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  1.  6
    Continuity Through Change: State Social Research and Sociology in Portugal.Frederico Ágoas - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):243-265.
    This article examines the development of empirical social research in Portugal over about a century and its relation to the early institutionalization of sociology at the tail end of that period. Relying on new empirical data, coupled with a critical reading of the main sources on the topic, it brings to light some epistemic invariants in a disparate body of research, acknowledging the initial persistence of Le Play-inspired as well as properly Le Playsian research methods. Furthermore, it identifies the general (...)
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  2.  5
    Writing the History of Postcolonial and Transcultural Psychiatry in Africa. [REVIEW]Ana Antic - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):374-384.
  3.  1
    Renegades or Liberals? Recent Reflections on the Boasian Legacies in American Anthropology. [REVIEW]Nicholas Barron - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):362-373.
  4.  3
    A History of the Data Present. [REVIEW]David Beer - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):385-398.
  5.  10
    Talking Therapy: The Allopathic Nihilation of Homoeopathy Through Conceptual Translation and a New Medical Language.Lyn Brierley-Jones - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):121-141.
    The 19th century saw the development of an eclectic medical marketplace in both the United Kingdom and the United States, with mesmerists, herbalists and hydrotherapists amongst the plethora of medical ‘sectarians’ offering mainstream medicine stiff competition. Foremost amongst these competitors were homoeopaths, a group of practitioners who followed Samuel Hahnemann in prescribing highly dilute doses of single-drug substances at infrequent intervals according to the ‘law of similars’. The theoretical sophistication of homoeopathy, compared to other medical sectarian systems, alongside its institutional (...)
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  6.  1
    Working in Cases: British Psychiatric Social Workers and a History of Psychoanalysis From the Middle, C.1930–60.Juliana Broad - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):169-194.
    Histories of psychoanalysis largely respect the boundaries drawn by the psychoanalytic profession, suggesting that the development of psychoanalytic theories and techniques has been the exclusive remit of professionally trained analysts. In this article, I offer an historical example that poses a challenge to this orthodoxy. Based on extensive archival material, I show how British psychiatric social workers, a little-studied group of specialist mental hygiene workers, advanced key organisational, observational, and theoretical insights that shaped mid-century British psychoanalysis. In their daily work (...)
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  7.  9
    Parallel Structures: André Leroi-Gourhan, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and the Making of French Structural Anthropology.Jacob Collins - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):307-335.
    This article reframes our understanding of French structural anthropology by considering the work of André Leroi-Gourhan alongside that of Claude Lévi-Strauss. These two anthropologists worked at opposite poles of the discipline, Lévi-Strauss studying cultural objects, like myths and kinship relations; Leroi-Gourhan looking at material artifacts, such as stone tools, bones, arrowheads, and cave paintings. In spite of their difference in focus, these thinkers shared a similar approach to the interpretation of their sources: Each individual object was meaningful only as part (...)
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  8.  2
    ‘This Scene is Itself Living’: Buildings as Landscapes in Transatlantic Human Geography, 1870–1970.Peter Ekman - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):336-361.
    What do houses do to the people who live with them? In what sense are houses themselves living things? If they live and act, how to conceive of the relationship between built and natural landscapes, and between environment and life more broadly? This article considers three moments at which human geographers have attempted to answer these questions without submitting to visions of environmental causation and constraint favoured by determinists, who dominated the discipline into the early 20th century. The article begins (...)
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  9.  7
    The Influence of Classical Stoicism on John Locke’s Theory of Self-Ownership.Lisa Hill & Prasanna Nidumolu - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):3-24.
    The most important parent of the idea of property in the person is undoubtedly John Locke. In this article, we argue that the origins of this idea can be traced back as far as the third century BCE, to classical Stoicism. Stoic cosmopolitanism, with its insistence on impartiality and the moral equality of all persons, lays the foundation for the idea of self-ownership, which is then given support in the doctrine of oikeiosis and the corresponding belief that nature had made (...)
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  10.  4
    Ideology and Science: The Story of Polish Psychology in the Communist Period.Leszek Koczanowicz & Iwona Koczanowicz-Dehnel - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):195-217.
