    Whom should we credit for the discovery of isotopes?Gareth R. Eaton - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):87-98.
    Whom should we credit for the discovery of isotopes? The first suggestion of an idea, the first experimental proof, or the development of a new method that clearly reveals the isotopes? Strömholm and Svedberg, Fajans and Soddy interpreted patterns of radioactive decay, which became confirmed theory on the solid basis of the very accurate atomic weight determinations by Richards and his coworkers. The mass spectrograph measurements by Aston provided major extension of the concept of isotopes to much of the rest (...)
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  28.  5
    Whom should we credit for the discovery of isotopes?Gareth R. Eaton - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):87-98.
    Whom should we credit for the discovery of isotopes? The first suggestion of an idea, the first experimental proof, or the development of a new method that clearly reveals the isotopes? Strömholm and Svedberg, Fajans and Soddy interpreted patterns of radioactive decay, which became confirmed theory on the solid basis of the very accurate atomic weight determinations by Richards and his coworkers. The mass spectrograph measurements by Aston provided major extension of the concept of isotopes to much of the rest (...)
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  29. Whom should we credit for the discovery of isotopes?Gareth R. Eaton - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):87-98.
    Whom should we credit for the discovery of isotopes? The first suggestion of an idea, the first experimental proof, or the development of a new method that clearly reveals the isotopes? Strömholm and Svedberg, Fajans and Soddy interpreted patterns of radioactive decay, which became confirmed theory on the solid basis of the very accurate atomic weight determinations by Richards and his coworkers. The mass spectrograph measurements by Aston provided major extension of the concept of isotopes to much of the rest (...)
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  30.  3
    The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
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  31. The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
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  32.  1
    The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
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  33.  7
    Pere Grapí: Inspiring Air: A History of Air-Related Science: Wilmington and Malaga, Vernon Press, 2019, Xxx + 352 Pp, $69 £52 €58. [REVIEW]Trevor H. Levere - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):131-133.
  34.  7
    Two-step emergence: the quantum theory of atoms in molecules as a bridge between quantum mechanics and molecular chemistry.Chérif F. Matta, Olimpia Lombardi & Jesús Jaimes Arriaga - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):107-129.
    By moving away from the traditional reductionist reading of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules, in this paper we analyze the role played by QTAIM in the relationship between molecular chemistry and quantum mechanics from an emergentist perspective. In particular, we show that such a relationship involves two steps: an intra-domain emergence and an inter-domain emergence. Intra-domain emergence, internal to quantum mechanics, results from the fact that the electron density, from which all the other QTAIM’s concepts are defined, arises (...)
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  35.  5
    Overcoming skepticism about molecular structure by developing the concept of affordance.Hirofumi Ochiai - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):77-86.
    What chemists take as molecular structure is a theoretical construct based on the concepts of chemical bond, atoms in molecules, etc. and hence it should be distinguished from tangible structures around us. The practical adequacy of it has been demonstrated by the established method of retro-synthetic analysis, for instance. But it is not derived a priori from quantum mechanical treatments of the molecule and criticized for being irrelevant to the reality of the molecule. There is persistent skepticism about it. The (...)
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  36.  9
    Overcoming skepticism about molecular structure by developing the concept of affordance.Hirofumi Ochiai - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):77-86.
    What chemists take as molecular structure is a theoretical construct based on the concepts of chemical bond, atoms in molecules, etc. and hence it should be distinguished from tangible structures around us. The practical adequacy of it has been demonstrated by the established method of retro-synthetic analysis, for instance. But it is not derived a priori from quantum mechanical treatments of the molecule and criticized for being irrelevant to the reality of the molecule. There is persistent skepticism about it. The (...)
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  37.  5
    Overcoming skepticism about molecular structure by developing the concept of affordance.Hirofumi Ochiai - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):77-86.
