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  1. On Staging Work: How Research Funding Bodies Create Adaptive Coherence in Times of Projectification.Roland Bal, Lieke Oldenhof & Rik Wehrens - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):483-516.
    While recent science and technology studies literature focuses on “projectification” and its felt tensions for researchers, a surprising scarcity of empirical work addresses experiences at the “other end,” such as funding bodies often held “responsible” for tensions encountered by researchers. Actors in funding bodies experience similar tensions, however. While projectification necessitates predictability and individual project objectives, research funding is also increasingly organized in networks promoting local experimentation. Moreover, funding bodies are part of a system of accountability in which investments are (...)
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  2. The Coronavirus as a Revenge Effect: The Pandemic From the Perspective of Philosophy of Technique.Manuel Carabantes - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):544-567.
    The 2020 coronavirus pandemic is a phenomenon of great interest from the point of view of philosophy of technique. In this paper, we propose an interpretation of its causes and its current and foreseeable effects through a dual theoretical framework. On the one hand, we will use Edward Tenner’s concept of the revenge effect, which refers to the phenomenon by which a technique produces unexpected consequences that cancel its objective. In this case, modern mobility techniques, by spreading the disease on (...)
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  3.  3
    Tracing Long-Term Value Change in (Energy) Technologies: Opportunities of Probabilistic Topic Models Using Large Data Sets.E. J. L. Chappin, I. R. van de Poel & T. E. de Wildt - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):429-458.
    We propose a new approach for tracing value change. Value change may lead to a mismatch between current value priorities in society and the values for which technologies were designed in the past, such as energy technologies based on fossil fuels, which were developed when sustainability was not considered a very important value. Better anticipating value change is essential to avoid a lack of social acceptance and moral acceptability of technologies. While value change can be studied historically and qualitatively, we (...)
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  4. Science Communication as a Boundary Space: An Interactive Installation About the Social Responsibility of Science.Maja Horst - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):459-482.
    Science communication has traditionally been seen as a means of crossing the boundary of science: moving scientific knowledge into the public. This paper presents an alternative understanding. Drawing upon a particular case of social science communication in the form of an interactive installation about the social responsibility of science, it develops the concept of boundary space where phenomena can simultaneously belong to science and nonscience. In addition, the paper describes how the installation functions as a space for interaction between knowledge (...)
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  5.  1
    An Interpretation of Value Change: A Philosophical Disquisition of Climate Change and Energy Transition Debate.Anna Melnyk - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):404-428.
    Changing values may give rise to intergenerational conflicts, like in the ongoing climate change and energy transition debate. This essay focuses on the interpretative question of how this value change can best be understood. To elucidate the interpretation of value change, two philosophical perspectives on value are introduced: Berlin’s value pluralism and Dworkin’s interpretivism. While both authors do not explicitly discuss value change, I argue that their perspectives can be used for interpreting value change in the case of climate change (...)
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  6. “Ready for What?”: Timing and Speculation in Alzheimer’s Disease Drug Development.Richard Milne & Natassia F. Brenman - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):597-622.
    “Readiness cohorts” are an innovation in clinical trial design to tackle the scarcity of time and people in drug studies. This has emerged in response to the challenges of recruiting the “right” research participants at the “right time” in the context of precision medicine. In this paper, we consider how the achievement of “readiness” aligns temporalities, biologies, and market processes of pharmaceutical innovation: how the promise of “willing bodies” in research emerges in relation to intertwined economic and biological time imperatives. (...)
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  7. Music to My Ears: A Material-Semiotic Analysis of Fetal Heart Sounds in Midwifery Prenatal Care.Annekatrin Skeide - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):517-543.
    Unlike sonographic examinations, sonic fetal heartbeat monitoring has received relatively little attention from scholars in the social sciences. Using the case of fetal heartbeat monitoring as part of midwifery prenatal care in Germany, this contribution introduces music as an analytical tool for exploring the aesthetic dimensions of obstetrical surveillance practices. Based on ethnographic stories, three orchestrations are compared in which three different instruments help audiences to listen to what becomes fetal heartbeat music and to qualify fetal and pregnant lives in (...)
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  8. Crowdfunding Conservation Science: Tracing the Participatory Dynamics of Native Parrot Genome Sequencing.Hallam Stevens & Courtney Addison - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):568-596.
    Who gets to practice and participate in science? Research teams in Puerto Rico and New Zealand have each sequenced the genomes of parrot populations native to these locales: the iguaca and kākāpō, respectively. In both cases, crowdfunding and social media were instrumental in garnering public interest and funding. These forms of Internet-mediated participation impacted how conservation science was practiced in these cases and shaped emergent social roles and relations. As citizens “follow,” fund, and “like” the labor of conservation, they create (...)
