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  1.  22
    Revitalization of the Past: Henry Bergson’s Theory of Memory.Andrejs Balodis - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:3-12.
    The concept of memory rests at the heart of Bersgon’s theory of consciousness. His theory of memory is the novelty in the history of philosophy. It is not an affirmation either of the metaphysical conceptions (versions à la Platonism) where “all knowledge is recollection”, nor of empiricist psychology possibly traceble back to Aristotle, where, briefly speaking, the faculty of memory depends on the general perceptual capacity. Contrary to the majority of the philosophical and psychological theories of his epoch, Bergson assigns (...)
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  2.  41
    Ribot et Bergson, la théorie de la mémoire.Misook Choi - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:35-41.
    Tandis que « Matière et mémoire » de Bergson est aujourd’hui bien connu et relativement bien analysé, « Les maladies de la mémoire » de Ribot est presque oublié malgré son originalité et nouveauté dans l’histoire de la philosophie. Mais dans le domaine de la science, notamment dans des recherches sur la mémoire, la pensée de Ribot est toujours vivante. Dans cet article, nous voulons d’abord voir la relation entre deux pensées sur la mémoire, celle de Ribot et celle de (...)
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  3.  45
    Mémoire et Identité de l’homme chez Descartes, Hume et Bergson.Su-Young Hwang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:43-49.
    Le problème de l’identité personnelle est une préoccupation essentielle des philosophes modernes depuis que la conscience est mise en scène philosophiquement. Cependant parmi eux il n’y en a pas beaucoup qui considèrent la mémoire comme le fondement de l’identité humaine, bien qu’aujourd’hui, et grâce aux neurosciences, on sache pourtant qu’elle joue un rôle capital. D’une manière générale, les empiristes s’y intéressent davantage que les rationnalistes. Ceux‐ci ayant comme idéal normatif les systèmes mathématiques ne pensent pas qu’elle puisse contribuer à élargir (...)
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  4.  7
    In Memory We Trust?: Philosophical Remarks on the Relation Between Memory, Self and Truthfulness.Michael Jungert - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:13-20.
    Common sense regards memory as fairly exact, reliable and trustworthy in the majority of cases. However, recent scientific findings in psychology and biology seem to object this point of view. According to them, memory appears as a highly constructive and often deceptive phenomenon. These assumptions lead to various philosophical problems. The talk will briefly outline some of them. At first, some general statements about philosophy and memory research will be made. Second, the relationship between self and memory is being analyzed. (...)
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  5.  51
    Introduction for Philosophical Therapy ‐ Self-Awareness, Self‐Care, Dialogue as the Three Axes of Philosophical Therapy.Sun-hye Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:59-66.
    The modern times proclaimed ‘God’s death’ and the post‐modern times did ‘the death of Man/Subject. And recently our society suffers from ‘the death of the humanities’. The death appearing along with is ‘the death of philosophy’. What on earth does the notice of death of philosophy mean by in the life of human beings living in the modern times? This writer is groping for the point to revive the modern significance of philosophy facing the tragic situations called ‘Death’ through the (...)
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  6.  22
    The Nature of Embodied Distributed Cognition.Young E. Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:21-21.
    There has been a lot of strong evidence showing that human cognition works not in a central processing way but in a distributed way. As well known, human brain processes huge information in a parallel and distributed way. Recently cognitive scientists have contended that the minds are embodied in environment. These two ideas of distribution in cognition and embodiment in the mind can go along overall, but there is a tension between them in some specific respects, especially in the matter (...)
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  7.  22
    Model of Intentionality as Interpretation of a Content.Jariya Nualnirun - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:23-33.
    This paper aims to analyse Husserl’s texts in order to evaluate his attempt to apply a model of intentionality as interpretation(Auffassung) of a content (Inhalt) he had earlier developed to explain a notion of timeconsciousness. In Husserl’s previous published work the Logical Investigations (1900‐01), he construed perceptual intentionality on the model of apprehending intention and apprehended sensual contents for an ordinary object. For later published work, the so‐called early lectures on The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness (1928), he continued to apply (...)
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  8.  9
    Время ‐ мера длины космического пути земных событий.Долженко Владимир - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 54:51-57.
    PROCESS this ordered movement of energy from one object to other object, changing their physical parameters. EVENT is the information on process. LIFE is the information on processes. The LIFE is process. The INFORMATION is a part of energy reflected or radiated by object written down in memory of the person, a material, space.
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  9.  51
    Lawyers’ Paradox: A Dilemma of Decision.Mustafa M. Dagli - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:45-53.
    Justice is an important concept in philosophy since ancient times and a key phenomenon in human life (in societies). First a judge at a court, two sides, their witnesses, Lawyer-A and Lawyer-B are considered in this quasi-essay inquiry. Then pointed out that, which lawyer better develops his/her arguments, his/her side will be advantageous. Reality conceals on the one side, truth (and rightness) stands on the other. However this will be risky in social life; it may be understood by an ordinary (...)
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  10.  31
    No Need to Justify Induction Generally.Kazuyoshi Kamiyama - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:105-111.
    Our empirical beliefs beyond sense impressions and the memories of them cannot be justified. Logically we must be complete skeptics. This is the consequence of Hume’s skeptical argument against induction. Should we accept this conclusion or not? This is the so-called problem of induction. In this paper I propose a new solution that belongs to the 'dissolutionist’ tradition (Strawson 1952, Okasha 2001). Through criticizing the core argument in Hume’s skepticism I claim the following: Hume’s skepticism against induction does not succeed (...)
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  11.  63
    Naturalistic Epistemology, Normativity, and Self.Joungbin Lim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:171-182.
    In this paper, I criticize naturalized epistemology. To this end, I critically examine several versions of naturalistic epistemology (Quine, Kornblith, and Plantinga). While Quine’s epistemology eschews any kind of normativity not invoked in science, Kornblith’s and Plantinga’s views attempt to explain normativity in the light of descriptivity. I provide an argument against them. The upshot of my argument is that since we are self-conscious beings, we have reflective ability to see what we ought to believe. In other words, the fact (...)
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  12.  16
    Doubt and Modality.Ron Wilburl - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:295-315.
    I argue herein for two claims. First, contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are ineffectual if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. Second, since efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis threaten circularity, only internalistic interpretations of contextualism can even be motivated. These two contentions do not themselves give us a grounds for skepticism. However, they do give us reason to suspect that contextualism, as such, is unlikely likely to provide a cogent anti-skeptical strategy.
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  13.  8
    Rethinking Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and Technology: Knowledge and Culture.E. Backsansky Oleg - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:335-342.
    Modern cognitive approach represents the interdisciplinary branch of scientific reflection uniting researchers of knowledge, studying laws of purchase, transformation, representation, storages and reproduction of the information. People react to own experience, instead of "objective" reality. Cognitive map of the world according to which we operate, our feelings, belief and life experience create. We have no direct access to a "objective" reality, therefore our cognitive map is for us this unique "real" reality. Cognitive science widely uses methodology of synergetic approach successfully (...)
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  14.  56
    True Between Opinion and Knowledge: From Plato Up to a Postmodernism.Mustafa Isaevich Bilalov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:7-14.
    In the report the parity of true and knowledge on the basis of reconsideration of communication of true opinion and knowledge, and also interpretation of the term "opinion" in Plato’s gnosiology is considered. Described Set of cognitive procedures of the subject of the knowledge in it, necessary for reception of knowledge from true, is comparable to functions and results of influence of criterion of true in cognitive process. The importance of these efforts of the subjectguarantees Plato and Aristotle theory of (...)
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  15.  22
    The Normativity Problem in Naturalizing Philosophy of Science.In-rae Cho - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:35-44.
    In the contemporary intellectual scene, one prominent question is this, what made science and its success possible? One tempting strategy for dealing with this question as a philosopher of science is to use science (or more broadly, empirical inquiry) and its methods to investigate the nature of science and its success. This strategy is what used to be called naturalism. For a philosopher of science, it amounts to naturalizing her philosophical inquiry for understanding the nature of science and its success. (...)
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  16.  28
    Rethinking Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and Technology: Knowledge and Culture.Backsansky Oleg E. - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:335-342.
    Modern cognitive approach represents the interdisciplinary branch of scientific reflection uniting researchers of knowledge, studying laws of purchase, transformation, representation, storages and reproduction of the information. People react to own experience, instead of "objective" reality. Cognitive map of the world according to which we operate, our feelings, belief and life experience create. We have no direct access to a "objective" reality, therefore our cognitive map is for us this unique "real" reality. Cognitive science widely uses methodology of synergetic approach successfully (...)
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  17.  24
    Can Wittgenstein Be Considered a Naturalist?Angel M. Faerna & Aurelia Di Berardino - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:55-62.
    We begin by taking “naturalism” in the sense in which P. F. Strawson (“Scepticism, Naturalism and Transcendental Arguments”, 1985) presented Wittgenstein’s anti-sceptical arguments as “naturalistic”. According to Strawson, this naturalism connects the philosophy of Wittgenstein with that of Hume. Then, we proceed to compare Hume’s and Wittgenstein’s positions and establish a tenet common to them, which we qualify as “meta‐philosophical”: philosophy rests on a bedrock that resists our demands of justification, a contingent “so we are, so we act” that is (...)
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  18.  21
    Polycontextural Transdisciplinarity.Miguel Ángel Briceño Gil - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:15-33.
    A couple of decades ago natural phenomena began to be approached from a comprehensive and transdisciplinary point of view, as it was understood that living beings and their environments are not linear but complex. There is no doubt that this perspective of visualizing complexity and working inter-and transdisciplinarily has to be applied. The reflection on the theoretical observation (i.e. meta-observation) involved in the concept of poly-contexturality is the framework in which a theory of complex systems is possible, which in turn (...)
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  19.  19
    On The Need and (Im) Possibility of A Sustainability Science.Gert Goeminne - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:63-72.
    Sustainable development can be regarded as an attempt to bridge the gap between environmental concerns about the increasingly evident ecological consequences of human activities and socio-political concerns about human development issues. The idea that science is not responding adequately to the challenges of our times, and particularly, those posed by the quest for sustainable development is gaining increasing acceptance with scientists and policy-makers. Concurrently, a new kind of science is being called for. ‘Post-normal science’ and ‘Sustainability science’ are, besides others, (...)
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  20.  81
    Scientific Realism and The Ironic Science.Nikita Golovko - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:73-76.
    The development of string theory shows an unusual situation within the development of knowledge theory. Science achieves progress in understanding nature without direct empirical confirmation. Definitely, “an altered conception of scientific progress emerges” (R. Dawid). In our opinion, the only possibility to understand the new situation is to adopt some kind of naturalized epistemology. Naturalization viewed as declining of the a-prioriticity of philosophical knowledge, first, and reintroducing of psychology, second (P. Kitcher), gives many naturalized approaches in the realism debate field. (...)
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  21.  5
    Scientific Realism and The Ironic Science.Nikita Golovko - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:73-76.
    The development of string theory shows an unusual situation within the development of knowledge theory. Science achieves progress in understanding nature without direct empirical confirmation. Definitely, “an altered conception of scientific progress emerges”. In our opinion, the only possibility to understand the new situation is to adopt some kind of naturalized epistemology. Naturalization viewed as declining of the a-prioriticity of philosophical knowledge, first, and reintroducing of psychology, second, gives many naturalized approaches in the realism debate field. Is it possible to (...)
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  22.  33
    Ibn Sina on Perception.Abdurrazzaq Heamifar - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:77-84.
    The division of the soul and its perceptions are of the most important problems that attracted Ibn Sina`s interest. Ibn Sina held that there are three kinds of the soul: vegeterian, animal, and rational soul, among which only the rational one is immaterial. The main reason of its immateriality is its perception of the inteligibles. Other perceptions are somehow immaterial, that is, perception at the stage of the sense is not abstracted from the mater and its appendixes and at the (...)
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  23.  49
    历史认识与历史评价.Kaifeng Huang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:377-381.
    By exploring the inner relationship between historical understanding and historical evaluation, this essay argues that the understanding and the evaluation of history are two indispensable parts of a full process of historical study. There is a unification between the subjectivity of evaluation and the objectivity of knowledge. Understanding history is not just for respecting the facts, but for exploring the influence of the past on the social progress nowadays. Only by combining theassessment of value and the understanding of past facts, (...)
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  24.  24
    Situating Default Position Inside the Space of Reasons: John McDowell’s Epistemology of Testimony.Xiang Huang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:85-95.
    Epistemology of testimony’s map has been charted by identifying the basic controversy between reductionism and non-reductions. John McDowell’s article “Knowledge by Hearsay” (1993/1998) has been taken as a clear example of non-reductionism. This is, however, only partially right. It is correct that, as a non-reductionist, he defends the justifying role that the default position plays in testimonial knowledge. But, his insistence on situating the default position inside the space of reasons suggests that default position should be understood as a kind (...)
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  25.  46
    Knowledge Without Truth.Priyedarshi Jetli - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:97-103.
    The inclusion of the truth condition in the definition of knowledge has been responsible for a number of paradoxes. Some epistemologists claim that in the case of knowledge justification entails truth or that belief implies truth as there is a causal relation between truth and belief. Truth hence becomes redundant in the definition of knowledge. I do not drop the truth condition for this reason because this denies the autonomy of the distinct conditions for knowledge. I argue that truth and (...)
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  26.  14
    Social Еpistemology: Naturalization Vs. Socialization?Ilya Kasavin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:113-121.
    A certain decline of epistemology in terms of the “naturalized programmes” or the post-modernist discussions makes us think about the form, in which epistemological studies in a broad sense of the word are still possible as a sphere of philosophical analysis. Philosophy of knowledge is nowadays shaken on its throne, which it has occupied for a long time as a theoretical core of philosophy, and perhaps even dismissed from it. The partial loss of orientation by those who are professionally involved (...)
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  27.  6
    Social Еpistemology: Naturalization Vs. Socialization?Ilya Kasavin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:113-121.
    A certain decline of epistemology in terms of the “naturalized programmes” or the post-modernist discussions makes us think about the form, in which epistemological studies in a broad sense of the word are still possible as a sphere of philosophical analysis. Philosophy of knowledge is nowadays shaken on its throne, which it has occupied for a long time as a theoretical core of philosophy, and perhaps even dismissed from it. The partial loss of orientation by those who are professionally involved (...)
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  28.  10
    Competency: The Only Criteria of Applied Knowledge.Indoo Pandey Khanduri - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:123-131.
    The present research paper focuses its objective on clarifying the arguments for establishing the Competency to use the knowledge as the intensively required criteria of knowledge in the present global scenario. For a clear and precise understanding, the present paper has three objectives. The first objective of the present paper is set to deal with definition of the competency of knowledge in general and reflect upon the theories of Competency as given in Indian and Western Philosophy. The second aim of (...)
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  29.  39
    Peirce's Unique System of Pragmatism.Jeong Il Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:133-143.
    In understanding Peirce's unique system of pragmatism following three theories are helpful: first, Herakleitos' saying that 'one can never step into a same river twice', second, Protagoras' saying that 'men are the measure of the world', and third, Darwin's theory of evolution. It is always the case that epistemology takes place on top the metaphysical and cosmological bases. Peirce's metaphysics and cosmology is considered to line up with above three theories. It is interesting fact that Peirce who started up his (...)