    This article presents a fragment of the history of psychology in Poland, discussing its development in the years 1945–56, which saw sweeping political and geographical transformations. In that maelstrom of history, psychology was particularly affected by the effects of geopolitical changes, which led to its symbolic ‘arrest’ in 1952, when psychological practice was prohibited and all psychology courses were abolished at universities. Amnesty was declared only in 1956, with the demise of the so-called Stalinist ‘cult of personality’ and the onset (...)
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  11.  4
    Psychological Theory as Administrative Politics: Boris Lomov’s Systems Approach in the Context of the Soviet Science Establishment.Vladimir Konnov - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):218-242.
    The article is a study into the advent of the ‘systems approach’ in Soviet psychology in the 1970s. This arose mainly through the theoretical publications of B. F. Lomov, written after he had been appointed director of the newly established Institute of Psychology. These publications are examined as reflections of those interests related to the sociopolitical role of the director of this leading psychology institution, which was officially charged with building a common theoretical and methodological framework for all Soviet psychology. (...)
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  12.  16
    Psychoanalysis and the Antinomies of an Archaeologist: Andrea Carandini, the Ruins of Rome, and the Writing of History.Tom McCaskie - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):49-75.
    Freud’s fascination with the ruins of ancient Rome was an element in the formation and development of psychology. This article concerns the intersection of psychoanalysis with archaeology and history in the study of that city. Its substantive content is an analysis of the life and career of Andrea Carandini, the best-known Roman archaeologist of the past 40 years. He has said and written much about his changing views of himself and about what he is trying to do in his approach (...)
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  13.  5
    Organism and Environment in Auguste Comte.Ryan McVeigh - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):76-97.
    This article focuses on Auguste Comte’s understanding of the organism–environment relationship. It makes three key claims therein: Comte’s metaphysical position privileged materiality and relativized the intellect along two dimensions: one related to the biological organism, one related to the social environment; this twofold materiality confounds attempts to reduce cognition to either nature or nurture, so Comte’s position has interesting parallels to the field of ‘epigenetics’, which sees the social environment as a causative factor in biology; and although Comte ultimately diverged (...)
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  14.  4
    A ‘Commonsense’ Psychoanalysis: Listening to the Psychosocial Dreamer in Interwar Glasgow Psychiatry.Sarah Phelan - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):142-168.
    This article historicises a dream analytic intervention launched in the 1930s by Scottish psychiatrist and future professor of psychological medicine at the University of Glasgow, Thomas Ferguson Rodger. Intimate therapeutic meetings with five male patients are preserved within the so-called ‘dream books’, six manuscript notebooks from Rodger’s earlier career. Investigating one such case history in parallel with lecture material, this article elucidates the origins of Rodger’s adapted, rapport-centred psychotherapy, offered in his post-war National Health Service, Glasgow-based department. Oriented in a (...)
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  15.  10
    The Past of Predicting the Future: A Review of the Multidisciplinary History of Affective Forecasting.Maya A. Pilin - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):290-306.
    Affective forecasting refers to the ability to predict future emotions, a skill that is essential to making decisions on a daily basis. Studies of the concept have determined that individuals are often inaccurate in making such affective forecasts. However, the mechanisms of these errors are not yet clear. In order to better understand why affective forecasting errors occur, this article seeks to trace the theoretical roots of this theory with a focus on its multidisciplinary history. The roots of affective forecasting (...)
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  16.  7
    The Synthesis of Consciousness and the Latent Life of the Mind: Philosophy, Psychopathology, and ‘Cryptopsychism’ in Fin-de-Siècle France.Pietro Terzi - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):98-120.
    In fin-de-siècle France, we witness a strange circulation of concepts between philosophy, theoretical and experimental psychology, and the borderline realm of what we would now call meta- or parapsychology. This was a time characterized by a complex process of redefinition of the disciplinary frontiers between philosophy and psychology, which favoured the birth of hybrid conceptualities and stark oppositions as well. Furthermore, the great scientific advances in physics, physiology, and psychology fostered hope for a full rational explanation of reality, even of (...)
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  17.  6
    Recomposing Persons: Scavenging and Storytelling in a Birth Cohort Archive.Penny Tinkler, Resto Cruz & Laura Fenton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):266-289.