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  9.  6
    Value Change in Energy Systems.Behnam Taebi & Ibo van de Poel - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):371-379.
    The ongoing energy transition toward more sustainable energy systems implies a change in the values for which such systems are designed. The energy transition however is not just about sustainability but also about values like energy security and affordability, and we witness the emergence of new values like energy justice and energy democracy. How can we understand such value changes and how can or should they affect the design of future energy systems? This introduction to the special section on value (...)
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  10.  1
    Seeking Public Values of Digital Energy Platforms.Rinie van Est, Romy Dekker & Irene A. Niet - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (3):380-403.
    Digital energy platforms play a central role in the transition toward a more sustainable energy system. This research explores the effect of digital energy platforms on public values. We developed and tested a novel public value framework, combining values already embedded in energy and digitalization regulations and emerging values that have become more relevant in recent debates. We analyzed value changes and potential value tensions. We found that sustainability is prioritized, security is broadened to include cybersecurity, and values relevant for (...)
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  11.  1
    From Poacher to Protector of Attention: The Therapeutic Turn of Persuasive Technology and Ethics of a Smartphone Habit-Breaking Application.Alex Beattie - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):337-359.
    This paper critically investigates the ethical perspectives and practices of individuals and organizations who make persuasive technologies. An organization that claims to be at the forefront of ethical persuasion is behavioral software company Boundless Mind. Yet Boundless Mind sells ostensibly oxymoronic software products: an Application Programming Interface for third-party applications that optimizes the capture of end user attention, and an application for end users on how to make third-party applications less persuasive. Drawing upon Foucault’s interpretation of ethics as an “aesthetics (...)
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  12.  1
    The Algorithms of Mindfulness.Johannes Bruder - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):291-313.
    This paper analyzes notions and models of optimized cognition emerging at the intersections of psychology, neuroscience, and computing. What I somewhat polemically call the algorithms of mindfulness describes an ideal that determines algorithmic techniques of the self, geared at emotional resilience and creative cognition. A reframing of rest, exemplified in corporate mindfulness programs and the design of experimental artificial neural networks sits at the heart of this process. Mindfulness trainings provide cues as to this reframing, for they detail each in (...)
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  13.  2
    Meditation Apps and the Promise of Attention by Design.Rebecca Jablonsky - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):314-336.
    This article demonstrates how meditation apps, such as Headspace and Calm, are imbricated within public discourse about technology addiction, exploring the consequences of this discourse on contemporary mental life. Based on ethnographic research with designers and users of meditation apps, I identify a promise put forth by meditation app companies that I call attention by design: a discursive strategy that frames attention as an antidote to technology addiction, which is ostensibly made possible when design is done right. I argue that (...)
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  14.  1
    Afterword: Shifting the Terms of the Debate.Natasha D. Schüll - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):360-365.
    The afterword discusses how this special issue’s articles work from different angles to unsettle the precepts of “attentional sovereignty” — the socially, politically, and economically valorized virtue that anchors most discussions over attention in its contemporary technological predicament. Whether the attentional sovereign appears in its liberal humanist or its neoliberal behavioral economic guise, sovereignty is valorized and considered under threat. By revealing the contemporary and historical backstories to our investment in this notion, these articles shift the terms of the debate (...)
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  15.  7
    Introduction: Shifting Attention.Nick Seaver, Tero Karppi & Rebecca Jablonsky - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):235-242.
    In recent years, attention has become a matter of increasing public concern. New digital technologies have transformed human attention materially and discursively, reorganizing perceptual practices and inciting debates about them. The essays in this special issue emerged from a set of panels focused on attention at the 4S conference in New Orleans in 2019. They are all, in various ways, concerned with shifts among attention’s many meanings: between payment and care, instinct and agency, or vulnerability and power. Drawing on Science (...)
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  16. Listening Like a Computer: Attentional Tensions and Mechanized Care in Psychiatric Digital Phenotyping.Beth M. Semel - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):266-290.
    This article explores negotiations over the humanistic versus mechanized components of care through an ethnographic account of digital phenotyping research. I focus on a US-based team of psychiatric and engineering professionals assembling a smartphone application that they hope will analyze minute changes in the sounds of speech during phone calls to predict when a user with bipolar disorder will have a manic or depressive episode. Contrary to conventional depictions of psychiatry as essentially humanistic, the discourse surrounding digital phenotyping positions the (...)
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  17.  3
    Divided Attention, Divided Self: Race and Dual-Mind Theories in the History of Experimental Psychology.C. J. Valasek - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):243-265.