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  30.  44
    Диагностика как вид эпистемической практики.Evgeny Krotkov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:343-350.
    Diagnostics is becoming one of the most important kinds of epistemic practice: accurate and timely diagnosis is necessary not only for ill people, but for economic, social and political systems and institutions, culture, science, technology, and ecosystems. The analysis of researches into diversity of diagnostics used in various branches enabled the author to develop the outline of the philosophical theory of diagnostics, to identify its subject matter and problems, to name the categories and principles of the epistemological and methodological analysis (...)
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  31.  11
    Ситуации предстандарта в историческом становлении естественных наук.Alexander Krushanov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:351-358.
    Historical becoming and evolution of scientific knowledge are connected with the passing through very specific and important stages – stages of terminological chaos and its eliminating (like it was in the times of K. Linnaeus in botany and A. Lavoisier in chemistry). This specific and important experience is not represented in the famous models of cognitive dynamics (Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Styopin etc.). Situations of such a kind are fixed in the report as “prestandard situations”. It means: 1. it’s time when (...)
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  32.  47
    A Justificationist View of Disagreement’s Epistemic Significance.Jennifer Lackey - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:145-154.
    The question that will be the focus of this paper is this: what is the significance of disagreement between those who are epistemic peers? There are two answers to this question found in the recent literature. On the one hand, there are those who hold that one can continue to rationally believe that p despite the fact that one’s epistemic peer explicitly believes that not-p. I shall call those who hold this view nonconformists. In contrast, there are those who hold (...)
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  33.  59
    Pryor’s Dogmatism Against The Skeptic.Eunjin Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:155-161.
    My aim in this paper is to show the difficulty James Pryor faces in attempting to overcome the skeptic’s challenge. According to the skeptic, we can never know anything about the external world, because of our cognitive limitation that cannot distinguish real perceptions from false ones in the skeptical scenarios. Thus, the skeptic requires us having antecedent justification to rule out all possible hypotheses. In opposition to the skeptic, Pryor argues that as long as we remain dogmatic about perception, we (...)
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  34.  51
    Perception as Act in Bergson.Seon-hui Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:393-399.
    This paper is for the purpose of clarify that perception is a conscious act through Bergson’s theory of images and perception in Matter and Memory. And yet this ‘act’ is not a pure action of consciousness or of sprit, which is transcendental from the reality and composes or recomposes it. That is, our perception is not pure knowledge. A pure conception is unconscious one, which takes place infinitely within the system of matter that is an ‘aggregate of images’ in which (...)
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  35.  11
    Rationality in General And its Specific Type.Elena Leonteva - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:163-169.
    The concept of rationality in general suggested in given paper may be considered as the initial theoretical abstraction that could become the starting point of rationality analysis. The “abstract concept” that is free from any sort of rationality individual being, indifferent and formal towards any particular stage of its becomingness, permits to specify the key attributes and principles which determine its fundamental sense. The rationality attributes realization is going through the external characteristics acquisition that is the process of rationality actual (...)
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  36. 一切人文知识的根本根据是什么.Dongkai Li - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:383-391.
    RENE DESCARTES had a dream , to find out the root basis theory for human’s all knowledge. Obviously in 16th century , that was only a dream. Since the onto is the root basis of everything, then, the knowledge of everything should have their root in the onto. Believing in this law, the philosophiers like Descartes in the thousands years history, had the same dream--to find out the root basis theory for all the knowledge. This root basis theory for knowledge, (...)
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  37.  2
    一切人文知识的根本根据是什么.Dongkai Li - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:383-391.
    RENE DESCARTES had a dream, to find out the root basis theory for human’s all knowledge. Obviously in 16th century, that was only a dream. Since the onto is the root basis of everything, then, the knowledge of everything should have their root in the onto. Believing in this law, the philosophiers like Descartes in the thousands years history, had the same dream--to find out the root basis theory for all the knowledge. This root basis theory for knowledge, in fact, (...)
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  38.  13
    Knowledge and Information.Hui-min Lin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:183-189.
    Obviously, “To know” is different to “be informed”. For “to know”, we have a motivation to reach certain proposition we thought is meaningful to us; however, for “be informed”, we just passively receive propositions or we gain certain propositions without much deliberation in which these propositions may be useful to us. The proposition “Wang collected 19 wins in both MLB 2006 and 2007” seems information but not knowledge to us, in the sense that we just be given this proposition and (...)
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  39.  14
    Problem of Truth and Reality.Chintamani Malviya - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:191-203.
    Problem of truth and reality is age old in the field of philosophy as well as in the field of science. People very often confuse between ‘Truth’ and ‘Reality’ Most people think them to be one and the same, but there are differences. Whatever exist is real, reality and existence are interchangeable words. We can say truth, which is unchangeable and reality, which exist but change. False, which is not exist at all. People have suggested various taste to decide the (...)
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  40.  68
    A propósito de la crítica antiepistemológica de la “verdad” y la “objetividad”.Elena Nájera - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:325-333.
    Con el interés de reconocer lo particular y amparar el derecho a la diferencia, el programa de superación de la epistemología que comparten R. Rorty y Ch. Taylor pone en cuestión las nociones de “verdad” y “objetividad”, aunque en dos sentidos encontrados. Para el primero de estos autores, se trata de anularambos conceptos a favor de un ironismo liberal que concede la contingencia de nuestras prácticas interpretativas, mientras que para el segundo, el camino pasa por justificarlos éticamente, en clave comunitarista. (...)
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  41.  24
    The Creative and Constructive Nature of Cognition.V. A. Okladnoy - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:359-365.
    Rational reconstructions of cognition, outgoing from the results of cognitive activity, often introduce incorrect or imaginary cognitive procedures. Cognition needs to be examined as the open creative process directed to the unknown future. In the process of cognition a theoretical language, perceptive structures, methods of empiric researches and ontological phenomena are mutually constructed. The contents of the results of cognition are encoded in the language of theory and becomes objective in its ontology. It is the same information represented in different (...)
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  42.  42
    Scepticism Against Scepticism: Husserl’s and Putnam’s Attempts to Overcome Scepticism.Andrey N. Pavlenko - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:205-216.
    To analyze some sсeptical arguments was build the epistemological model about only one perceiving subject “Enarch”: he is one (ἐνᾴϛ) and has beginning (ἀρχῄ) in itself. This model was applyed for critical analysis of Husserl’s and Putnam’s attempts to overcome scepticism (i) by using “the intersubjective program” in a first case and (ii) argument “brains in a vat” in a second one. To justify the equivalence of the “intersubjectiveness” and “objectiveness” Husserl suggested the existence of transcendental Community . The main (...)
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  43.  82
    Fallibilism and the Lottery Paradox.Baron Reed - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:217-225.
    Any theory of knowledge that is fallibilist—i.e., that allows for one to have knowledge that could have been false or accidentally true—faces the lottery paradox. The paradox arises from the combination of two plausible claims: first, no one can know that one’s lottery ticket will lose prior to learning that it in fact has lost, and, second, the justification one has for the belief that one’s ticket will lose is just as good as the justification one has for paradigmatic instances (...)
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  44.  28
    Harmless Epistemic Circularity?Juho Ritola - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:227-233.
    Epistemic circularity is a problem of arguments purporting to establish the reliability of our different sources of belief‐acquisition. For example:(TRA)At t1, S formed the perceptual belief that p, and p.At t2, S formed the perceptual belief that q, and q.At t3, …Therefore, sense perception is reliable source of beliefs.The problem is that any arguer putting forth this argument is ompelled to rely on the thing to be proven in establishing the second conjuncts of each premise. But relying on the thing (...)
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  45.  73
    On the Universal Principle of Scientific and Philosophical Cognition.V. Selivanova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:235-239.
    The purpose of the present report is to draw the philosophical community’s attention to the universal principle of cognition, the principle of extrapolation, capable of integrating the present and possibly, the future methods of man’s cognitive attitude to the world. Extrapolation is interpreted as a key logical-and-gnosiological procedure and, depending on subject/object relationships, is subdivided into “actual” and “real”. According to the actual extrapolation principle in any kind of cognition, it is important to take account of the fact of the (...)
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  46.  44
    Научный поиск как творческий процесс.Niginahon Shermuhamedova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:367-375.
    Complexity of studying of scientific creativity, in particular, scientific search consists that is the multiplane phenomenon comprising the whole complex of different changes, such as social, psychological, subject, information, logic, methodological philosophical and other aspects. And only consideration of all these aspects in their unity and interaction opens an opportunity of construction of the complete theory of scientific creativity (scientific search), explanations of laws and mechanisms of reception of new scientific results, fulfillment of opening. For this reason research of last (...)
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  47.  52
    Dissolving the Skeptical Paradox of Knowledge Via Cartesian Skepticism Based on Wittgenstein.Ken Shigeta - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:241-247.
    There is an epistemological skepticism that I might be dreaming now, or I might be a brain in a vat (BIV). There is also a demonstration that derives the skeptical conclusion about knowledge of the external world from the premise C1, i.e., I do not know “I am not dreaming (not a BIV) now.” Pessimistic critics (e.g., F. Strawson, B. Stroud) consider that the refutation of C1 is impossible, whereas others have attempted the direct refutation of C1 (e.g., G. E. (...)
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  48.  53
    Philosophy, Kant and The Scheme of Decision-Making.Victor Shreiber - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:249-266.
    Some options to single out the foremost function of philosophy in culture are discussed. As any functioning part has to possess definite level of the internal unity, I begin by tracing out the main views on the unanimity of philosophical knowledge and demonstrate that the opposed variants can be reduced to well‐known contraposition between subject matter (a strong variant) and method (a weak one). I show further that at least one strong version, which identifies philosophical subject matter with the concrete (...)
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  49.  48
    The Limitation of Skepticism.Mohammad Hasan Soleimani - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:267-271.
    The human in continuous century envisage the skepticism. When the human envisage the deficiency of his knowledge, will be in trouble of skepticism, when the knowledge of human fundamentally is doubted, all internal or external impressions will be doubted, so the man envisage the unlimited skepticism. But is it possible and logical? The possibility of it is a psychological question too, but my effort is the epistemological surveying of it. We can survey this question in two ways. One way is (...)
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  50.  37
    Philosophical Truth in Mathematical Terms and Literature Analogies.Emilia Anvarovna Taissina - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:273-278.
    The article is based upon the following starting position. In this post-modern time, it seems that no scholar in Europe supports what is called “Enlightenment Project” with its naïve objectivism and Correspondence Theory of Truth1, - though not being really hostile, just strongly skeptical about it. No old-fasioned “classical” academical texts; only His Majesty Discourse as chain of interpretations and reinterpretations. What was called objectivity “proved to be” intersubjectivity; what was called Object (in Latin and German and Russian tradition) now (...)
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  51.  18
    So You Think You Can Tell Sense From Nonsense.Stella Villarmea - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:279-293.
  52.  37
    Testimony and Computer Proof.Kai-yee Wong - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:317-323.
    This article aims to evaluate the purported empirical character of computer-assisted proof, as suggested by Thomas Tymoczko and others. Tymoczko famously argued that the proof of the Four-Color Theorem introduced a new, empirical method of proof, forcing us to modify the traditional conception of mathematical argument as a priori reasoning. Detlefsen and Luker contended that Tymoczko’s suggestion entailed that typically mathematical proofs were empirical. My chief interest is to raise some objections to a line of thought common to both of (...)
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  53.  30
    Teaching Ethics Through Experience.M. Kenneth L. Anderson - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:3-9.
    In teaching introductory ethics courses it is a struggle to find ways to ground the theoretical approach in a context accessible to students. Two way to provide this context are to use feature films and service learning. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages. Feature films provide students with a consistentnarrative, the filmmaker’s intentions, and identical experiences. Service learning provides students with an open encounter with uncertain meaning, concrete human problems, and at best similar experiences. The benefits and weaknesses of each (...)
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  54.  25
    Online Philosophy: A Teaching Opportunity.Piotr Boltuc - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:11-16.
    The trend to engage in online education becomes global allowing for truly international courses and degrees taught by faculty and attended by students from various universities, countries and continents. The traditional worries about quality of online education, and its applicability to the humanities, are the song of the past. Yet, philosophers are reluctant to join online education. This presents a danger to the professions since many potential philosophy classes will be delivered online in other related disciplines. Instead of lamenting the (...)
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  55.  7
    The Great Philosophers as Teachers of Mankind: Philosophy Teaching In the Schools of the World.Werner Busch - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:17-23.
    The question is, of whether alongside a theme and method concentrated philosophy teaching it would be sensisible for young people to have a teaching form where great philosophers themselves are the centre of interest and are presented as personalities engaged in philosophical research. As an illustration the philosophers Plato, René Descartes, John Locke and Immanuel Kant, who essentially laid down the foundations of modern scientific thinking, would be presented in relationship to teaching practice. This train of thought can be extended (...)
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  56.  17
    Evolutionary Love for Genuine Social Growth.Ji-aeh Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:25-38.
    My question in this paper started from how the goal of social growth in a democratic society can be a proper aim for the teaching of philosophy. Furthermore, I wondered what “genuine” social growth meant in our quest to build a theoretical foundation for the teaching of philosophy. For this investigation, I reviewed first the pragmatic notion of Dewey’s social inquiry and social growth. I realized that Dewey’s ideal communication for a democratic community has an aesthetic feature and even some (...)
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  57.  30
    Teaching Philosophy Through Derrida's Deconstruction.Yuji Nishiyama - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:39-48.
    Jacques Derrida est l’un des philosophes qui a continué à remettre en cause sérieusement les rapports théoriques et pratiques entre la philosophie et l’éducation, tout en restant hors des institutions universitaires traditionnelles en France. Dans les années 1970, il organise le GREPH (Groupe de recherches surl’enseignement philosophique) avec des enseignants et des étudiants contre la réduction de l’enseignment philosophique au lycée par le gouvernement français, et pour faire les recherches théoriques sur le lien essentiel de la philosophie à l’enseignement en (...)
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  58.  19
    Persuading Philosophy to Government and People: Coping with Inevitable.James F. Perry - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:61-67.
    Philosophy studies the relation between random, routine, and reflective thought and action. It is in essence the reflective study of routine. No one can survive a random world, but a routine world will generate the same randomness it is intended to avoid owing to the inevitable errors associated with routines. The prime function of reflective inquiry is to identify and explain the logical foundation of these errors. While governments depend on strict routine to prevent anarchy, it is only with the (...)
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  59.  17
    To Shape a Global Human Consciousness, De‐Mystify Philosophy First.James F. Perry - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:49-59.
    Philosophy studies the relation between random, routine, and reflective thought and action. It is in essence the reflective study of routine. No one can survive a random world, but a routine world will generate the same randomness it is intended to avoid owing to the inevitable errors associated with routines. The prime function of reflective inquiry is to identify and explain the logical foundation of these errors. While governments depend on strict routine to prevent anarchy, it is only with the (...)
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  60.  12
    What’s Right About Validity?Nelson Pole - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:69-80.
