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  1.  9
    Further Light on the Philosophical Significance of Mackay’s Theoretical Discovery of Crystalline Pure Possibilities.Amihud Gilead - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):285-296.
    As early as 1981, about 1 year before Shechtman’s discovery of an actual quasicrystal, Alan L. Mackay discussed, in a seminal paper, the first steps for the expansion of crystallography toward its modern phase. In this phase, new possibilities of structures and order, such as the structures of five-fold symmetry, for crystals have been discovered. Medieval Islamic decorators as well as Albrecht Dürer, Johannes Kepler, Roger Penrose, Mackay himself, and other pioneer crystallographers raised important contributions to the theoretical discovery of (...)
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  2.  5
    Does the Period Table Appear Doubled? Two Variants of Division of Elements Into Two Subsets. Internal and Secondary Periodicity.Naum S. Imyanitov - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):255-284.
    Demarcation of elements for two subsets appears to be the most fundamental approach to their classification. If one draws a vertical straight line through the middle of each block of elements in the Periodic table, all the elements are divided into two subsets: “early” and “later”. For example, in the d-block, the early ones are Sc–Mn, and the late ones, respectively, are Fe–Zn. Later elements partially repeat the properties of the early ones, and this is defined as the internal periodicity. (...)
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  3.  8
    Statistical Mechanical Interpretation of Temperature.Peter G. Nelson - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):325-331.
    A statistical mechanical treatment is given of thermal contact between two systems. Reciprocal temperature emerges from this as the relative change in the number of microscopic states a macroscopic system at equilibrium ranges over, at constant volume and chemical composition, with change in internal energy. The significance of this is discussed in detail with reference to a monatomic gas and an Einstein solid.
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  4.  4
    Thermodynamic Foundations of Physical Chemistry: Reversible Processes and Thermal Equilibrium Into the History.Raffaele Pisano, Abdelkader Anakkar, Emilio Marco Pellegrino & Maxime Nagels - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):297-323.
    In the history of science, the birth of classical chemistry and thermodynamics produced an anomaly within Newtonian mechanical paradigm: force and acceleration were no longer citizens of new cited sciences. Scholars tried to reintroduce them within mechanistic approaches, as the case of the kinetic gas theory. Nevertheless, Thermodynamics, in general, and its Second Law, in particular, gradually affirmed their role of dominant not-reducible cognitive paradigms for various scientific disciplines: more than twenty formulations of Second Law—a sort of indisputable intellectual wealth—are (...)
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  5.  10
    Mineral Misbehavior: Why Mineralogists Don’T Deal in Natural Kinds.Carlos Santana - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):333-343.
    Mineral species are, at first glance, an excellent candidate for an ideal set of natural kinds somewhere beyond the periodic table. Mineralogists have a detailed set of rules and formal procedure for ratifying new species, and minerals are a less messy subject matter than biological species, psychological disorders, or even chemicals more broadly—all areas of taxonomy where the status of species as natural kinds has been disputed. After explaining how philosophers have tended to get mineralogy wrong in discussions of natural (...)
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  6.  5
    Giovanni Villani: Chemistry: A Systemic Complexity Science.Elijah St Germain - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (3):345-348.
  7.  10
    Priestley’s Views on the Composition of Water and Related Airs.Geoffrey Blumenthal - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):147-178.
    In some views in the history, philosophy and social studies of chemistry, Joseph Priestley is at least as well-known and cited for his objections to the new chemistry and his promotion of his own late version of the theory of phlogiston, as for his early series of discoveries about types of air for which he had become famous. These citations are generally not associated with any detailed indications about his late work from 1788 onwards and his late phlogistic theory, of (...)
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  8.  9
    Research of Chemical Elements and Chemical Bonds From the View of Complex Network.Runzhan Liu, Guoyong Mao & Ning Zhang - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):193-206.
    Though complex networks have been widely applied in the research of chemistry, there is hardly any introduction about the establishment of networks using chemical bonds. In this paper, we consider chemical elements as a system linked by chemical bonds and create the undirected chemical bond network by abstracting nodes from elements and undirected edges from bonds. Connectivity, heterogeneity, small world and disassortativity of this network show the macro structural rationality of this system. The degree and k-order neighbors of an element, (...)