    Birth cohort studies can be used not only to generate population-level quantitative data, but also to recompose persons. The crux is how we understand data and persons. Recomposition entails scavenging for various data. It foregrounds the perspective and subjectivity of survey participants, but without forgetting the partiality and incompleteness of the accounts that it may generate. Although interested in the singularity of individuals, it attends to the historical and relational embeddedness of personhood. It examines the multiple and complex temporalities that (...)
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  18.  4
    Freedom and Addiction in Four Discursive Registers: A Comparative Historical Study of Values in Addiction Science.Darin Weinberg - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):25-48.
    Mainstream addiction science is today widely marked by an antinomy between a neurologically determinist understanding of the human brain ‘hijacked’ by the biochemical allure of intoxicants and a liberal voluntarist conception of drug use as a free exercise of choice. Prominent defenders of both discourses strive, ultimately without complete success, to provide accounts that are both universal and value-neutral. This has resulted in a variety of conceptual problems and has undermined the utility of such research for those who seek to (...)
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  19.  7
    Types, Norms, and Normalisation: Hormone Research and Treatments in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil, C. 1900–50.Chiara Beccalossi - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):113-137.
    Displacing the physiological model that had held sway in 19th-century medical thinking, early 20th-century hormone research promoted an understanding of the body and sexual desires in which variations in sex characteristics and non-reproductive sexual behaviours such as homosexuality were attributed to anomalies in the internal secretions produced by the testes or the ovaries. Biotypology, a new brand of medical science conceived and led by the Italian endocrinologist Nicola Pende, employed hormone research to study human types and hormone treatments to normalise (...)
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  20.  13
    Hat Sizes and Craniometry: Professional Know-How and Scientific Knowledge.Peter Cryle - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):46-65.
    This article examines the relation between commercial activity and knowledge-making, looking at hatmakers in order to open up a more general question about the overlap between the knowledge practices of 19th-century science and those of everyday commercial culture of the time. Phrenology also claims attention here, since it can be said to have occupied an intermediate position between science and commerce. From time to time during the first half of the century, phrenologists attended to hatmakers in the hope of gleaning (...)
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  21.  10
    Normality: A Collection of Essays.Peter Cryle & Elizabeth Stephens - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):3-8.
    This article introduces a collection of articles written in response to a recently published intellectual and cultural history of normality by Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens. It points to the fact that this special issue considerably extends and enriches the topical range of the book. The articles that follow discuss, in order, schooling in France at the time of the Revolution, phrenology in Europe and the US from 1840 to 1940, relations between commercial practice and scientific craniometry in 19th-century Britain (...)
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  22.  7
    Félida, Doubled Personality, and the ‘Normal State’ in Late 19th-Century French Psychology.Kim M. Hajek - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):66-89.
    The case of Félida X and her ‘doubled personality’ served in the last quarter of the 19th century as a proving ground for a distinctively French form of psychology that bore the stamp of physiology, including the comparative term normal state. Debates around Félida’s case provided the occasion for reflection about how that term and its opposites could take their places in the emerging discursive field of psychopathology. This article centres its analysis on Eugène Azam’s 1876–77 study of Félida, and (...)
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  23.  15
    Normal Enough? Krafft-Ebing, Freud, and Homosexuality.Birgit Lang - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):90-112.
    This article analyses the slippery notions of the normal and normality in select works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud and argues that homosexuality became a ‘boundary object’ between the normal and the abnormal in their works. Constructing homosexuality as ‘normal enough’ provided these two key thinkers of the fin de siècle with an opportunity to challenge societal and medical norms: Krafft-Ebing did this through mapping perversions; Freud, by challenging perceived norms about sexual development more broadly. The article submits (...)
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  24.  12
    After the Normal.Elizabeth Stephens - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):138-147.
  25.  4
    Phrenology and the Average Person, 1840–1940.Fenneke Sysling - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):27-45.
    The popular science of phrenology is known for its preoccupation with geniuses and criminals, but this article shows that phrenologists also introduced ideas about the ‘average’ person. Popular phrenologists in the US and the UK examined the heads of their clients to give an indication of their character. Based on the publications of phrenologists and on a large collection of standardized charts with clients’ scores, this article analyses their definition of what they considered to be the ‘average’. It can be (...)