    During the last third of the 20C, public discourse in the United States has become increasingly acerbic. Parallel to this development there has been an increasing enrollment in College level logic courses, courses that focus on arguments and their appraisal. Could there be a connection? A number of majorphilosophers do not just see arguments as either 100% correct or 100% incorrect. Notable in this regard are Plato, Aquinas and Hume. Their approach to “logic” and that of others is offered as (...)
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  61.  16
    Making More Fundamental Questions in a Community of Inquiry.Jae-won Son - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 52:81-86.
    It is questions that children need to do higher-order thinking in a community of inquiry. There, more fundamental questions should be asked with some efforts to understand clearly and analyze the given texts. The initial questions should be elaborated into more fundamental ones through dialogues and discussions, and the process may be changed by the given conditions and contexts. In this paper, I show by some real cases how teachers can help children make more fundamental questions in a community of (...)
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  62.  30
    Daoism and the Later Merleau-Ponty on Body.Wing-Cheuk Chan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:3-9.
    Laozi says, “The reason why I have great trouble is that I have a body.” Zhuangzi also asks us to forget the body. These seem to suggest that Daoism holds a negative view on the body. However, I will argue for a positive understanding of the Daoist doctrine of the body. In The Visible and the Invisible, the later Merleau‐Ponty aims to introduce an ontology of the flesh. With the help of his concept of the flesh of the world, one (...)
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  63.  19
    서법(筮法)의 관점에서 바라본 천부경과 주역의 象數論.Jeong-jun Choi - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:37-43.
    In the Choui, the way of worldly change is presented with symbols of Yin and Yang, but the actual situations are discussed with the phase of Gue Hyo (卦爻). And, the operation to determine the phase of Gue Hyo is made by the number. So, the phase number of Gue Hyo and the way order always go along. When we call theoperation that reveals the future world with the specific phase of Gue Hyo as the Jeom (Prediction) of Choui, the (...)
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  64.  30
    “Transformation” and “Consummation”: A Comparative Study on ‘Growth of Experience’ and ‘Truth’ in Zhuangzi and Dewey.So Jeong Park - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:11-16.
    This paper aims to reconsider the relationship of “growth of experience” and “truth” through the comparison of “transformation” in Zhuangzi with “consummation” in Dewey. Although many comparative studies have been made so far to reveal the meaning of Asian thought, they tend to analyze and evaluate the given texts merely on the basis of western philosophical terminology. In contrast, the present paper attempts to take the other way, which is focusing on the original context of “transformation” as it appeared in (...)
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  65.  7
    Comparing the Interpretation of the Inconceivable in Gnostic and Daoist Teachings.Apanasenko Victor - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:17-22.
    By comparing the interpretations of the inconceivable in the two teachings of two different cultures, the author is trying to understand the prerequisites of one of the most mysterious and incomprehensible phenomenon of human culture: the ability of a human consciousness to extend beyond its own boundaries basingon the inconceivable as something absolutely incomprehensible in principle. This paradox constitutes the basis to the majority of total acts of rethinking the whole conceptual field, the world all-at-once. Realizing that everything can be (...)
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  66.  48
    Absolute Skepticism, Lao Zi and Krishnamurti.Jay G. Williams - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:23-29.
    Ordinary skepticism is based upon some form of certainty. One may be skeptical about the claims of religion because one accepts the certainties of science or some philosophical argument. One may be skeptical about a certain investment strategy because one believes in various proven economic principles. Absoluteskepticism, on the other hand, has no such certainty upon which to rely. Every standpoint, including absolute skepticism itself, is open to doubt. Thus absolute skepticism is not another philosophical position but raises severe doubt (...)
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  67.  37
    老子論人與自然.Hui-Ling Wu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:31-35.
    The relationship between mankind and nature is a precarious one at best; at once seemingly irreconcilable and yet there is still certain interdependency. In discussing this relationship we need not merely touch upon modern science or environmentalism as the ancient Chinese thinker Lao-tzu had something to say on the matter in the pre-Qin period of Chinese history. But Lao-tzu writes not merely about the relationship between mankind and its environment, taking theterm ‘nature’ in a much broader sense. I would like (...)
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  68.  41
    Lao Tzu and Zhuang Tzu’s Critique of Confucian Theory of Moral Community.Yonghao Yuan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 51:45-53.
    What is called theory of moral community is a socialpolitical idea that was established by Confucius and Mencius on the base of political practice of Yao, Shun, Yu and King of Chou and that was used as ideology of ancient Chinese Empire. Lao Tzu and Zhuang Tzu criticized the theory of moral community and established their naturalistic philosophical system. Lao Tzu said in the first chapter of Tao Te Ching that “The Tao is too great to be described by the (...)
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  69.  8
    El laberinto de la guerra: tres derivas hobbesianas.Omar Astorga - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50 (2):947-951.
    La influencia del modelo hobbesiano y en especial de la idea de la guerra en el desarrollo del pensamiento político moderno de los siglos XVII y XVIII, ha sido ampliamente documentada por diversos intérpretes. Sin embargo, esta influencia no ha sido suficientemente destacada a propósito de la continuidad que ha tenido en el pensamiento político contemporáneo. Con el presente texto, presentamos algunas líneas de interpretación a través de las cuales es posible observar la presencia de la idea hobbesiana de la (...)
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  70.  57
    Does Globalization Threaten Democracy?Pavo Barišić - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50 (2):21-25.
    The topic of this article is the relation between the modern process of globalization and democracy. The agenda starts with the concept of globalization, its different meanings and various layers, traps and paradoxes, consequences and effects, advantages and disadvantages in the horizon of contemporary life. Following a brief introduction into the theme, the article outlines a short historic philosophical review into the development of globalization from theancient times to the contemporary world. The focus of the philosophical view is that of (...)
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  71.  23
    씨알: 誠的 지향성의 주체.Daihyun Chung - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1123-1129.
    The Seed Thoughts by YU Youngmo and HAM Sukhun each may be summed up in “People are a May-fly seed” and “Seeds embodies the eternal meaning”. They used “seed” to refer to humans or people on the one hand and placed the notion of seed in the holistic context of the Eastern Asian tradition. Then, I seek to connect the anthropological notion and the holistic notion via cheng or integration. 『The Doctrine of the Mean』 says that any ultimate integration (至誠) (...)
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  72.  49
    Can There Be Global Justice?Allan Layug - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:407-417.
    This paper argues that the possibility of global justice is premised on the solutions of three-fold interrelated problem: (1) problem of heterogeneity, (2) problem of inequality, (3) problem of realpolitik. The problem of heterogeneity questions the assumed globality equated as universality or commonality underpinning global justice in view of the empirical human diversity and plurality that cannot be assumed away by the desirability of the normativity of global justice. The problem of inequality highlights the ineradicability of global inequality as a (...)
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  73.  22
    John Dewey and the Taisho Democracy.Tamayo Okamoto - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:507-515.
    John Dewey’s stay in Tokyo in early 1919 coincided with the height of the social movement calling for parliamentary democracy in Japan. His lectures at Tokyo Imperial University offered a new way of viewing the world and human actions that emphasizes the importance of communication and the growth of democratic personality. Those who expected to hear from him something else were disillusioned. But the disillusionment was mutual. Dewey was disillusioned by the Japanese intellectuals whose affection for European philosophy led them (...)
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  74. A Modified Rawlsian Theory of Social Justice: “Justice as Fair Rights”.Rodney G. Peffer - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:593-608.
    In my 1990 work – Marxism, Morality, and Social Justice – I argued for four modifications of Rawls’s principles of social justice and rendered a modified version of his theory in four principles, the first of which is the Basic Rights Principle demanding the protection of people’s security and subsistence rights. In both his Political Liberalism and Justice as Fairness Rawls explicitly refers to my version of his theory, clearly accepting three of my four proposed modifications but rejecting the fourth (...)
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  75.  39
    Why Believe in Collective Agents? Because You Did Something Wrong!Jeffrey Benjamin White - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:845-851.
    The focus of the following paper is the phenomenon of the collective agent; what constitutes the appearance of a collective agent? I begin by investigating one simple argument for the existence of collective agents. Two critical issues emerge: does it make sense to hold a collective agent blameworthy, and, what is the motivation for doing so, one way or the other? I then dissolve these issues with a distinction, that between blameworthiness and responsibility. In light of this distinction, there appears (...)
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  76.  26
    Cosmopolitanism, Minimal Morality, and the World-State.Christopher Yorke - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:873-880.
    The similarities between the concept of cosmopolitanism and the concept of the world-state are, in some regards, fairly intuitive. At the very least, the theme of universalism is often seen as common to both. The precise form of a universalized ethical or political order, however, is not expressly conceptually determined by either cosmopolitanism or the world-state; both are susceptible to pluralist interpretations. Further, we cannot assume that an ethical concern will either motivate the creation of, or become a central policy (...)
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  77.  21
    Unilinearism and Multilinearism in Marx’s Thought.Kevin B. Anderson - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:13-19.
    Marx concentrated on Western Europe and North America in his core writings, but discussions of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America are scattered throughout his work. In the Communist Manifesto (1848) and his writings for the New York Tribune Marx posited a universal theory of historical and economic development in which non-Western societies represented backwardness, but could progress into modernity with the external impetus of the world market. Later, especially in the Grundrisse (1857-58) and the recently (...)
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  78.  2
    Dr. Ambedkar’s Philosophy: A Step Towards Total Humanism.Thummapudi Bharathi - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:27-35.
    The one great quality of Socratic gift is that thinking as an activity continues but not repetitively but every time thinking takes place, it takes place a new. Thinking is the one activity that cannot be repeated like prayers and other pieties. All philosophical thinking is new thinking; it has to be new in order to be thinking. Philosophy had to become the handmaid of sociology and could not be allowed to remain surrogate sociology. When this happened new concepts or (...)
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  79.  39
    Political (or) Philosophy? A Critical Account of Leo Strauss’s Response to the Crisis of Modernity.Ömür Birler - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:37-43.
    Leo Strauss has generally been regarded as an historian of ideas, albeit a very unusual one. He wrote many very momentous commentaries on the major figures in the history of political thought; yet Strauss’ main intellectual quest was to take himself back in the history, to classical antiquity and to the fountainhead of political philosophy, Plato. In this paper, however, I am mostly interested in the philosophical nature of Strauss’s basic dissatisfaction with modernity and with the adequacy of his criticisms. (...)
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  80.  18
    Evolution of the Concept of Justice.Aleksander Bobko - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:45-54.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze what kind of understanding of justice prevails at the beginning of the 21st century. I will shortly show the evolution of justice, concerning on the ancient and Enlightenment understandings of this concept. I shall attempt to justify the thesis that in the contemporary world the factors that play the most important part in the evaluation of justice are aesthetic ones. The essence of the aesthetic evaluation I will describe by refer to the (...)
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  81.  18
    The Four Pillars of Contemporary Political Philosophy.Piotr Boltuc - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:55-62.
    We can define all political theories pertinent in contemporary modern societies using a model based on only two variables. The first variable can be characterized as a spectrum between economic right and left wing theories. The spectrum can be easily defined by a strictly economic tradeoff of the desired level of taxation juxtaposed to the desired level of social services. The second variable can be defined as a distinction between liberal-individualisticand communitarian conception of persons.This leads to four positions, the four (...)
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  82.  25
    Tolerance in Kant’s Philosoph-Political Discourse.Natalia Bukovskaya - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:63-69.
    Is it possible to explicate tolerant principles in the philosophy-political discourse of Kant? It seems the answer to this question is positive. And it is the philosophical project of Kant “Perpetual Peace”, which is the most representative in this respect, for it is based on the principles of tolerance. This project is included in ethic-legal (liberal) system and is connected with such notions as civil society, legal state, duty, moral law. Tolerance exists, on the one hand, as a result of (...)
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  83.  53
    Reconsidering the Philosophy of Social Justice.Agdas Burganov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:969-977.
    There is no fairness in the world. Inequality can be observed in all spheres of human activities and in all parts of the world. This leads to the world-wide gross injustice. The main dilemma of survival is: either social fairness to people or the end of human history. The patience of people in hardship is exhausted. Social and interstate contradictions are being sharpened, and they add fuel to the flames of international tension. The world is on its way to endless (...)
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  84.  28
    The Philosophy of Women, See-al and Life of Haam, Seok Heon.Ok-Soong Cha - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1117-1121.
    This thesis reviews Haam Seok Heon‘s See-al philosophy, the main philosophy about life in terms of women. The See-al philosophy was created by Haam, who went through the turbulent times of Korea. So far, we have had papers that dealt with his philosophy under the political, historical and religious contexts, but there has been no paper focused on women. Actually, Haam confessed that it was his mother who structured the foundation of his philosophy. He also said that he learned from (...)
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  85.  7
    The Thought of Haam Seok Heon‘s Ssial, Life Built on the Foundation of Maternal Love.Ok-Soong Cha - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:71-92.
    This thesis reviews Haam Seok Heon‘s Ssial philosophy, the main philosophy about life in terms of women. The Ssial philosophy was created by Haam, who went through the turbulent times of Korea. So far, we have had papers that dealt with his philosophy under the political, historical and religious contexts, but there has been no paper focused on women. Actully, Haam confessed that it was his mother who structured the foundation of his philosophy. He also said that he learned from (...)
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  86.  12
    “卢德意象”正名的社会意蕴阐释.Hong-Bing Chen & Yu-hai Chen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1029-1042.
    The connotation of the “Luddite Imagination” refers to the concepts of the “Luddite Movement” and the “Luddites”, those events and individuals who are seen as conservatives behind the times. The negative connotation of the “Luddite Imagination” changed from the political connotation to cultural connotation. Neo-Luddism identifys the rational advocacy in defense of the old Luddite Movement; There are deep-seated issues involved behind the rehabilitation of thenegative connotation of the “Luddite Imagination”; It has comparative implications on China’s modernization process.
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  87.  6
    被生产的生活.Biao Cheng - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1043-1056.
    Today, modern large-scale production has created a real life world for people. People's life is so greatly dominated by production that we can say people's life is the life being produced. The basic features of modern life are: First, modern lifestyle is a consumptionism-oriented lifestyle. Consumption has become the main content of modern life. As a result, it is very difficult to distinguish life from consumption. People have changed into consumers. Second, modern lifestyle is a lifestyle of the generalization of (...)
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  88.  25
    An Alternative Ontology in the International Relations Studies: Social Constructivism.Filiz Coban - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:101-108.
    Ontological issues are crucial and remarkable for International Relations scholars due to answering main questions of the dicipline as ‘what we observe in world politics’, ‘what’s going on’, ‘how states define who they are’ and ‘how states treat each other in interaction in terms of power and interests’. After Cold War debate on the end of the ideological clashes and the rise of the ‘clash of civilization’ have been begun and all the massacres that have taken place in recent years, (...)
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  89.  25
    Multiculturalism and Equal Treatment: Scope and Limits of the Uniform Treatment Approach.Stéphane Courtois - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:109-115.