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  9.  11
    What is Chemistry That I May Teach It?Peter G. Nelson - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):179-191.
    This article presents a personal answer to the question “What is chemistry?”, set out in terms of six propositions. These cover “pure” and “applied” chemistry, different levels of description, and the broader context of chemistry.
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  10.  10
    A Historical/Epistemological Account of the Foundation of the Key Ideas Supporting Chemical Equilibrium Theory.Juan Quílez - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):221-252.
    In this paper it is performed a historical account of the theoretical roots that grounded the following four key basic ideas of chemical equilibrium: ‘incomplete reaction’, ‘reversibility’, ‘equilibrium constant’ and ‘molecular dynamics’. These notions developed in nineteenth-century as a consequence of the evolution of the concept of chemical affinity. The discussion begins with the presentation of the earliest affinity table [‘Table des rapports’] published in 1718 by Geoffroy. Afterwards, it is examined Bergman’s compilation. The theory supporting this arrangement assumed that (...)
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  11.  7
    Getting It Right is Not Equivalent to Getting It Wrong.Philip J. Stewart - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):145-146.
    Mendeleev’s successful predictions were the fruit of his insight into the structure of the periodic system. His failures were the result of pursuing the pattern he had perceived beyond the limits of its applicability. These two things are not equivalent.
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  12.  4
    The Network Theory: A New Language for Speaking About Chemical Elements Relations Through Stoichiometric Binary Compounds.Rosana del P. Suárez - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):207-220.
    Traditionally the study of chemical elements has been limited to well-known concepts like the periodic properties and chemical families. However, current information shows a new and rich language that allows us to observe relations in the elements that are not limited to their positions in the table. These relations are evident when reactions are represented through networks, as in the case of similar reactivity of organic compounds sharing functional groups. For the past two decades, it has been argued that network (...)
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  13.  3
    What to Make of Mendeleev’s Predictions?K. Brad Wray - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):139-143.
    I critically examine Stewart’s suggestion that we should weigh the various predictions Mendeleev made differently. I argue that in his effort to justify discounting the weight of some of Mendeleev’s failures, Stewart invokes a principle that will, in turn, reduce the weight of some of the successful predictions Mendeleev made. So Stewart’s strategy will not necessarily lead to a net gain in Mendeleev’s favor.
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  14.  8
    Incompatible Models in Chemistry: The Case of Electronegativity.Hernán Lucas Accorinti - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):71-81.
    During the second half of the nineteenth century, electronegativity has been one of the most relevant chemical concepts to explain the relationships between chemical substances and their possible reactions. Specifically, EN is a property of the substances that allows them to attract external electrons in bonding situations. The problem arises because EN cannot be measured directly. Indeed, the only way to measure it is through different properties that do can be directly measured, for instance enthalpy, ionization energies or electron affinities. (...)
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  15.  34
    A New Chapter in the Problem of the Reduction of Chemistry to Physics: The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules.Jesus Alberto Jaimes Arriaga, Sebastian Fortin & Olimpia Lombardi - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):125-136.
    The problem of the reduction of chemistry to physics has been traditionally addressed in terms of classical structural chemistry and standard quantum mechanics. In this work, we will study the problem from the perspective of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, proposed by Richard Bader in the nineties. The purpose of this article is to unveil the role of QTAIM in the inter-theoretical relations between chemistry and physics. We argue that, although the QTAIM solves two relevant obstacles to reduction (...)
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  16.  6
    The Function of Microstructure in Boyle’s Chemical Philosophy: ‘Chymical Atoms' and Structural Explanation.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):51-59.
    One of several important issues that inform contemporary philosophy of chemistry is the issue of structural explanation, precisely because modern chemistry is primarily concerned with microstructure. This paper argues that concern over microstructure, albeit understood differently than it is today, also informs the chemical philosophy of Robert Boyle. According to Boyle, the specific microstructure of ‘chymical atoms’, understood in geometric terms, accounts for the unique essential properties of different chemical substances. Because he considers the microstructure of ‘chymical atoms’ as semi-permanent, (...)
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  17.  12
    About Continuity and Rupture in the History of Chemistry: The Fourth Chemical Revolution.José A. Chamizo - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):11-29.