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  26.  9
    ‘The Revolution is to the Human Mind What the African Sun is to Vegetation’: Revolution, Heat, and the Normal School Project.Caroline Warman - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):9-26.
    This article focuses on a slightly earlier period in its investigation of the meanings of and associations with the term normal than Cryle and Stephens have done in their recent book. It looks at the establishment and rapid demise of the Ecole normale in Paris in 1794–5, founded on the same model as a school for the manufacture of arms that had operated in spring 1794, and suggests that this model was not only responsible for some of the problems the (...)
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  27.  4
    More Than a Case of Mistaken Identity: Adult Entertainment and the Making of Early Sexology.Sarah Bull - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):10-39.
    Sexology emerged as a discipline during a period of keen concern about the social effects of sexually explicit media. In this context, sex researchers and their allies took pains to establish the respectability of their work, a process that often involved positioning sexual science in opposition to erotic literature and images. This article argues that this presentation of sexual science obfuscated sex researchers’ complex relationship with erotic print culture, which during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided sexual scientists (...)
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  28.  6
    Cold War Pavlov: Homosexual Aversion Therapy in the 1960s.Kate Davison - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):89-119.
    Homosexual aversion therapy enjoyed two brief but intense periods of clinical experimentation: between 1950 and 1962 in Czechoslovakia, and between 1962 and 1975 in the British Commonwealth. The specific context of its emergence was the geopolitical polarization of the Cold War and a parallel polarization within psychological medicine between Pavlovian and Freudian paradigms. In 1949, the Pavlovian paradigm became the guiding doctrine in the Communist bloc, characterized by a psychophysiological or materialist understanding of mental illness. It was taken up by (...)
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  29.  7
    The Unexpected American Origins of Sexology and Sexual Science: Elizabeth Osgood Goodrich Willard, Orson Squire Fowler, and the Scientification of Sex.Benjamin Kahan - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):71-88.
    In spite of the fact that the term ‘sexology’ was popularized in the United States by Elizabeth Osgood Goodrich Willard and that the term ‘sexual science’—which is usually attributed to Iwan Bloch as ‘Sexualwissenschaft’—was actually coined by the American phrenologist Orson Squire Fowler in 1852, the archives of American sexology have received scant attention in the period prior to Alfred Kinsey. In my article, I explore the role of Transcendentalism and phrenology in the production and development of American sexology and (...)
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  30.  10
    Histories of Sexology Today: Reimagining the Boundaries of Scientia Sexualis.Kirsten Leng & Katie Sutton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):3-9.
    The historiography of sexology is young. It is also expanding at a remarkable pace, both in terms of the volume of publications and, more notably, in terms of its geographical, disciplinary, and intersectional reach. This special issue takes stock of these new directions, while offering new research contributions that expand our understanding of the interdisciplinary and transnational formation of this field from the late 19th through to the mid 20th century. The five articles that make up this special issue stage (...)
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  31.  4
    The Potency of the Butterfly: The Reception of Richard B. Goldschmidt’s Animal Experiments in German Sexology Around 1920.Ina Linge - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):40-70.
    This article considers the sexual politics of animal evidence in the context of German sexology around 1920. In the 1910s, the German-Jewish geneticist Richard B. Goldschmidt conducted experiments on the moth Lymantria dispar, and discovered individuals that were no longer clearly identifiable as male or female. When he published an article tentatively arguing that his research on ‘intersex butterflies’ could be used to inform concurrent debates about human homosexuality, he triggered a flurry of responses from Berlin-based sexologists. In this article, (...)
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  32.  5
    Kinsey and the Psychoanalysts: Cross-Disciplinary Knowledge Production in Post-War US Sex Research.Katie Sutton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):120-147.
    The historical forces of war and migration impacted heavily on the disciplinary locations, practitioners, and structures of sexology and psychoanalysis that had developed in the first decades of the 20th century. By the late 1940s, the US was fast becoming the world centre of each of these prominent fields within the modern human sciences. During these years, the work of Alfred C. Kinsey and his team became synonymous with a distinctly North American brand of empirical sex research. This article offers (...)
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  33.  3
    Reviewer Acknowledgement 2020.Katie Sutton & Kirsten Leng - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):148-149.
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