    What chemists take as molecular structure is a theoretical construct based on the concepts of chemical bond, atoms in molecules, etc. and hence it should be distinguished from tangible structures around us. The practical adequacy of it has been demonstrated by the established method of retro-synthetic analysis, for instance. But it is not derived a priori from quantum mechanical treatments of the molecule and criticized for being irrelevant to the reality of the molecule. There is persistent skepticism about it. The (...)
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  38.  4
    Overcoming skepticism about molecular structure by developing the concept of affordance.Hirofumi Ochiai - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):77-86.
    What chemists take as molecular structure is a theoretical construct based on the concepts of chemical bond, atoms in molecules, etc. and hence it should be distinguished from tangible structures around us. The practical adequacy of it has been demonstrated by the established method of retro-synthetic analysis, for instance. But it is not derived a priori from quantum mechanical treatments of the molecule and criticized for being irrelevant to the reality of the molecule. There is persistent skepticism about it. The (...)
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  39.  6
    Model transfer and conceptual progress: tales from chemistry and biology.Justin Price - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):43-57.
    The dissemination of models across disciplinary lines has become a phenomenon of interest to philosophers of science. To account for this phenomenon, philosophers have invented two units of analysis. The first identifies to the thing that transfers, model templates. The second identifies the thing to which transferable templates apply, landing zones. There exists a dynamic between the thing that is transferred and the thing to which transferrable templates apply. The use of a transferable template in a new domain requires reconception (...)
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  40.  1
    Model transfer and conceptual progress: tales from chemistry and biology.Justin Price - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):43-57.
    The dissemination of models across disciplinary lines has become a phenomenon of interest to philosophers of science. To account for this phenomenon, philosophers have invented two units of analysis. The first identifies to the thing that transfers, model templates. The second identifies the thing to which transferable templates apply, landing zones. There exists a dynamic between the thing that is transferred and the thing to which transferrable templates apply. The use of a transferable template in a new domain requires reconception (...)
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  41.  4
    Model transfer and conceptual progress: tales from chemistry and biology.Justin Price - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):43-57.
    The dissemination of models across disciplinary lines has become a phenomenon of interest to philosophers of science. To account for this phenomenon, philosophers have invented two units of analysis. The first identifies to the thing that transfers, model templates. The second identifies the thing to which transferable templates apply, landing zones. There exists a dynamic between the thing that is transferred and the thing to which transferrable templates apply. The use of a transferable template in a new domain requires reconception (...)
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  42.  4
    The role of idealisations in describing an isolated molecule.Vanessa A. Seifert - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):15-29.
    The investigation of the relation between chemistry and quantum mechanics includes examining how the two theories each describe an isolated molecule. This paper focuses on one particular characteristic of chemistry’s and quantum mechanics’ descriptions of an isolated molecule; namely on the assumptions made by each description that an isolated molecule is stable and has structure. The paper argues that these assumptions are an idealisation. First, this is because stability and structure are partially determined by factors that concern the context in (...)
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  43.  14
    The Role of Idealisations in Describing an Isolated Molecule.Vanessa A. Seifert - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):15-29.
    The investigation of the relation between chemistry and quantum mechanics includes examining how the two theories each describe an isolated molecule. This paper focuses on one particular characteristic of chemistry’s and quantum mechanics’ descriptions of an isolated molecule; namely on the assumptions made by each description that an isolated molecule is stable and has structure. The paper argues that these assumptions are an idealisation. First, this is because stability and structure are partially determined by factors that concern the context in (...)
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  44.  21
    From Telluric Helix to Telluric Remix.Philip J. Stewart - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):3-14.
    The first attempt to represent the Periodic system graphically was the Telluric Helix presented in 1862 by Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois, in which the sequence of elements was wound round a cylinder. This has hardly been attempted since, because the intervals between periodic returns vary in length from 2 to 32 elements, but Charles Janet presented a model wound round four nested cylinders. The rows in Janet’s table are defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n (...)
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