    A layered interpretation of the history of chemistry is discussed through chemical revolutions. A chemical revolution mainly by emplacement, instead of replacement, procedures were identified by: a radical reinterpretation of existing thought recognized by contemporaries themselves, which means the appearance of new concepts and the arrival of new theories; the use of new instruments changed the way in which its practitioners looked and worked in the world and through exemplars, new entities were discovered or incorporated; the opening of new subdisciplines, (...)
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  18.  8
    Guest Editorial: ISPC 2015 Special Issue.Sebastian Fortin, Camilo Martinez Gonzalez, Alfio Zambon & Waldmir Araujo Neto - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):49-50.
  19.  17
    Why Molecular Structure Cannot Be Strictly Reduced to Quantum Mechanics.Juan Camilo Martínez González, Sebastian Fortin & Olimpia Lombardi - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):31-45.
    Perhaps the hottest topic in the philosophy of chemistry is that of the relationship between chemistry and physics. The problem finds one of its main manifestations in the debate about the nature of molecular structure, given by the spatial arrangement of the nuclei in a molecule. The traditional strategy to address the problem is to consider chemical cases that challenge the definition of molecular structure in quantum–mechanical terms. Instead of taking that top-down strategy, in this paper we face the problem (...)
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  20.  11
    Correction To: Valencies of the Lanthanides.David A. Johnson & Peter G. Nelson - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):47-48.
    The authors regret that there are errors in equation and subsequent discussion. The correct version is as follows.
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  21.  19
    The Problem of Optical Isomerism and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Juan Camilo Martínez González - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):97-107.
    When young Kant meditated upon the distinction between his right and left hands, he could not foresee that the problem of incongruent counterparts would revive in the twentieth century under a new form. In the early days of quantum chemistry, Friedrich Hund developed the so-called Hund paradox that arises from the supposed inability of quantum mechanics to account for the difference between enantiomers. In this paper, the paradox is expressed as a case of quantum measurement, stressing that decoherence does not (...)
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  22.  4
    Émile Meyerson and Mass Conservation in Chemical Reactions: A Priori Expectations Versus Experimental Tests.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):109-124.
    In his celebrated historic-epistemological work Identité et réalité, Émile Meyerson claimed that the scientific conservation principles were first suggested and accepted for philosophical reasons, and only afterwards were submitted to experimental tests. One of the instances he discussed in his book is the principle of mass conservation in chemical reactions. Meyerson pointed out that several authors, from Antiquity to Kant, accepted the idea of quantitative conservation of matter; and Lavoisier himself was strongly influenced by a priori ideas, using this principle (...)
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  23.  5
    Re-Evaluating Semi-Empirical Computer Simulations in Quantum Chemistry.María Silvia Polzella & Penélope Lodeyro - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):83-95.
    Usually within the context of computer simulations in quantum chemistry practices, there is a distinction between ab initio and semi-empirical methods. Related to this, a controversy within the scientific and philosophical communities came about regarding the superiority of the ab initio methods due to their theoretical rigor. In this article we re-evaluate the condition of the semi-empirical simulations in this area of research. We examine some of the aspects of this debate that have been considered in philosophy and provide additional (...)
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  24.  10
    Five Ideas in Chemical Education That Must Die.Eric R. Scerri - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):61-69.
    The article concerns five traditionally difficult issues that chemical educators encounter and how they should be resolved. In some cases I propose the examination of necessary and sufficient conditions in order to cast light on the relationships under discussion. The five educational issues are, the notion that a pH value of seven implies a neutral solution of water and vice versa, the use of Le Châtelier’s Principle, the relative occupation and ionization of 4s and 3d orbitals, the explanation of anomalous (...)
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  25.  7
    Mendeleev’s Predictions: Success and Failure.Philip J. Stewart - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):3-9.
    Dmitri Mendeleev’s detailed prediction in 1871 of the properties of three as yet unknown elements earned him enormous prestige. Eleven other predictions, thrown off without elaboration, were less uniformly successful, thanks mainly his unbending adherence to the structure of his table and his failure to account for the lanthanides. At the end of his life he returned to his table without making the required changes, and added a theoretical discussion of elements lighter than hydrogen. The overall balance of success and (...)
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