    The literature on multiculturalism currently splits parties into two camps : those favorable to the uniform treatment of cultural differences and those favorable to their differential treatment. Brian Barry, perhaps of the most influential present supporters of the first camp, has recently developed a severe criticism of the second approach. I intend in this paper to examine the scope and limits of Barry’s own uniform treatment approach. First, I will present the grounds Barry has for supporting it. Second, I will (...)
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  90.  13
    Urban Philosophy: A Pragmatic Perspective.Frank Cunningham - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:117-123.
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  91.  10
    Several Considerations About the Totalitarian Personality Concept.Dan Ioan Dascalu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:125-131.
    We consider that the research conducted on the totalitarian phenomenon has still remained a challenge for political philosophy and social sciences, even though most of the totalitarian regimes are now a matter of the past. However, its consequences and the threat of its reinvigoration have remained as well. Under the circumstances, the theoretical instruments that make possible an effective euristic approach of the phenomenon are particularly important. Among these instruments, the totalitarian personality concept occupies a foreground place. What we advance (...)
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  92.  9
    Human Rights: From International to Cosmopolitan Law.Edward Demenchonok - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:133-139.
    The paper examines the current debates regarding human rights and international law. Two contrasting approaches are analyzed: One is represented by the neoconservative and neoliberal concepts, which justify forcibly “spreading democracy” through the unilateral intervention of a superpower, thus challenging the global rule of law. The other approach consists of strengthening international human rights law and cosmopolitan order. It is represented by the theorists of “discourse ethics” and “cosmopolitan democracy.” The paper analyses the internal relations and difference between the legislation (...)
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  93.  36
    Modern Management: Philosophical and Methodological Foundations.Vladimir S. Diev - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:141-145.
    Philosophical importance of the problems of the theory and practice of management is due to their role for society and each individual. Philosophy analyzes axiological, epistemic and methodological foundations of human activity in management processes. It forms a system of generalizing statements about the subject matter and methods of management, the place of management among other sciences and in the overall system of scientific knowledge, its cognitive and social role in the modern world. Management theory has been formed on the (...)
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  94.  23
    A Profane Deformity of Democratic Discourse.Mark Evans - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:147-169.
    In his provocative definition of bullshit as “indifference to the truth”, Harry Frankfurt contentiously states that democracy is particularly prone to this deformity of discourse because of “the widespread conviction that it is the responsibility of a citizen in a democracy to have opinions about everything, or at least everything that pertains to the conduct of his country’s affairs.” I provide an exposition of this claim that Frankfurt does not himself give and I contend that he has identified an important (...)
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  95.  49
    Making Sense of Common Good in Contemporary Society.M. Lorenz Moises J. Festin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:171-176.
    The main purpose of the paper is to investigate the relevance and significance of the concept of common good in contemporary society. First, I make a brief historical remark about the philosophical concept of common good. I will argue that the concept is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical understanding of society, namely as polis, whereby human being is thought to have an end that is not merely individual but also collective. I then discuss how societies have significantly changed over (...)
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  96.  12
    Means and Ends, Nonviolence and Politics.Barry L. Gan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:177-184.
    During the latter half of the twentieth century political realism dominated national and international landscapes. The twenty-first century has seen the rise of neo‐conservatism, what Charles Krauthammer has called “democratic realism” and what others see as a re-birth of Wilsonianism—making the world safe for democracy. Robert M. Gates, U.S. Secretary of Defense, in a speech on Sept. 17, 2007 in Williamsburg, VA, at the World Forum on the Future of Democracy, acknowledged these different strains of current U.S. policy, saying that (...)
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  97.  12
    An Anti-Foundationalist Foundationalism: The “French” Justification of Democracy and Human Rights.Raf Geenens - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:185-194.
    In this paper I investigate a class of theories that attempt to justify democracy and human rights on the basis of a specific political anthropology. These theories belong to what could be called contemporary French liberalism, as exemplified by Claude Lefort, Marcel Gauchet, and Pierre Rosanvallon. These thinkers share the important intuition that human coexistence is rooted in a fundamental “political” and “historical” condition. Although this condition can be illustrated by meansof empirical examples, I will argue that their argument should (...)
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  98.  20
    Liberal Democracy and Torture.Simon Glynn - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:195-203.
    Of the many ideological blind spots that have afflicted US and, to a lesser extent, European, perceptions and analysis of the economic, political and social milieu, none have been more debilitating than the equation of democracy with political liberalism. Thus those who attempt to derive propaganda value from such an equation are vulnerable, as the US government has found, to the rhetorical counter attack that in opposing democratically elected governments, such as that of Hamas or Hugo Chavez, they are not (...)
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  99.  37
    The Presumption of Equality.Stefan Gosepath - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:205-211.
    In this paper I present an argument for a procedural principle of distribution, which is often called the presumption of equality.
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  100.  15
    The Modern Reason’s Failure: Social and Political Consequences.Alexander L. Gungov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:213-220.
    Late Edmund Husserl’s examination of the crisis of the European sciences is the point of departure of this paper. Husserl’s views about wrong objectivisation and naturalization of reason in science and philosophy have prepared the ground for dissatisfaction with reason in various trends of 20th century Social and Political Philosophy. This intellectual climate has naturally bred the radical criticism against the social project of Enlightenment practiced by the first generation Frankfurt School. Later on, the Modern reason misfortunes in social and (...)
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  101.  1
    Sociocultural Potential of Russian Cosmism.Zilya Habibullina - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:221-223.
    The present paper deals with the Russian cosmism in the conditions of modern society and views. The cosmism is conveyed in both philosophical and naturalistic aspects. The idea of the so-called cosmicity of the human and cosmic outlook is one of the most attractive features of the Russian cosmism for our contemporaries. Among the fundamental issues elaborated by the Russian cosmists is an idea of dynamic evolution. It is the lack of integral system of social actions, that indefinitely postpones the (...)
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  102.  49
    论马克思哲学的实践概念.Zhiwei Han - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1057-1077.
    The Conception of practice of Marx philosophy ended practical philosophy and started philosophy practice. Marx didn’t establish practical philosophy but enriched philosophy practice in the objectivity activity of human sensibility. By the objectivity activity of human sensibility in society, history and world wasphilosophy politicized and politics philosophized, which we muss face, when we think about the conception of practice of Marx philosophy and which is inevitable, when we talk about the social practice of contemporary globe.
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  103.  48
    Labor, consumo, genocidio.Omar Darío Heffes - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:953-959.
    El objetivo de esta presentación es establecer una relación entre el ciclo de la labor, conceptualizado por Arendt en La condición humana, y el campo de concentración. Se parte de la clara alusión de Arendt, en donde argumenta que lo que se busca en el campo de concentración, es la construcción de un animal que sólo tenga la “libertad” de “reproducir su especie”. Dichas características están insertas en el animal laborans que también pareciera ser la cifra del homo sacer de (...)
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  104.  33
    The Impossibility of Democracy: Rawls’s and Rousseau’s Unacknowledged Demand for Irony.James Hersh - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:243-249.
    John Rawls, in his Political Liberalism (1993), claims that his justice-as-fairness prescription for liberal democracy does not require its citizens to harbor doubts regarding the truth claims of their religious, philosophical, or moral comprehensive doctrines. Citizens, he says, need not be “hesitant or uncertain, much less skeptical, about [their] own beliefs.” This claim is necessary for the protection of liberty of conscience, a “primary goods”, but it is also necessary to his description of his scheme as a “reasonable utopia” since (...)
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  105.  11
    Extra-Territorial Recognition in the Global Age: A Reinvention of Philosophy of the United Nations.Marek Hrubec - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:251-256.
    The paper analyzes recognition in relation to the global legal arrangements. It articulates of an extra-territorial recognition of right-holders by means of the development of a philosophical theory of recognition on the global level. It examines contemporary possibilities of extra-territorial recognition that are bound to the nation-states hitherto. The paper indicates an increasing influence of various transnational agents in order to show (1) the possibilities and limits of extra-territorial recognition based on a state-centric approach, and (2) a demand of supranational (...)
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  106.  35
    Toleration, Reason, and Virtue.Hahn Hsu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:257-268.
    It is virtuous for individual and collective agents to be tolerant. However, toleration is difficult, both in practice and in conceptualization. Firstly, given that toleration can be understood in various ways (Walzer 1997, Forst 2007), it seems that to determine what is the proper conception of toleration would be controversially difficult. Here I shall suggest one particular conception of toleration is more suitable than others. This conception allows, as I shall explain, us to better understandthe difficulties of toleration. Thus, this (...)
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  107.  7
    What Ought the Nation to Be?Donald Ipperciel - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:269-277.
    Renan’s paradigmatic question ‘What is the nation?’ has been inflected in many ways: When is the nation? Where is the nation? Why is the nation? etc. However, few have explicitly considered the normative question: ‘What ought the nation to be?’, which raises the distinctively moral and philosophical-political question of the normativity of the nation in general, and in turn, that of the normative criteria that underpin the nation’s normativity. Since the choice of these criteria is clearly arbitrary and culturally-determined, any (...)
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  108.  56
    The Proportionality of Means and Ends: The Case Against Torture in a Democratic Society.Joaquín Jareño-alarcón - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral principles—especially (...)
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  109.  45
    Can Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach Be a Foundation of Politically Liberal Theory of Justice?Yuko Kamishima - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:293-298.
    With our state-guaranteed or internationally recognized human rights, liberalism is rather a common basis of political discussion today. John Rawls’s theory of justice, which set a framework for liberal theory of justice in the last decades of the twentieth century, is notably contractarian. Martha Nussbaum, although claiming to be a neo-Aristotelian, argues that her capabilities approach (hereafter CA) can upgrade the liberal theory of justice, particularly that of political liberalism, to deal with unsolved problems of justice, namely, disability, nationality, and (...)
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  110.  11
    “Ukrainian Project” and It’s Discursive-Ethical Obstacles.Anatolij Karas - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:309-315.
    The perspectives of Ukraine which are outlined by the notion of the “Ukrainian project”, and determined by potential of development of civil society, as congruent with perspectives of steady international development for the sake of collaboration and peace, are examined in the article. Determination of such basic analytical notions as discursive practices of “prevailing” and “understanding” is offered with this purpose. Discourse is considered as reason for choice and giving the advantage to one meaning over the others that is set (...)
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  111.  21
    The Philosophical Project of Social Politics.Arnold Kazmin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:317-320.
    Russian philosopher, the author of such books as: 1. Arnold Kazmin The theory of intellect: how to elect a president. M: ‐ “CDPress”, 2001. 2. Arnold Kazmin The globalization of morality-the evolutional step to civilization. M: - “CDPress”, 2005. 3. Arnold Kazmin “The Hegel’s code: system thinking and social cybernetics. M: - “CDPress”, 2006. Presidium Member of the Russian Philosophical Society. Took part of The The 21st Universal Philosophy Congress at Istambul, Turkey, 2003. The editor-in-chief of Russian Philosopher newspaper.
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  112.  12
    Paradigmal Rethinking of World Development Towards Global Civilization.Rahid Khalilov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:321-330.
    The paper states that the world as a self-ruling system needs creation of its new concept based on philosophy of harmony. Harmonic foundation-building of the world system, safeguarding the turning strategy of the world from non-balanced into balanced development, formation of world order on the basis of convergent idea on world unity of nationstates, the leading way of integral globalization contrary to unipolar globalization are the principal conditions of the world’s progress. The necessity on creation of harmony in the world (...)
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  113.  14
    We Should Create a New Civilization: Declaration to World Philosophers.Eui-soo Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:331-340.
    Modern civilization, which is proud of its material richness and high intellectual level, is in crisis, so that the new value “sustainability” becomes the basic philosophical principle. Introducing what we Korean philosophers think on philosophy today, I want to suggest to the Asian and the world philosophers that we should reflect together and declare solidarity upon the problems of both Asia and the world.
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  114.  38
    Ryu Young-Mo’s Understanding of Christ: A Christodao.Heup Young Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:341-349.
    I have been proposing for ‘christo‐dao’ rather than traditional christo-logy or modern christo‐praxis as a more appropriate paradigm for the understanding of Jesus Christ in the new millennium. This christological paradigm shift solicits a radical change of its root-metaphor, from logos (Christ as the incarnate logos) or praxis (Christ as the praxis of God’s reign) to ‘dao’ (Christ as the embodiment of the Dao, the “theanthropocosmic” Way) with a critical new interpretation. For EastAsian Christians, the christological adoption of dao is (...)
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  115.  24
    On the Formative Elements of the Spiral View of History in Ham’s Ssial Thought.Kyoung-jae Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:351-357.
    The metaphorical understanding of historical movement as spiral is due to the symbolism of the spiral. Spiral is the geometric pattern to depict a self-accumulative growth of energy or life force. For Ham, history neither reiterates “the eternal return” to the primal archetype nor generates “the unilateral straight move of teleology. If history is a living move, it should follow the basic principle of life evolution as all the living experiences the gradual and yet creative advance by long accumulative changes. (...)
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  116.  26
    Homo resistens Menschenbild von einem 20Jh. Koreanischen Philosophen.Sang-Bong Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:931-946.
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  117.  25
    Hannah Arendt’s Unintended Quest for the Practical Dimension of Universality.Seon-Wook Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:377-389.
    The purpose of this article is to make apparent Hannah Arendt’s thought on the practical dimension of universality alluded throughout her works. The issue of universality has been one of the most pivotal questions in political philosophy until today. Beneath of her philosophical endeavor there is always her deep concern for it. In this article I will show the practical dimension of universality unintentionally pursued by Arendt and its political implications. By harshly criticizing Plato Arendt successfully shows how violent the (...)
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  118.  40
    A Philosophical Study on the Crisis of Democracy in Korea.Seong-woo Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:369-375.
    The result of 2007’s presidential election in South Korea symbolizes the decline of the Left and the growth of the new Right. They say it goes with the global retrogression of democracy, or the consolidation of the hegemony of the rightist versions of democracy. According to Choi Jang-jip, the general public in Korea has thought that the Roh Moo-hyun’s administration had betrayed them, handing power over to the market, and seeking to form a coalition government with theconservatives. Similarly, Professor Jang (...)
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  119.  31
    Ham Sok-Hon (1901-1989): A Maverick Thinker and Pacifist.Sung-soo Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:359-368.
    This paper explores Ham's role as a maverick thinker, a pacifist and an innovator of religious pluralism in twentieth century Korea. Ham saw an individual's spiritual quest and the struggle for social justice as interrelated. As an idealist, Ham viewed human beings basically as moral beings, and perceived the Supreme Being or God not only as a transcendental being, but also as an imminent being both in the sense of existing everywhere and also in the sense of existing as `inner (...)
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  120.  26
    Ham Sok-Hon.Sung-Soo Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:359-368.
    This paper explores Ham's role as a maverick thinker, a pacifist and an innovator of religious pluralism in twentieth century Korea. Ham saw an individual's spiritual quest and the struggle for social justice as interrelated. As an idealist, Ham viewed human beings basically as moral beings, and perceived the Supreme Being or God not only as a transcendental being, but also as an imminent being both in the sense of existing everywhere and also in the sense of existing as `inner (...)
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  121.  6
    Ham Sok-Hon : A Maverick Thinker and Pacifist.Sung-soo Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:359-368.
