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  1.  12
    Observing Mythical Entities.Andrea Altobrando - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):302-335.
    Sellars has taught us that we do not have direct epistemic access to sense data. Therefore, the latter cannot work as the bedrock of our knowledge. At the same time, through the myth of genius Jones, Sellars has tried to explain how we become able to rationally refer to sense data. What is more, it even seems that, following Jones’ teachings, the Rylean folk have become able to observe sense data. How could this be possible if sense data are merely (...)
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  2.  12
    Warum sich doch sinnvoll über Geschmack streiten lässt.Aline Dammel - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):404-415.
    When we use so-called predicates of personal taste to talk about an object, we express our subjective experience of the object. There is no objective truth about whether a given thing is, say, funny. I shall argue that it can make sense to argue about matters of taste anyway because (a) there are good reasons to want to change our interlocutor’s relevant experience, and (b) disputes about taste can bring about such a change. These reasons can be moral or political. (...)
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  3.  14
    Rational Belief, Reflection, and Undercutting Defeat.Frank Hofmann - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):354-373.
    Philosophers disagree about the role of reflection for rationality, understood as the capacity to (properly) respond to genuine, normative reasons. Here, ‘reflection’ means the capacity for self-conscious normative meta-cognition. This article develops and rejects a novel argument – the argument from undercutting defeaters – in favor of the ‘one-level view’ that holds that having the concept of a belief (and of a reason) is necessary for responding to reasons. It will be argued that the ‘two-level view’, which allows for rational (...)
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  4.  7
    Did A. J. Ayer Bring Logical Positivism to England?Artur Koterski - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):253-276.
    Ayer’s Language, Truth and Logic (1936) was immediately regarded as a clear and faithful presentation of the views of the Vienna Circle to English-speaking readers. Since Ayer wrote this book after his visit to Vienna, where he participated in the meetings of the Circle, one may often hear to this day that he brought logical positivism to England. However, while Ayer’s conception was a form of logical positivism, it significantly differed from its Viennese counterpart(s). The key discrepancies are related to (...)
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  5.  21
    Streiten über Geschmack.Matthias Luxenburger - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):416-427.
    The aim of this article is to refute the aphorism “There is no arguing about taste”. On the one hand, judgements of taste arise from individual feelings, on the other hand, they claim to be universally valid. The question of whether there can be sensible dispute about taste arises from this conflict between subjectivity and universality. The article shows how sensible dispute is possible without denying the subjective character of the judgement. Dispute leads to an explication of the standard that (...)
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  6.  20
    Can Tacit Know-How Be Acquired via Testimony?Abida Malik - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):374-403.
    The role of testimony in the transmission and generation of knowledge has been debated vigorously in contemporary epistemology. More recently, types other than propositional knowledge are also being discussed, among them know-how. No special attention, however, has been paid so far to tacit forms of know-how. In this article, I am arguing for the thesis that testimony, if understood in an inclusive way, can play a central role in the transmission and generation of tacit know-how. This thesis is embedded in (...)
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  7.  99
    Book Review: René van Woudenberg: The Epistemology of Reading and Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2021. [REVIEW]Maria Elisabeth Reicher - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):429–445.
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  8.  16
    The Epistemology of Reading and Interpretation, written by René van Woudenberg.Maria Elisabeth Reicher - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):429-445.
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  9.  21
    Was Moore talking nonsense?: Wittgenstein’s criticism in On Certainty.Edoardo Https://Orcidorg Sartore - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):277-301.
    This article examines Wittgenstein’s criticism of Moore’s use of “know”, as he developed it in On Certainty. Arguing against much of the literature, the author claims that, by Wittgenstein’s own lights, Moore was not talking nonsense. He does so by showing, first, that the standard reading is based on the idea that hinge propositions are non-epistemic, and second, that Wittgenstein’s alleged adoption of the non-epistemic view is not adequately supported by the textual evidence. The author argues that claims to the (...)
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  10.  21
    When Is a Belief Formed in an Epistemically Circular Way?Todd M. Stewart - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (3):336-353.
    While there has been a great deal of discussion of whether and when beliefs formed in an epistemically circular manner can be justified, there has been almost no discussion of exactly which beliefs are formed in a circular manner. These discussions have tended to focus on an extremely limited number of intuitively-identified paradigm examples concerning attempts to establish the reliability of a method of belief formation. Here, I seek to answer a prior analytical question about the nature of epistemic circularity (...)
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  11.  21
    Franz Brentano’s Conception of the Object and its Intentional Inexistence.Mauro Antonelli - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):79-112.
    In line with earlier works, this article argues for a “continuist” interpretation of Brentano’s conception of intentionality. It maintains that Brentano’s conception of intentionality rests on a complex set of notions, which are reduced to a minimal core or applied more fully depending on the complexity of the mental phenomenon under consideration and perspective from which it is analyzed. The article positions this conceptual structure in relation to theories of objects developed within the framework of late- and Neo-Scholastic philosophy where, (...)
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  12.  11
    Der Gegenstandsbegriff als terminologische Hürde für Brentanos Konzeption intentionaler Inexistenz.Johannes L. Brandl - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):131-150.
    Brentano’s use of the expression ‘intentional inexistence’ poses a considerable terminological problem. This is due not only to the expressions ‘intentional’ and ‘inexistence’ contained in it. The biggest hurdle is the liberal use of the expression ‘object’, which is encouraged by Brentano’s notion of intentional inexistent (or immanent) objects. Carlo Ierna tries to meet this problem with a strategy that allows to hold on to the notion of intentional inexistence without accepting immanent objects. The originality of his interpretation lies, as (...)