    The duality of attention is explored by turning our focus to the political and cultural conceptions of automatic attention and deliberate attention, with the former being associated with animality and “uncivilized” behavior and the latter with intelligence and self-mastery. In this article, I trace this ongoing dualism of the mind from early race psychology in the late nineteenth century to twentieth century psychological models including those found in psychoanalysis, behaviorism, neo-behaviorism, and behavioral economics. These earlier studies explicitly or implicitly maintained (...)
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  18. The Double Darkness of Digitalization: Shaping Digital-Ready Legislation to Reshape the Conditions for Public-Sector Digitalization.Lise Justesen & Ursula Plesner - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):146-173.
    In recent years, policymakers have begun to problematize how legislation stands in the way of the digitalization of the public sector. We are witnessing the emergence of a new phenomenon, digital-ready legislation, which implies that, whenever possible, new legislation should build on simple rules and unambiguous terminology to reduce the need for professional discretion and allow for the extended use of automated case processing in public-sector organizations. Digital-ready legislation has potentially wide-ranging consequences because it creates the conditions for how public (...)
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  19.  3
    Review of Three Books on Science: Trust, Corporate Influence, and Militarization. [REVIEW]Sheldon Krimsky - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):217-230.
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  20. Global Fertility Chains: An Integrative Political Economy Approach to Understanding the Reproductive Bioeconomy.Michal Nahman, Vincenzo Pavone & Sigrid Vertommen - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):112-145.
    Over the last two decades, social scientists across disciplines have been researching how value is extracted and governed in the reproductive bioeconomy, which broadly refers to the various ways reproductive tissues, bodies, services, customers, workers, and data are inserted into capitalist modes of accumulation. While many of these studies are empirically grounded in single country–based analyses, this paper proposes an integrative political economy framework, structured around the concept of “global fertility chains.” The latter articulates the reproductive bioeconomy as a nexus (...)
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  21. Commodifying a “Good” Weather Data: Commercial Meteorology, Low-Cost Stations, and the Global Scientific Infrastructure.Jeanne Oui - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):29-52.
    Since the 2000s, European open data policies have given a strong boost to commercial meteorology by giving free access to weather observations and models produced by public organizations. This article examines the efforts and challenges met by a French company that developed an offer of weather services based on the commodification of both open weather data and local observations produced by low-cost stations used by farmers. However, the paper shows that such commercialization of stations’ data is hampered both by their (...)
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  22.  4
    Egg Freezing at the End of Romance: A Technology of Hope, Despair, and Repair.Pasquale Patrizio, Ruoxi Yu, Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli & Marcia C. Inhorn - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):53-84.
    The newest innovation in assisted reproduction is oocyte cryopreservation, more commonly known as egg freezing, which has been developed as a method of fertility preservation. Studies emerging from around the world show that highly educated professional women are turning to egg freezing in their late thirties to early forties, because they are still searching for a male partner with whom to have children. For these women, egg freezing may be a new “hope technology” for future romance; but it may also (...)
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  23. Fixing Technology with Society: The Coproduction of Democratic Deficits and Responsible Innovation at the OECD and the European Commission.Sebastian Pfotenhauer, Tess Doezema & Nina Frahm - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):174-216.
    Long presented as a universal policy-recipe for social prosperity and economic growth, the promise of innovation seems to be increasingly in question, giving way to a new vision of progress in which society is advanced as a central enabler of technoeconomic development. Frameworks such as “Responsible” or “Mission-oriented” Innovation, for example, have become commonplace parlance and practice in the governance of the innovation–society nexus. In this paper, we study the dynamics by which this “social fix” to technoscience has gained legitimacy (...)
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  24. Competing Transport Futures: Tensions Between Imaginaries of Electrification and Biogas Fuel in Sweden.Harald Rohracher & Amelia Mutter - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):85-111.
    The choice of fuels has frequently been at the center of debates about how a future low-carbon mobility system can be achieved. This paper introduces two visions of biogas fuels and electricity using material from interviews and documents in Swedish transport. These visions are analyzed as interrelated sociotechnical imaginaries. To better understand the way visions of biogas and electric vehicles dynamically shape and condition each other, four dimensions of sociotechnical imaginaries are further developed: spatial boundedness, temporality, coherence and contestation, and (...)
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  25. Markets, Cultures, and the Politics of Value: The Case of Assisted Reproductive Technology.Brian Salter - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (1):3-28.
    Assisted reproductive technology is a global market engaging a variety of local moral economies where the construction of the demand–supply relationship takes different forms through the operation of the politics of value. This paper analyzes how the market–culture relationship works in different settings, showing how power and resources determine what value will, or will not, accrue from that relationship. A commodity’s potential economic value can only be realized through the operation of the market if its cultural status is seen to (...)
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