    This paper explores Ham's role as a maverick thinker, a pacifist and an innovator of religious pluralism in twentieth century Korea. Ham saw an individual's spiritual quest and the struggle for social justice as interrelated. As an idealist, Ham viewed human beings basically as moral beings, and perceived the Supreme Being or God not only as a transcendental being, but also as an imminent being both in the sense of existing everywhere and also in the sense of existing as `inner (...)
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  122.  64
    Tolerance/Intolerance in Context of Global Processes.V. N. Konovalov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:391-398.
    Specific character of globalization can be understood only in connection with deep crisis of the nation-state and thus with sovereignty. The sovereignty organically includes territory. During globalization territory factor is not anymore the key principle of social and cultural life. Such phenomenon as Islamic fundamentalism (Islamism) fits quite well the structure of the theory of globalization in postmodernist interpretation. For Islamism as a subject of the world order the determining identity (as sets of the ontological aims determining its outlook and (...)
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  123.  21
    Liberal Democracy Vs. Neo-Liberal Globalization.Mislav Kukoc - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:399-406.
    Although the accelerated globalization of recent decades has flourished in tandem with a notable growth of liberal democracy in many states where it was previously absent, it would be hard to say that the prevailed processes of neo-liberal globalization foster development of global democracy and the rule of law. On the contrary, globalization has undercut traditional liberal democracy and created the need for supplementary democratic mechanisms. In fact, neo-liberalism i.e.libertarianism, which has generally prevailed as the authoritative policy framework in contemporary (...)
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  124.  19
    김지하의 생명사상.Byung-Chang Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1163-1166.
    The most famous korean Poet Jiha Kim had turned toward the thoughts for life in the beginning of eighties in Korea. I will here introduce the causes and the basis of his thoughts. It has been recognized already that Korean traditional philosophy of DongHak (the learning in the East Asia) and the western philosophies, ie the theology of liberation, the philosophy of Bergson or Deleuze had influenced much to his thoughts for life. But the most determinate basis of his thoughts, (...)
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  125.  29
    핵심역량 개발과 마음의 계발.Chong-jae Lee & Kyoung-oh Song - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1131-1162.
    This study argues that it is more important to enlighten human mind than to develop key competencies in terms of human development. For this, the current study addresses the limitations of OECD's functional approach to competency development, by exploring the conceptual framework of key competencies identified by OECD researchers. Then, it explores the structure of human mind, drawn from the perspective of the Doctrine of the Mean (中庸) which is one of the important East Asian philosophical traditions that has studied (...)
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  126.  16
    天符經을 통해서 본 東學과 多夕의 기독교 이해 ‐기독교의 토착화를 위한 水雲과 多夕의 한 접점 모색.Jung-bae Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1167-1176.
    What I pay attention to in this article is the relationship between Su-wun (水雲) and Da-seok (多夕) in their thoughts. As is generally known, Dong-hak (東學) has been recognized as an independent national religion which rediscovered the forgotten God of Korean People. It is indicated by the fact that Dong-hak is a system of thought which has inherited and developed the theory of three foundations (三才) as the worldview of Cheonbugyeong. In this paper, what I find to be missing in (...)
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  127.  19
    생명은 웋일름을 따르는 몸사름 ‐다석 생명사상의 영성적 차원.Ki-Sang Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1177-1208.
    Daseok is a thinker who spent his whole life in searching out the principle of life for all the global citizens’ living together peacefully freed from the ‘absolute’ centripetal force of Europe. We are now at a juncture of drawing up a new grammar of life for living together in a pluralistic age where all kinds of ideologies and world religions should coexist intermingling with each other. Daseok, as a early thinker of the global village period, tried to search out (...)
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  128.  33
    The Korea Wave as Cyber-Culture.Sang-Hoon Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:419-427.
    Korea Wave means the vigorous drive toward Korean mass culture among the young generation of East Asian countries. The Korea Wave has had great socio-cultural and economic effects on China and East Asian countries and even made a new word 'Hawhanzoo (哈韓族)' which mean the Korea Wave fan. The most important characteristic of the Korea Wave is that the followers are the young generation of the upper classes of those regions who are apt to learn and use the Internet and (...)
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  129.  1
    The Korea Wave as Cyber-Culture.Sang-Hoon Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:419-427.
    Korea Wave means the vigorous drive toward Korean mass culture among the young generation of East Asian countries. The Korea Wave has had great socio-cultural and economic effects on China and East Asian countries and even made a new word 'Hawhanzoo ' which mean the Korea Wave fan. The most important characteristic of the Korea Wave is that the followers are the young generation of the upper classes of those regions who are apt to learn and use the Internet and (...)
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  130.  26
    A Comparative Study on Wang Yang-Ming and Hannah Arendt for the 21st Century.Unsunn Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:429-438.
    This is a comparative study on the 20th's century's Western philosophy Hannah Arendt(1906-1975) and the 16th century's Eastern Confucian thinker Wang Yang-ming(1472-1529). Wang-ming was a Neoconfucian thinker of the 16th century China. In his time, Chinese intellectual world was dominated by Neoconfucian Ch’eng-Chu School which laid much stress on scholastic work of learning. Yang-ming saw a huge obstacle of intellectualism in Ch’eng-Chu school’s theoretical scholasticism that emphasized overly book-learning to be required on the way to become a genuine person. He (...)
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  131.  32
    ‘Nationality’ in J. G. Fichte’s Philosophy of Consciousness.Keum-hee Lim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:439-444.
    German idealist philosopher J. G. Fichte (1762‐1814), as an heir to Kant, sought to uniformity of reason in his own philosophical system Wissenschaftslehre. However, the political implications of his philosophy have dual aspects. The first is his own political theory presented in accordance with his philosophical principles. The second is a set of political influences concerning his practical position together with his philosophy. By and large it has been the second aspect that Fichte’s nationalistic perspectives were interpreted upon. So the (...)
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  132.  2
    马克思主义价值观上的误区.Lihua Liu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1079-1093.
    Marxist value standpoint taking the value of working classes as more important and higher than universal human value has already been proved wrong by the anti-human practice led my the standpoint in the 20th century. Though the disastrous historical reality was definitely beyond or not the expectation of Marxism founders, the practice is logically necessary result of the unavoidable historical limitation and theory mistake of Marxism. In their early years, both Karl Marx andFriedrich Engels held the criterion of the universal (...)
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  133.  18
    Problems of the Structure and Hierarchy of Democratic Values.Alexander S. Madatov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:445-449.
    Democracy as one of the forms of a governance and political process is at the same time a political value. The value’s aspects of democracy are closely connected with the character of democratic political regime, democratic process and democratic political culture of society. in the structure of democratic values one may roughly point out horizontal facet of them and vertical one. Horizontal values include following values: general social domain; the sphere of political institutions; the aspects of political process and procedures; (...)
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  134.  22
    Complexio Oppsitorum: Politics and Culture in Carl Schmitt.Michael Marder - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:451-458.
    Carl Schmitt’s Roman Catholicism and Political Form (1923) features a term, the importance of which political philosophy is yet to fathom. This notion is complexio oppositorum, describing Catholicism as “a complex of opposites”. Upon theorizing the complex as a non-dialectical, non-synthetical unity, I will graft its structure onto the concept of culture and its recent political incarnation, multiculturalism. I will argue that in order to remain a viable political concept, multiculturalism has to preserve an antagonistic composition, which will allow for (...)
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  135.  33
    Inequality: Strategies of Overcoming.Irina Mitina - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:459-467.
    The inequality as a social problem was in focus of attention of social philosophers since the early years of modern history when a person has ceased to perceive the social hierarchy as pre-established one and has understood the opportunity of its re-determination. Investigators studied in detail different aspects of the problem but their discussions were centered on the question about foundation of inequality. I argue that if we allow the possibility of change of the social positions as the main characteristic (...)
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  136.  5
    Inequality: Strategies of Overcoming.Irina Mitina - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:469-475.
    The inequality as a social problem was in focus of attention of social philosophers since the early years of modern history when a person has ceased to perceive the social hierarchy as pre-established one and has understood the opportunity of its re-determination. Investigators studied in detail different aspects of the problem but their discussions were centered on the question about foundation of inequality. I argue that if we allow the possibility of change of the social positions as the main characteristic (...)
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  137.  23
    Affirmation of Modernization Theory and Negation of Depeendency Theory: A Case of South Korea.Subrata Mukherjee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:477-497.
    The plank of the dependency theory is that unless there is a transition to socialism and a complete break with the metropolitan countries, the peripheral status of the dependent countries would continue. After the Second World War with the emergence of many new nations, as a consequence of decolonization, the question of development assumed paramount importance for these countries. Raul Prebisch (1950) understood the nineteenth century paradigm of free trade as inoperative and disadvantageous to the raw materials exporting countries. The (...)
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  138.  45
    The Principle of Unlinearity in the Research of Social Formation of Personality.Evgenia M. Nikolaeva - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:997-1002.
    The problem of person’s social formation becomes especialy actual in all its aspects during the periods of social historical transformations. The guiding lines of individual’s development accepted by society (socialization norms) are either lacking or being overthrown. Such situation demands from the researchers to switch their attention from the mechanisms of sociality reproduction to the mechanisms responsible for the sociality formation. The last ones become the main subject of the self-organization theory (synergetics). According to it, socialization can be represented as (...)
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  139.  32
    Moral Luck and the Punishment of Attempts.A. Nuyen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:499-505.
    In most countries, failed criminal attempts are punished less severely than those that succeed. Many philosophers, including myself, have argued that differential punishment can be justified. However, in a recent paper, Hanna raises objections to defenses of differential punishments, claiming that such policy goes against our “desert intuitions” and also cannot be justified on utilitarian grounds. I argue in this paper that Hanna’s desert-based and utilitarian objections can be undermined. Further, they are valid only within moral theories that take the (...)
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  140.  20
    Biopolitics: Biologically Oriented Political Philosophy and Political Science.Alexander V. Oleskin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:517-523.
    Biopolitics, originally interpreted as the subfield of political science focusing on biological (evolutionary) factors involved in political behavior, has faced conceptual and organizational differences during the forty-year period of its development. It has recently been redefined as the totality of all applications of biology to social and political concepts, problems and practical issues and concerns. In these new terms, biopolitics represents a promising interdisciplinary area of research, whose potential with respect to political philosophy and political science is exemplified by its (...)
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  141.  30
    The Philosophy of HAM, Seok Heon as an Encounter of the Eastern and Western Cultures.Jaesoon Park - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:525-557.
    The purpose of this essay is to identify the characters of Ham's philosophy that have been formed through the historical process of the encounter between the Eastern and Western civilizations. Views of the academics on Ham have been divided in two; those who regard Ham as a philosopher characterizing oriental Korean cultural thought, and those who see him with the characteristics of Christianity and Western modern cultural thought. In this essay I will show that Ham formed an integrated thought which (...)
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  142.  26
    A Skeptical View of the Liberal Peace.Susan M. Parrillo - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:559-569.
    A Skeptical View of the Liberal Peace reflects on the place of democracy in the global community. The article pays particular attention to the widespread assumption that there is an inherent relationship between democracy and peace, and that peace most assuredly is derived from democracy itself. I find these assertions to be highly questionable and overstated. Reflection on the philosophy which underpins these claims can only be helpful for international relations. In particular, given the United States’ apparent imperialistic urge to (...)
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  143.  23
    Social Philosophy and the Logic of History.D. Patelis - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:571-577.
    Different conceptions of social philosophy were divided and polarized in different variants: from biological reductionism (the attempt to explain social phenomena in terms of biology) to sociocentrism. The approach V. A. Vazulin’s conception of “The Logic of History” makes it possible to concretize the dialectic of the natural (including the biological) and the social. The creative development of the method of scientific investigation made it possible to reveal the inner systematic interconnection of laws and categories of social theory which reflect (...)
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  144.  22
    Modern Globalization and Antiglobalization: To the Question of Rethinking World Process Anew.V. Pavlovskiy - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:579-584.
    A modern stage of globalization is a historical and logical continuation of “an economical social formation” (K.G. Marx), a civilization (L.G. Morgan). The analysis of this globalization in philosophy and social sciences has an extremely contradictory character which is law-governed in the modern society. Modern globalization has been showing itself as a qualitatively new historical process since 1991. Judging from the positions of the dialectical materialistic theory of history (K.G. Marx, F. Engels, V.I. Lenin and others) it by its essence (...)
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  145.  16
    Buddhist Perspectives on Positive Peace.Lucinda Peach - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:585-591.
    The so-called “war on terror” launched by the United States following 9/11 is only the latest in an ongoing strategy of responding to conflict around the world with military violence and armed force. These interventions appear to be premised on a belief that there is no alternative to using violence and armed force to resolve conflicts because human beings have fixed and unchanging identities which are either “with us or against us,” “friends or enemies,” “good or evil.” In contrast, despite (...)
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  146.  25
    N'S Inconmensurability and Language-Games’s Change: Remarks on Conservatism and Wittgenstein´s Later Work.Ángeles J. Perona - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:609-621.
    Every time that one refers to the political philosophy that could be drawn from the so called " Last Wittgenstein ", the most habitual thing is to associate it with conservative positions, given that the majority of the available literature on the matter does it so. Nevertheless, in the last few years some philosophers, such as Chantal Mouffe and Paolo Virno, have tried to offer a new picture in which Wittgenstein fits better with democratic political ideas, even though this manoeuvre (...)
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  147.  25
    Ideology and Today’s China.He Ping - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:623-630.
    Ideology has been a most prominent problem in today’s China ever since the establishment of the overall socialist market economy in China in the 1990s. What kind of ideology is in need for Chinese market economy? The question directly challenges Marxism, the leading ideology. Liberalism,New-Confucianism split and contradicted socialism and market economy, denied Marxist ideology and required the adoption of western Liberalism or traditional Confucianism as the leading ideology for today’s China. Whereas the Marxists insisted on socialist market economy, but (...)
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  148.  20
    Philosophy in Search of a New “Measure of All Things”.M. Polishchuk - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:631-639.
    The tragic experience of the XX century, the worth expression of which was Holocaust, challenges the fundamental values of civilized society. Its terrifying symbol is Auschwitz, extermination camp, Universe of terror – “the kingdom not of this world”. Its understanding is beyond classical concepts of good and evil and can not be described in the usual categories of crime and punishment . The entrance to this “kingdom” can be illustrated by Dante’s words written at the entrance to Hell (Inferno): “Abandon (...)
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  149.  26
    On the Applicability of Theoretical Model of Intergenerational Justice.Gabriel Radu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:641-650.
    This article pays special attention to some issues of justice erased by extending constitutional and political problems to a more generally rank. Controversies generated by the principle of justice are multiplicated in their formulation in different social spaces and time relocation. In this article we test the applicability of the theoretical model of intergenerational justice in changing political orders, emphasizing its particularities and limitations. Solving past political problems in different political regimes induces many theoretical disscutions. In spite of all dificulties, (...)
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  150.  41
    La imbricación vida-poder en las filosofías de Michel Foucault y Giogio Agamben.Marcelo Raffin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:961-967.