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  13.  8
    Geleitwort.Johannes L. Brandl, Marian David, Martina Fürst, Guido Melchior, Dolf Rami, Maria Reicher & Leopold Stubenberg - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):3-4.
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  14.  8
    Franz Brentano: Die intentionale Beziehung und die Bedeutung der Namen und Aussagen.Joelma Marques de Carvalho, Johannes L. Brandl & Carlo Ierna - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):8-53.
    In this article I provide an overview of the many different terms that Brentano sometimes uses as synonyms or as explanations for “intentional inexistence”. The many terms associated with intentional inexistence appear in many different contexts, and we can conclude that Brentano uses these terms primarily to describe a property that is accidental and dependent on the subject from which it arises and with which it passes away. Ontologically, both properties and substances exist, but the former requires a substance (the (...)
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  15.  15
    Homeless Objects.Guillaume Fréchette - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):207-230.
    In this article, I shed some light on Meinong’s motivations for the theory of objects. I argue that one of its basic principles, the principle of indifference, is driven by an intuition common to many Austrian philosophers, which is that something must first be somehow pre-given in order to simply address the issue of its being or non-being. Meinong’s way of spelling out this intuition, I suggest, is to show that there are homeless objects, that is, objects that are not (...)
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  16.  19
    Das intentionale Objekt als Unding.Carlo Ierna - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):113-130.
    The so-called “intentional object” occupies a central position in the debates about intentionality in Brentano and the Brentano School. How does it relate to the correlate, the content, or the intended, possibly external, transcendent object? Does it perhaps even coincide with one of these? There was no clear consensus on this neither in Brentano’s time nor today. In order to develop a new perspective on the problem of the intentional object, I would like to introduce a deliberately radical interpretation and (...)
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  17.  14
    Intentionality as Consciousness of Marks.Davide Dalla Rosa - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):197-204.
    In this short comment, I will first recapitulate some of the substantive claims Textor attributes to Brentano, and then propose to use Kant’s epistemology to extend the central argumentative conclusion of Textor’s article, namely the assertion that “where there is something mental, there is awareness of marks”.
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  18.  16
    Brentanians against Relationalism about Colours.Hamid Taieb - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):231-251.
    The aim of my article is to present the critique by Brentanians – more precisely, by Brentano himself and his students Stumpf and Marty – of the thesis that colours are properties that are relational to a perceiver. For Brentanians, colours are monadic physical properties. Brentanians, I will show, think that colours do not exhibit a relationality to perception when we experience them, and that the concepts of them do not contain any mark representing a relation to perception; this phenomenological (...)
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  19.  20
    Brentano on Act, Content and Intentionality.Mark Textor - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):173-196.
    This article offers a reconstruction of Brentano’s notion of act content that identifies the content of a mental act with a combination of marks (Merkmale) or a single such mark. The author will first clarify the role act content plays in Brentano’s philosophy of psychology and then go on to locate the proposed notion of content in the historical context of Brentano’s work as well as in his writings at the time of Psychologie. The author will defend this notion against (...)
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  20.  22
    Judgement and Intentionality in Early Brentano.Maria van der Schaar - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 100 (1-2):151-172.
    There are two notions of intentionality: the first contains the thesis that our acts of thinking, judging and loving have a content; the second that our mental acts are about something external to the act. Brentano uses the term ‘intentionality’ only in relation to the first notion; for him, intentionality does not function as a bridge between the mind and the external world. Is it possible for a phenomenologist like Brentano to give an account of the second notion of intentionality? (...)
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  21.  26
    Why Attitudes Are Not Character Traits.René Baston - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 99 (4):524-543.
    In social psychology, explicit and implicit attitudes play an important role for behavior prediction and explanation. Edouard Machery claims that attitudes are not mental states but dispositional character traits. The goal of this article is to show that this conceptualization of attitudes comes with two weaknesses: first, the author will show that if attitudes are traits, they are unmeasurable, or if we assume that a part of the trait is measurable, then we do not need the trait-picture, because then the (...)
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  22. A Loosely Wittgensteinian Conception of the Linguistic Understanding of Large Language Models like BERT, GPT-3, and ChatGPT.Reto Gubelmann - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 99 (4):485-523.
    In this article, I develop a loosely Wittgensteinian conception of what it takes for a being, including an AI system, to understand language, and I suggest that current state of the art systems are closer to fulfilling these requirements than one might think. Developing and defending this claim has both empirical and conceptual aspects. The conceptual aspects concern the criteria that are reasonably applied when judging whether some being understands language; the empirical aspects concern the question whether a given being (...)
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  23.  20
    Mathematics as Calculus and as Grammar.Felix Mühlhölzer - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 99 (4):570-597.
    Severin Schroeder’s book Wittgenstein on Mathematics is reviewed and at the same time critically discussed by concentrating on its main aim: to show the coherence of Wittgenstein’s mature philosophy of mathematics. Although Schroeder is dealing with Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics in its entirety, he is mainly interested in the mature philosophy which he sees as dominated by two central ideas: that mathematics is essentially algorithmic, called the calculus view, and that the results of mathematical proofs are grammatical propositions, called the (...)
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  24.  28
    How Reasons Guide Us (in Reasoning and Rationalisation).Franziska Poprawe - 2023 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 99 (4):544-569.
    The common-sense view that reasons guide us in thought and action and that humans are essentially reason-responsive animals is increasingly under attack by defenders of what one can call the Rationalisation View, which emphasises that we typically rationalise actions and judgements that are based on intuition rather than reasoning. This article defends the former view of human Reason, partly by replying to prominent advocates of the latter, partly by proposing accounts of reflective reasoning and rationalisation that bring to light a (...)
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