    Esta ponencia pretende hacer explícita la particular relación que Michel Foucault y Giorgio Agamben postulan entre la vida y el poder como una relación de imbricación por la cual el poder siempre ha dado forma a la vida, en el sentido de lo viviente, apresándola bajo modalizaciones específicas y, por esta vía, propone asimismo una hermenéutica de las formas contemporáneas del sujeto a partir de la relación señalada. A tal fin, se revisará la forma particular en que la vida en (...)
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  151. Conspiracy Theories and Ethics.Juha Räikkä - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:651-659.
    Political conspiracy theorists have done a lot of good in the past; undoubtedly they will do a lot of good in the future too. However, it is important to point out that conspiracy theories may have adverse consequences too. Political conspiracy theorizing, as a public activity, may lead to harmful scapegoating and its implications may be racist and fascist rather than democratic. Conspiracy theories may undermine trust in political institutions. Certain conspiracy theories are kept artificially alive, because of their political (...)
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  152.  11
    The Incompleteness of Multiculturalist Agenda: Overlooking the Need for a Shared Identity.Sushila Ramaswamy - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:661-686.
    It is generally believed that through one-person one vote the diverse groups within society would be integrated into a shared identity. But the multiculturalists- Kymlicka, Parekh, Taylor, Young- argue that in well established democracies, some groups like African-American, indigenous peoples, ethnic and religious minorities and women feel marginalized and as a remedy, propose measures that the political system could mirror the distinct cultural identity of the different people. The critics of multiculturalism- Miller, Barry- argue that Liberalism accommodates cultural plurality and (...)
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  153.  10
    Habermas' Critique of Ethnocentric Liberalism.Ali Rizvi - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:687-710.
    Jürgen Habermas has emerged as a sharp, and occasionally harsh, critic of the Bush administration’s policies since the Iraq war. Habermas has developed this critique in several of his short pieces and interviews, some of which are available in fine collections in both English and other languages. However, the occasional and journalistic character of Habermas’ political interventions often hide the theoretical basis of his critique. In this paper, I argue that Habermas’ critique of the Bush administration’s foreign policy emanates from, (...)
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  154.  4
    Popular Sovereignty: A Reappraisal of the Pluralists’ View.Jitendra Nath Sarker - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:711-719.
    In their book entitled “Democracy and the American Party System” Austin Ranney and (Willmoore Kendall have brought a charge again the pluralists that they denied the desirability of creating sovereign state and as such, according to them, they were opponents of democracy as well as of the very idea of government. The aim of this paper is to refute their charge and thereby to establish the view that the pluralists are in fact strong supporters of democracy in the real sense (...)
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  155.  21
    Popular Sovereignty: A Reappraisal of the Pluralists’ View.Jitendra Nath Sarker - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:711-719.
    In their book entitled “Democracy and the American Party System” Austin Ranney and (Willmoore Kendall have brought a charge again the pluralists that they denied the desirability of creating sovereign state and as such, according to them, they were opponents of democracy as well as of the very idea of government. The aim of this paper is to refute their charge and thereby to establish the view that the pluralists are in fact strong supporters of democracy in the real sense (...)
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  156.  23
    What is a Public?Paul Schollmeier - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:721-728.
    The American philosopher John Dewey defines a public as those who are affected by indirect consequences of transactions to such an extent that they deem it necessary to care systematically for these consequences. Unfortunately, his definition enables a public to cooperate merely for the control of the negative consequences of human action. Plato suggests that we might better define a public as those who deem it desirable to care for human action for the sake of itself as well as for (...)
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  157.  13
    Freedom of Religion, Democracy and the Fact of Pluralism.Omid Payrow Shabani - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:729-747.
    Given the rise of religious movements during the past decade, some have argued that the basic principles of liberal democracy such as separation of church and state and principle of the public use of reason are too restrictive and ought to be rethought. I would like to argue along a Habermasian line that the principle of secular justification ought not to result in a private/public split in religious citizens’ identity if they recognize and adopt an “institutional translation proviso”. This proviso (...)
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  158.  30
    Социальная философия и философия истории: Две философских дисциплины или две стороны единого философского учения об обществе?V. Shevchenko - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1003-1010.
    At present, as the paper states, social philosophy and philosophy of history – are generally considered to be independent domains. This is evidenced by the fact that each of the above‐named domains has to be discussed in a separate congress section, the practice which was common for previous congresses as well. It is argued in the paper, that social philosophy and philosophy of history are the two most important aspects of the integral philosophical study of society. It is impossible to (...)
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  159.  23
    Subaltern Language Games and Political Conditions: A Perspective on Applied Philosophy.Ramesh Chandra Sinha - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:749-755.
    The present paper entitled "Subaltern Language Games and Political Conditions: A Perspective on Applied Philosophy" attempts to streamline Wittgensteinian language games and political conditions. The expression `subaltern ` stands for the meaning as given in the concise oxford dictionary, that is, `of inferior rank`. Subaltern language game is the game of marginalized people. Language game is meaningful in the context of social and political relationship. My contention is that technical or symbolic language is an instrument to serve the end of (...)
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  160.  47
    A Time as the Basis of the New Paradigm of Responsibility.Marina Solodkaya - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1011-1018.
    The author argues that time is the main element of responsibility. The subject, the authority and the object of responsibility are defined by time. Time is the methodological basis for distinction of historically developed kinds of responsibility: legal and ethical one. In essence, legal responsibility is retrospective one (responsibility «for the past»). Legal responsibility has localized and discrete time-character. Expansion of legal civil-law responsibility is essentially connected with changes in point of time of responsibility. Ethical responsibility of the subject assumes (...)
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  161.  2
    John Dewey’s Philosophy and Chinese Culture.Flavia Stara - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:757-764.
    This paper explores both some of the concepts John Dewey exposed while in China in the 1920’s and considers why his idea of democracy did not thrive in China. In the lectures Dewey delivered in China he focused on the strength of democracy, from the perspective of political science, social science, philosophy and education. Dewey clarified the democratic way of thinking, doing and living to the Chinese people. Of these topics, he considered the philosophy of education and social and political (...)
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  162.  34
    Welfare Libertarianism.James Sterba - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:765-770.
    Libertarianism has long been known for its opposition to a right to welfare, In this paper, I will oppose this view of libertarianism, maintaining that the libertarian’s own ideal of liberty requires just such a right to welfare. I begin by showing that there are conflicts of negative liberty between the rich and the poor. I then argue that when these conflicts are evaluated by the “ought “ implies “can” principle, the liberty of the poor has priority over the liberty (...)
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  163.  16
    The Relation Between Multiculturalism and Democracy in the Light of Political Philosophy.Andrzej Szahaj - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:771-779.
    The paper treats about the relation between ideas of democracy and justice produced by a leading American political philosopher - John Rawls and ideology of multiculturalism. The author tries to show that Rawls’ arguments cannot meet the expectations of partisans of the ideology in question because they are very much Western or ethnocentric at the bottom. He argues that such a predicament is not to be lamented about because to be Western or ethnocentric when Euro-American culture is at stake is (...)
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  164.  18
    The Concept of Structural Power: Its Relations to Other Contemporary Concepts/Theories of Power and its Social Explanatory Force.Joanna Szalacha - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:781-788.
    In this paper the concept of structural power is presented as a philosophical and social category that should be used when modern processes of political, cultural or economic change are considered. The arguments will be presented in three stages: 1. Power - two perspectives, two traditions 2. Structural power - the concept 3. Structural power - as a mechanism of explanation the modern social change. The paper refers to two traditions of analyzing the problem of power (as a corrective or (...)
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  165.  20
    Scepticism as a Conceptual Basis of the Culture of Peace.Gaziz Telebayev - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:789-793.
    The "culture of war" has been formed firmly and minutely enough by humanity and is used with greater effectiveness than the "culture of peace" in modern world. Scepticism is one of the philosophical traditions where conceptual idea was worked out and later became a theoretical base of culture of peace. Seeing the meaning of scepticism in formation of culture of peace as an ideological paradigm in proper perspective one should mark those intentions which were offered and taken by philosophical society. (...)
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  166.  42
    The Shadow of Freedom Liberty and Liberation Between West and East, Subject and Environment.Roberto Terrosi - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:795-800.
    This speech analyzes the constitutive relationship between liberty and domination. In it freedom is intended as opposition to power through the concept of liberation. But many forms of power, in spite of fighting liberty, try to present themselves as liberators or as a guarantor of liberty itself. In this way the concept of freedom becomes first with Christianity and then with modernity an instrument for a sophisticated technology of power that has the opposite function. This individualistic notion of liberty is (...)
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  167.  13
    Four Key Rules of the Managerial Philosophy of the Global Center.Leonid Tysyachnyy - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:801-805.
    Following the design of the author, reforms of the UN would consist of four rules. The first rule: Payments from the global community should correspond with the services provided by the UN. - For this purpose it is necessary to develop a system of compensation in which payment would be made only for the completion of a concrete service. Such a system would in effect serve as a continuous audit and guarantor of quality service at all times visible to the (...)
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  168.  20
    Global Responsibility in the Context of Individual Personality.Lysun Olga Valerevna - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:807-812.
    The purpose of the article is to show the great potential of human ability in social development and to reveal the personality conditions for the development of mankind. The categorical arrangement of global responsibility is given relating to the individual personality and to civilization. The creation of social conditions addresses the vital importance for the individual development of global responsibility. The theoretical base of the research includes numerous works on fundamental problems in the field of social philosophy, philosophy of law, (...)
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  169.  30
    Enforcement Rights and Rights to Reparation.Peter Vallentyne - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:813-820.
    I shall develop and defend a view of the reparation and enforcement rights that individuals have in response to rights-transgressions. The general nature of the account is intermediate to two well-developed alternatives. Pure responsibility accounts hold that reparation and enforcement rights hold only to the extent that the transgressor is culpable, or in some way responsible, for the transgression or resulting harm. Strict liability accounts hold that reparation and enforcement rights hold merely in virtue of the transgression and independently of (...)
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  170.  17
    Combatant’s Privilege Reconsidered.Harry van der Linden - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:821-821.
    International law grants to legitimate combatants the right to kill enemy soldiers both in wars of aggression and defensive wars. A main argument in support of this “combatant’s privilege” is Michael Walzer’s doctrine of the “moral equality of soldiers.” The doctrine argues that soldiers fighting in wars of aggression and defensive wars have the same moral status because they both typically believe that justice is on their side, and their moral choices are equally severely restricted by the overwhelming coercive powers (...)
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  171.  52
    Martha Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach: The Question of Human Nature and Other Problems.Veronica Vasterling - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:823-835.
    Throughout the 1990-ies Nussbaum, in collaboration with others, has elaborated and argued for a list of human capabilities which specifies necessary conditions of human flourishing. The capabilities approach has been enormously influential in putting issues of global development and justice, and especially justice for women, on the philosophical and political agenda. Moreover, many international agencies and institutions, including the United Nations Development Program, have started to make use of this approach. Despite of its obvious good intentions the approach deserves more (...)
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  172.  16
    Socialist Harmonious Society From the Perspective of Values.Xiangdong Wu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:853-856.
    The statement “Building the socialist harmonious society” contains the recognition and understanding of the conflicts of values in the contemporary society. The connotation of socialist harmonious society contains its own dominant values: In the relations of person-to-person, it requires democracy to guarantee the achievement of freedom and rule of law to ensure social fairness and justice. In the relationship of human and nature, it demands harmony between man and nature and the coordinated and sustainable development of economy, society and ecology. (...)
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  173.  40
    Distributive Justice, Injustice and Beyond Justice: The Difference From Principle to Reality Between Karl Marx and John Rawls.Wei Xiaopin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:857-872.
    In order to compare the distributive principle between Marx and Rawls on justice, we have to definite the concept of distributive justice, injustice and beyond justice. By Marx the theoretical concept of distributive justice is something like distribution according to contribution, that is what you earn correspondence to what you have done, principally it is also could be accepted by Rawls, but as soon as we actualities this principle from theory to reality, it is distorted, on the sense of Marx, (...)
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  174.  5
    Философские проблемы нации.Naum Yaroshchuk - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1019-1027.
    “Rethinking of philosophy to-day”, from my point of view, means new understanding of the “basic truths” of philosophy in their use in the analysis of actual social problems of the modern swiftly changing world. One of such actual problems is the problem of a nation that is the most stable social unit, representing a unity of a human and social being, and in this context a human being is understood as a national human being. Only in such a role becomes (...)
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  175.  14
    없이 계시는 하느님; 다석 유영모의 절대자 이해.Jeong-Hyun Youn - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1209-1230.
    This paper is an interpretation of the thought of the twentieth century Korean religious thinker, Yoo Yŏng-mo (柳永模, 1890-1981), a pioneer figure who sought to re-conceptualise a Christian understanding of the Ultimate Reality in the light of a positive openness to the plurality of Korean religions. Yoo Yŏng-mo considered that it was possible to present an overall picture of harmony and complementarity between the three traditions of Korea and Christianity, and this is endorsed by the present thesis. This essay is (...)
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  176.  24
    Non-Existent Existing God; Understanding of God From an East Asian Way of Thinking with Specific Reference to the Thought of Dasŏk Yoo Yŏng-Mo.Jeong-Hyun Youn - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:881-905.
    This paper is an interpretation of the thought of the twentieth century Korean religious thinker, Yoo Yŏng-mo (柳永模, 1890-1981), a pioneer figure who sought to re-conceptualise a Christian understanding of the Ultimate Reality in the light of a positive openness to the plurality of Korean religions. Yoo Yŏng-mo considered that it was possible to present an overall picture of harmony and complementarity between the three traditions of Korea and Christianity, and this is endorsed by the present thesis. This essay is (...)
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  177.  13
    On the Identification of the Soma/Haoma Plant.R. Zaguidoullin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:907-912.
    During the second half of the XX century drug addiction ceased to be only the epiphenomenon of crime, prostitution and a number of other social-relations deviation, and became a constant value of post-industrial society and at the end of XX century turned into a global problem of mankind. A new form of mass neurosis shows that drug dependence is nowadays socially conditioned mental degeneration, caused by activation of unconscious collective archetypes that are experienced depending on the corresponding situation. The identification (...)
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  178.  23
    Setting up a new model of the democratic theory ‐ research on Habermas' theory of public sphere.Cui Zhang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1095-1103.
    Public sphere is an important idea of Habermas in the early research, which guided his latter research, especially in political philosophy field. According to Habermas ’ research on public sphere, this paper researches public sphere’s significance in solving the legalization crisis of capitalism and remedying the democratic theory of bourgeoisie. Public sphere idea set up a new model of the democratic theory, deliberative democracy, which is better than democracy of both liberalism and republicanism, and become the most important theme of (...)
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  179.  11
    反思政治意识形态: 理论、制度与实践.Xiuqin Zhang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1105-1115.
    Theory, insitution, and practise, which bridge politics with ideology,are medias by which the interact between politics and ideology can be carrying on. As we know,there is a so closly relationship between ideology and politics that we would be identy the practise of ideology with politics. This thesis, Therefore, try toinquiring the polital ideology not just based on the dimension of pure theory itself but on the dimensions of theory,insitution and practise,and also the inreactions of them.It is to say that, as (...)
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  180.  30
    Rethink Contemporary Anti-Globalization.Shifa Zhao - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:913-921.
    With the development of globalization and its inner-contradictions exposing gradually, a new anti-globalization movement has sprung up Since 1990s. It is also a kind of new globalization. In fact, contemporary globalization is controlled by capitalism. During the course, capitalist contradictions and crisis also globalize. Anti-globalization exposes the new crisis of contemporary capitalism The substance of contemporary antiglobalization is to opposite capitalism and its crisis. It is not a mature movement now, but it is significant to correct the developing direction of (...)
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  181.  15
    Lost in Translation: Russian Social Space and the Failure of Liberal Reforms in Russia.Nikolay Zyuzev - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:923-929.
    The paper suggests an explanation of the failure of liberal reforms in Russia in 1990th using a specific concept of social space. A society can be interpreted as ‘rings in the water’ system with an individual as the center and more distant social groups as ‘rings’. The key factor in such system would be an individual’s ability to translate his/her will through the ‘rings’. Russian social space is characterized by a sharp discrepancy between high standards for personal spiritual and moral (...)
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  182.  17
    Power Enforcement as Social Phenomenon.В Колотуша - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:979-988.
    The events of the beginning of the millennium have made it necessary to try to find a new philosophical sense of power enforcement as a social phenomenon. Conceptualization of the phenomenon involves its all-round consideration both as activity itself and social practice as its variety. The role of power enforcement in the life of the society, its social determinants, and its correlation with culture and state should also become a part of thorough comprehension. Power enforcement as a variety of social (...)
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  183.  6
    Переосмысливая представления о философском камне.Андрей Королев - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:989-996.
    After gold standard terminated in 1971, a new situation developed in which Earth ceased to be a means in the process of monetary exchange. Power shifted to People of Air, to those who produce no goods or services, but are busy selling and buying money and securities. The dying out of European nations, that characteristically dates back to that very year of 1971, raises a question of creating a new means of exchange. But now it will not be a part (...)
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  184.  68
    The Rational Inescapability of Value Objectivism.Tim Mawson - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49 (17-18):43-48.
    I argue for the rational inescapability of value objectivism, the thesis that at least some normative appraisal is not simply a matter of how, subjectively, we feel about the world; it is a matter of how, objectively, the world ought to be. I do this via a two-stage argument, the first stage of which is based around a thought experiment, the second stage of which is based on how those who reject the argument of the first stage must present their (...)
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  185.  24
    The Part of Feeling Into Knowledge of Value.Marin Aiftincă - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:5-18.
    Starting again of thesis that the value appear to us like value in self, transcendental, and value for somebody, this paper enlarging upon idea that the value is object of knowledge but different of any others objects of the reality. The knowledge of value involve a emotional constituent and other rational constituent. Advancing the judgement of value, the feeling of value is essential for detection and to converted the being of value into reality of life and culture. This part of (...)
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  186.  22
    Rethinking Philosophers' Responsibility.Lydia B. Amir - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:19-29.
    Should philosophers address the needs of their societies? If the answer is affirmative, and if today's needs are being inadequately answered within the New Age movement for lack of viable alternatives, philosophers' minimal response could be teaching critical thinking outside the academe, and maximal response would be providing relevant wisdom for the world. The first option requires construing logic and epistemology as practical fields. The second requires reforming part of Philosophy as social thinking which provides relevant wisdom for the world. (...)
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  187.  20
    Role of Education in Cultivation of Values.Dhanpat Raj Bhandari - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:31-38.
    The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world. It should essentially make a man pious, perfect and truthful. The welfare of humanity lies neither in scientific or technological advancements nor in acquisition of material comforts. The main function of education is to enrich the character. What we need today more than anything else is moral leadership founded on courage, intellectual integrity and (...)
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  188.  8
    The Syndrome of Imbalance or Can We Listen Our Soul.Kenul Bunyadzade - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:141-148.
    As a human being possesses dual creation, certain reasons and conditions can oppose his inner and outside worlds. Giving preference one side to other, and to turn another into slavery enhance the syndrome of imbalance which inherent him in birth. To make harmony between them and their complementarities perfect the human being. This also emphasizes the necessity of parallel development of rational and irrational thinking and their complementarities. A human being is perfect in birth and he is the only being (...)
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  189.  38
    Apologia of Agathon: Agathological and Axiological Context.Gennady Golovnikh - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:149-156.
    It is possible to pick out a number of tendencies in axiology development. Among them we can see the disciplinary invasion of axiology into the sphere of agathological (agathon - greek - the Good) knowledge. The invasion tendency is connected with the definite understanding of the value nature and with the including non-value content into the axiological sphere. Value and agathon (the good) have different significance. In philosophy of values there are two axiologies: creative and noncreative. In creative axiology the (...)
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  190.  17
    “以人为本”核心价值理念的形成.Zhenping Hu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:165-169.
    The formulation of “putting people first” as core values in contemporary China had its profound realistic context, witnessed a zigzag historical course, and cherished a Marxist theoretical origin. Against the background of developing market economy, the looming large of “putting money first”, “putting property first”, or “putting officials first” etc., it came into being by meeting China’s actual social demand, deriving yet elevated from the viewpoints of administrative science. It gained powerful impetus in the reflection of “cultural revolution”, and through (...)
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  191.  20
    On the Post-Traditional Perspective of Culture and Modern Value of Chinese Traditional Culture.Ying Jian Jia - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:39-42.
    Though the globalization of economics has provided us a posttraditional perspective to understand the traditional culture, it doesn’t mean that tradition has lost its special value of existence. In order to interpret Chinese traditional culture on the background of globalization, we need to re-identify its value properly to realize the combination of traditional spirit and modern idea, and then we could make the modern transformation of Chinese traditional culture possible. During the process of traditional culture’s modern transformation, the most important (...)
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  192.  20
    Valorar Algo Porque Podría Ser Valorado.Manuel Liz - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:135-140.
    In this paper, we analyze a way of valuing positively something which rarely has been taking into account in the literature: to value positively something because it could be valued positively by someone else. The main features of that way of valuing something are really very suggesting. Here, we would not have instrumental valuations, nor valuations directly sensitive to intrinsic values either. However, there would be cases in which valuations made in that way would make us able to detect things (...)
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  193.  18
    The Role of Philosophy In the Present Period of Globalization.Trong Chuan Nguyen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:49-58.
    In present global period, what help men to overcome difficulties, challenges, to emancipate them from defiance and suffering of their life, to meet their long-term needs of very day live are not only economy, modern technique and high technology, but including philosophy. Philosophy helps men to find out the key not only for all-time challenges, but also for brand new problems caused by process of globalization. Philosophy either helps men to realize their real status, to have worthy life-style of human (...)
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  194.  18
    Le problème de Weber en question.Pierre Nzinzi - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:129-134.
    La dichotomie fait/valeur caractérise le « problème de Weber », qui a abouti, avec le positivisme du Cercle de Vienne, au confinement de l'éthique dans le nonsens, c'est-à-dire de ce côté où l'on devrait absolument rien dire, selon l'interdit wittgensteinien, vraisemblablement dicté par Parménide. La reprise critique de la question consistera ici à la poser en termes de rapports entre logique et éthique, la première regroupant des faits (divers) qui communiquent avec les valeurs, qu'ils peuvent induire, du reste, le but (...)
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  195.  23
    Embodiment of Miracle.Asokananda Prosad - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:59-65.
    Belief in miracles exists more or less in all religions in all ages. The Upanishads assert that the experience of religious insight and transformation is the only "miracle" worth considering, but popular Hinduism attributes miraculous powers to the ascetic yogis. Though Buddha Gautama deprecated his own miraculous powers as devoid of spiritual significance, accounts of his miraculous birth and life were later woven into his legend and into those of later Buddhist saints. The New Testament records miracles of healing and (...)
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  196.  34
    On Career Value.C. L. Sheng - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:67-75.
    “Career value” is the name of a kind of value I used (or perhaps I coined) in my classification of value according to good things in life based on the law of nonreplaceability. I classify value into seven classes: (1) health value, (2) sentimental value, (3) economic value1, (4) belief value, (5) environmental value, (6) social value, and (7) career value. Career value refers to the extra value of the most important work, which one wants to do and actually does (...)
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  197.  34
    Locating Happiness.Andrew Sneddon - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:77-81.
    Philosophers have long studied the nature of happiness and, as a consequence, have made recommendations about how to achieve it. The present paper argues that perhaps this has been a mistake. Empirical studies of happiness have been yielding important results in recent years, the implication of which is that happiness is more complex than philosophers have suspected. The crucial point is this: although very abstract and very individual-specific things can be said about happiness, there is nothing substantial that can be (...)
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  198.  29
    Effort Expended, Effort Required, and the Theory of the Good.Kelly Sorensen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:83-110.
    One of the factors that contributes to an agent’s praiseworthiness and blameworthiness - his or her moral worth – is effort. On the one hand, agents who act effortlessly seem to have high moral worth. On the other hand, agents who act effortfully seem to have high moral worth as well. I explain this pair of intuitions and explore the contour of our views about cases in between them. This paper uses conceptual graphs for clarity and, in additional work I (...)
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  199.  21
    On Love and the Mystic Ideologies Concerning the Human Heart.Christopher S. Taylor - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:111-120.
    The question of concentration, or to use a word more in tune with the true nature of this essay, the heart, of this work is to explore the constructs surrounding the very nature and essence of the human heart. By heart I mean not the organ of flesh and blood, or the muscle that pumps life through out our corporal beings. But rather I mean to speak of an emotion that exists in parallel to the spirit or soul of the (...)
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  200.  9
    Argument to Love: Logic and Rhetoric of Communication.Viktor Tchouechov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:121-127.
    An argument to love is a verbal construction, containing appeal to human emotions and feelings. According to philosophical and rhetoric traditions, the argument is a very important means of convincing and (or) persuasion and value’scommunication. The argument to love bases on optimum internal unity of authority (and an argument to authority), good, friendship, beauty and desire of human. The argument to love demands, at least, a minimal positive value audience’s reaction to itself. An audience response to an argument to love (...)
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  201.  8
    Cумма: Мифологии, теологии, аксиологии и синергетики, и проблемы парадигмы конвергенции континентальных ценностей и ценностей правовых систем ххi века.Потапов Г Украина - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:157-164.
    The author has been attempting in a new way to evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, globalization and postmodernism on a basis of a sinergetically-axiological paradigm. There is “a notion of sum” in the process of research of the topic need to understand as the sinergetically-axiological paradigm. This “notion of sum” has given us a possibility to look from above of a modern level of science and in a new way to systematically evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, (...)
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  202.  1
    Cумма: Мифологии, теологии, аксиологии и синергетики, и проблемы парадигмы конвергенции континентальных ценностей и ценностей правовых систем ххi века.Потапов Г Украина - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 49:157-164.
    The author has been attempting in a new way to evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, globalization and postmodernism on a basis of a sinergetically-axiological paradigm. There is “a notion of sum” in the process of research of the topic need to understand as the sinergetically-axiological paradigm. This “notion of sum” has given us a possibility to look from above of a modern level of science and in a new way to systematically evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, (...)
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  203.  6
    Услуги с добавленной стоимостью как новая техносоциальная реальность.Dmitriy Alexeev - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:77-86.
    The information received during work has led to set of the interesting, given reason and coherent remarks which are clearing up how cellular communication, long time existed separately from the Global Network, in a technological reality parallel to it, has turned to " the mobile Internet " on advantage, and became quintessence of human mobility as those in technological aspect. Important point of understanding of an event was the output from concrete market realities on a level of a philosophical problematics, (...)
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  204.  14
    “技术思考”的哲学反思 —j•c•皮特技术哲学思想评析及启示.Fan Chen & Huiduan Ma - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:129-145.
    This paper takes the book named “ Thinking About Technology: the Foundations of the Philosophy of Technology” as the starting point of analysis. This book was published in 2000. we will summarize the primary idea of Joseph Pitt about Philosophy of Technology, and the debate about this book, analyze the “Phenomenon of Pitt”, that is the echo to the thought of Joseph Pitt on Philosophy of Technology. We point out at last, we should pay attention to the study on the (...)
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  205.  51
    Technological Civilization: Civilization of Existential Absurdity.Vladimir Davchev - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:5-23.
    One of the 20th century's most popular non-realistic genre is absurd. The root "absurd," connotes something that does not follow the roots of logic. Existence is fragmented, pointless. There is no truth so the search for truth is abandoned in Absurdist works. Language is reduced to a bantering game where words obfuscate rather elucidate the truth. Action moves outside of the realm of causality to chaos. Absurdists minimalize the sense of place. Characters are forced to move in an incomprehensible, void-like (...)
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  206.  55
    The Computer Ethics Dilemma.Marina Dedyulina - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:87-95.
    New technology develops with little attention to its impact upon human values. In particular, let us do what we can in this era of “the computer revolution” to see that computer technology advances human values. True enough, we could argue endlessly over the meanings of terms like “privacy,” “health,” “security,” “fairness,” or “ownership.” Philosophers do it all the time – and ought to. But people understand such values well enough to desire and even to treasure them. We do not need (...)
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  207.  22
    Post-Phenomenology and Cross-Cultural Technology Transfer.Setargew Kenaw Fantaw - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:43-48.
    Don Ihde tries to conceptualize cross-cultural technology transfer within the post-phenomenological perspective. Using his concept of the multistability of technological artifacts, Ihde discusses how technologies could have a variety of uses in different contexts. When taken at the level of international technology transfer, i.e. the level where technologies move from one cultural geography to another, there will be two contexts: (i) the context where the artifact is being produced and (ii) the context into which it is moving to. Ihde’s problem (...)
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  208.  24
    A New Understanding of the Technological Progress in the Modern Philosophy of Technology.Vitaly G. Gorokhov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:25-31.
    In the 17th-19th centuries human society formed the understanding of scientific and technological progress as continuous improvement of society and nature on the basis of the growing capacity of scientific knowledge of the world. This belief in continuous scientific and technological progress, absolutisation of a value-free scientific research, illusion of actual «creatability» of the world on the basis of the obtained knowledge resulted in emergence of a scientific religion, based mostly on the belief in the power of scientific knowledge and (...)
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  209.  16
    The Route From the Tree of Knowledge to the Tree of Life.Emanuel Gruengard - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:33-41.
    The computer is more then a mere machine. Starting with questions of Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network we proceeded to Artificial Life. This new science raises fear and doubts which are similar to other historical intolerances and fears, mainly concerned with the progression of science and technology that littered our history. Yet Artificial Life is different as it addresses directly the fate of our race. Some consider it as its salvation, while others see it as its annihilator. The promises (...)
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  210.  8
    Ontology of Epistemology of the Technical Reality.Boris Ivanovich Kudrin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:107-116.
    Technical reality is represented by the components of technetics (technique, technology, materials, products and wastes), which form the original community – cenosis – with a structure being described by a postnonclassical third scientific picture of the world.
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  211.  6
    後現代技術觀與和諧社會的建構.Quanshi Li - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:147-163.
    In the course of modernization, the technical rationality still was the leading part of mainstream rational view in China. Modern technology brings us not only the acceleration of the modernization, but also increasingly serious condition, including of ecological crisis, environment deterioration, resource shortage, polarization of the rich and the poor, morality degradation and labor alienation. The potential phenomenon in the course of western modernization also appears in china. Maybe we can’t charged the whole fault to modern technology, but it as (...)
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  212.  45
    浅议工程技术活动中的设计哲学.Lingling Luo - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:165-176.
    First of all, this paper defines design relation to engineering technology, in terms of philosophy, as the process of externalizing the subject’s consciousness as a medium replacement for a practical technical substance. The essence of design is to exhibit the careful foresight of practical possibility of technical principle and hominisation of technology. Practical possibility means a coincidence between technical principle and social need,technical production is shaped by social restriction. The hominisation of technology means a linkage of human properties with natural (...)
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  213.  19
    Technology and Modality: A Somewhat Differing View at Possibility.Hans Poser - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:49-55.
    Modal concepts as possibility, necessity, contingency and reality belong to the most important means of reflection. They constitute philosophical systems - but they are not used in a systematic way to characterize technology. The central ontological problem consists in the fact that technology is based on new ideas, which at the beginning are a mere possibility, because the intended artifacts and processes never existed up to that moment. Even the blueprint expresses a possibility. But these possibilities must be realizable, since (...)
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  214.  13
    Synthesis of Multivariate Postnonclassical Knowledge.Nadezhda Prokhorova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:117-128.
    The program of the evolution of the base of knowledge in machines' mechanisms on the example of technical systems of arbitrary purpose and structure with the aim of formalization and structurization of knowledge for creation of new techniques of automatized projecting in suggested. The program is declared as the process of transference of the base of knowledge from its initial state into final one, at the permissible restrictions in quality and resources in real time. The program's concept is based on (...)
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  215.  17
    On Biological Precariousness of Human Being Seized by Digital Technology.Donghyun Son - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:56-63.
    The cultural activities of human being are to be mediated by physical elements. These are, as a matter of fact, the natural things. There is allowed no other way for human being to realize his mental work but than in and through the nature. So, generally speaking, culture in ordinary sense consists in the human mind "objectified" in the natural reality. It remains within the boundary of human activities, which themselves cannot transcend the nature.
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  216.  18
    What Are We Experiencing?: Challenges of Globalization to the Empirical Turn Approach In Philosophy of Technology.Whachul Son - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:65-73.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of globalization for philosophy of technology. Various themes in philosophy of technology can be seen under a different light when globalization is understood in terms of modern technology. Among them is the conflict between methodologies of the classical philosophy of technology and the empirical turn. It is argued that once the phenomenon of globalization challenges the empirical turn approach in terms of (i) its focus on individual technologies; (ii) the importance (...)
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  217.  14
    From Technotopia to Cybertribes.Robrecht Vanderbeeken - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:75-76.
    The recent developments in new media tools promise to improve our personal access to information management and our personalized abilities concerning i-communication. Rather than focusing on the practical implications of this evolution, I take a step back and address two underlying cultural phenomena in order to get a grip on the contemporary significance of ‘new media’. The first phenomenon (technotopia) concerns the place technology occupies in our psychological perception. ‘Technology’ is a concept on the move. In post-war culture, technology stands (...)
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  218.  15
    Материальное производство и конечные цели научной деятельности.С. Ф Денисов - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:97-105.
    The article reveals the results of the survey of interdependence between manufacturing process and scientific ideas. Two types of interdependence are put forward: parallelism and integration. The first regulation observed in the paper is parallelism, presented in its traditional form. It presupposes the idea of manufacturing and handicraft independence form meditative science. Thus, prescribed interaction is conventional and no reciprocal influence is noticeable between them. This state of things is typical for the Ancient World and the Middle Age periods. As (...)
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  219.  36
    Clash of Civilizations, Sports Events and Harmony Communication Beijing Olympic Games on the Significanceand Role of Communication about Chinese Cultural Heritage.Han Han - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 47:45-57.
    Beijing Olympic Games is a Globalization sports events, also is a great chance to show Chinese cultural heritage. Throughout the Western cultural. The Chinese cultural understanding has always stayed in "Orientalism" to the "Oriental fever" among the transition. How the Olympic Games as an opportunity to make the “Harmony Communication”?To achieve cultural heritage in China in the Context of Globalization be "reassessed." Further evaluation of role and significancein spreading about Chinese cultural Beijing Olympic Games.
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  220.  30
    The Contents and Values of Taekwondo Philosophy.Changhoo Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 47:3-9.
    In this paper I introduce questions and discussions concerning the philosophy of Taekwondo and argue that it contains sufficient value to be a field of philosophy, like all other philosophies. For this purpose, I begin from the conception that Taekwondo is a martial art, which consists of the training of skilled techniques utilized in such a way to protect myself and, in the process, subjugate my opponent. I also discuss three philosophical components of the study of Taekwondo. The first is: (...)
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  221.  47
    Liars, Bullshitters, and the Privitization of Public Discourse About Sports.William J. Morgan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 47:11-17.
    The question I want to pursue here is one that I have lifted from Harry Frankfurt’s recent surprising best-selling book, On Bullshit, in which he asks why there is so much bullshit today in Western cultures like the U. S. The scope of Frankfurt’s charge was deliberately broad. It’s not just that people bullshit about how much money they make or how important their jobs are, but that public discourse about just any topic of consequence in American culture is filled (...)
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  222.  22
    Olympic Epistemology: The Athletic Roots of Philosophical Reasoning.Heather L. Reid - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 47:19-28.
    The ancient world witnessed a meaningful transition in the conception of human thought and belief. What some have called the “discovery” of the mind can also be understood as a release from dependence on oracular wisdom and mythological explanation, made possible by the invention of more reliable and democratic methods for discovering and explaining truths. During roughly the same epoch, Hellenic sport distinguished itself by developing objective mechanisms for selecting single winners from varied pools of contestants. Is there a connection? (...)
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  223.  27
    Aesthetics Rethinking Modern Sports.Mikhail Saraf - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 47:29-34.
    Sport has become a significant part of the contemporary society culture. There has been developed a system of sciences dealing with sports. Philosophy figures prominently among them and it deals with aesthetic problems of sport. The problem of the aesthetic of sport is really of great importance as; first of all, it creates new fields of aesthetic activity and exerts aesthetic influence upon millions of people. Secondly, sports exert profound influence upon modern architecture, design, performing and fine arts, fashion and (...)
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  224.  16
    Modern Sport as an Opportunity to Form a Sense of Self.Masami Sekine & Takayuki Hata - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 47:35-43.
    Athletes in sport are not only physical beings but also spiritual beings. Sport is referred to sport as an issue of human self. What kind of inner self do athletes have in the context of modern sports? To consider the issue of self in sport, we focused on its two aspects, athletics and training. In conclusion, we proposed to combine individual training like Japanese shugyo influenced mainly by Zen philosophy with athletics developed in the West since the time of the (...)
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  225.  25
    General Laws of Sciences.Dichenko Mikhai - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:75-84.
    Universal laws which are shown not only in a material world, but also in spiritual, represent a crystal lattice of knowledge. This base lattice is a basis for more specific and various phenomena of our life. Various sciences study the different sides of our life. However, there are common laws for all sciences, shown both in physics, and in biology; both in chemistry, and in economy; both in psychology, and in genetics.
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  226.  13
    Comprensión Hermenéutica y Análisis Situacional En Karl R. Popper.José de Lira Bautista - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:129-135.
    In this paper I expose the hermeneutic turn in Popperian philosophy of science. It is a milestone in the search of scientific rationality because permit us explain and understand both the method of deductive test of theories and the growth of knowledge. Especially, incorporating hermeneutics parameters, build up from Popper’s point of view, like situational logic, supported on the third world theory and the scientific tradition theory, open a door to another form of understand the scientific rationality. It expands the (...)
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  227.  27
    Philosophy of Social Sciences.Huiyan Cai - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:201-211.
    哲学来自人类的思维活动,社会活动,经长期的实践、积累、总 结而成的一门科学知识,因此社会科学与哲学二者是紧密相关的。人类 的社会活动,从原始社会发展至今已经有几千年的历史,漫长的社会发 展史,体现了社会发展的过程是循着社会发展的规律向前逐渐发展的, 因此,寻找和认识社会发展规律就成了哲学家努力的方向。.
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  228.  44
    Human Community Identity & Tolerance in the Conditions of Globalization.Polikanova Elena - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:167-175.
    Globalization is a natural process. It has a number of advantages & disadvantages, causes many questions and problems, which can hardly sometimes be solved by countries independently. These problems can only be solved by the world community. One of these problems is to maintain the concrete communities identity. Is it possible to keep the unique culture of different ethnos, language, traditions in the globalizing world? Or as some researchers consider, there is a tendency to the formation of the so called (...)
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  229.  47
    Structural-Constructional Approach to Utopia Comprehension.Irina V. Frolova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:5-8.
    Being frequently used in philosophical discourse multi-semantic character of «utopia» concept arises a need to specify it's content and to study the phenomenon itself. In the process of defining utopia functions and it's unalienable elements it is reasonable to rely on the structural - functional analysis. But this approach supposes studying utopia in static state and doesn't let researching utopia's historical transformation. For researching utopia in dynamics structural- constructional approach can be applied. Methodological potential of this theory enables to review (...)
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  230.  6
    Area Studies, Planetary Thinking and Philosophical Anthropology.Alec Gordon - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:9-14.
    The aim of this paper is to consider the vicissitudes of “area studies” from the Second World War to the present focusing eventually on the normative imperative to develop a new paradigm of “planetary thinking.” First an overview of the history of “area studies” will be given from the start in the U.S. during the Second World War in response to the geostrategic imperative for America to know its new geopolitical responsibilities in a world divided by war. This security imperativemorphed (...)
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  231.  17
    Relativist Model of Society.V. Goryunov & O. Pazukhina - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:15-20.
    Social cognition can be based on two contrary axioms that answer the question of whether the society can provide for the universal survival of all of its members. Negative answer (relativist model of society) is more productive methodologically. The key notion here is the technosocial formula of society, the physical meaning of which is that the society as an aggregate of people needs bigger vital space than it can create. The growth of man in nature was the result not only (...)
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  232.  28
    Rethinking the Concept of Democracy: From Aporias to Normativity.Oliver Hidalgo - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:21-28.
    The conceptual history of democracy suggests that the overwhelming success of the concept is most of all due to its ability to subsume very different historical ideas and realities under the same semantics. Moreover, the historical evolution of the term is repugnant to an unequivocal definition because it contains some very significant paradoxa, aporias and contradictions. This obviously opens the concept of democracy to some further discussions about the conceivable legitimacy of Non-Western social and political systems. On the other hand, (...)
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  233.  28
    Russian Idea Today.V. Ivanov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:29-36.
    Russian idea as philosophy of longing future of Russia was formed by humanists in opposition to real state of life in the country. Beginning from Moscow kingdom in Russia there were often oppression, injustice, loutishness, bribery, cultural backwardness, lack of education. The number of civilized, highly educated, high-moral people was very narrow. But the part they played in the history was extremely great; they were always the social vanguard of our motherland. They themselves brought really human properties for their country, (...)
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  234.  53
    On the Emergence and the Research Outline of Social Information Science.Ouyang Kang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:37-52.
    Social Information Science (or Social Informatics) is a new and interdiscipline branch subject in China. This paper probe the emergence and the research outline of social information science. 1. The proposal of the social information science. We set up the research from an extension from the theoretical informatics to the concrete informatics; a internal bond of integrating various subjects in humane and social sciences; an intersection and mutual permeation between the social science and the natural science; a the intersection and (...)
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  235.  70
    Hannah Arendt: Poder, Acción Y Política.Milton F. Trujillo Losada - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:137-145.
    The subject of the action and the politician, introduces to us necessarily in the consideration of the problem of the power. Arendt talks about the term to be able, like the human capacity to act of arranged way. For our author, the power never belongs to an individual but to a group of individuals and continues existing while the group stays united. In other words, a man must be able when he acts in name of a group of people; without (...)
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  236.  22
    How to Explain Meaningful Actions.C. Mantzavinos - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:53-61.
    There is a long tradition in the philosophy of the social sciences that emphasizes the meaningfulness of human action. This tradition doubts or even negates the possibility of causal explanations of human action precisely on the basis that human actions have meaning. This paper provides an argument in favour of methodological naturalism in the social sciences. It grants the main argument of the Interpretivists, i.e. that human actions are meaningful, but it shows how a transformation of a “nexus of meaning” (...)
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  237.  49
    Philosophy of Science as the Object of Metaphilosophical Investigations.Sergey F. Martynovich - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:63-74.
    Philosophy of science is the object of metaphilosophical investigations. Metaphilosophy is the philosophy of philosophy. Philosophy is an archetypical thinking of being or an experience-of-being. History of Greek-European tradition of philosophy has three archetypes of thinking: objectivity, subjectivity, and inter-subjectivity. They are three archetypical contexts of interpretations of the concept of a philosophy of science too. Is philosophy of science part of philosophy? Is philosophy ofscience part of epistemology? What are methods of philosophy of science? These questions are the topics (...)
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  238.  45
    Philosophical-aesthetic Grounds for Overcoming Human Alienation in Georg Lukacs' Art.Liliya Masgutova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:185-192.
    A well-known Hungarian philosopher, politician, literary and art theorist Georg Lukacs was a notable figure of philosophical thought in XX century. Although he was interested in many problems philosophical-aesthetical matter is the main one in all his works. The problem of human alienation from social forms is outlined in his numerous literary, philosophical, aesthetical works of pre- and post- Marxian periods. The concept of philosophical-aesthetical grounds for overcoming human alienation has been developed in his art from romantic feeling of existential (...)
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  239.  10
    Philosophical-aesthetic Grounds for Overcoming Human Alienation in Georg Lukacs' Art.Kiyom Nazarov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:193-200.
    Declaration of independence became a reference point of a new historical epoch - epoch of free, sovereign development of Uzbekistan. Our country from first days of independent development, under direction of President I.A. Karimov, has headed for refusal of a heritage of a command control system, having started to construction of bases of a democratic legal society with the socially-focused market economy. For achievement of these purposes own model of updating and progress which essential features are the selective approach to (...)
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  240.  18
    Social Phenomenology in the Study of Human Self.Natalia Smirnova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:85-92.
    The paper deals with the problem of the social construction of the Self in socio-phenomenological perspective. I am trying to explore the idea, that the shortcomings of the so-called classical Self-models can be clearly explicit in the light of socio-phenomenological approach. Heuristic power of transcendentally phenomenological conception of the Ego and Alter Ego is examined as well as its further development in the framework of phenomenological tradition in the social sciences. Turning to postmodern tradition in the social thinking, I am (...)
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  241.  23
    Globalization and Sustainable Development.M. Sokolov Sergey - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:93-98.
    From the end of the XX century academic community has been extensively discussing globalization issues affecting economy, politics and culture. First and foremost there grew anticipations of an ecological disaster on a global scale associated with environmental pollution. Solution of these problems on a global scale is based on a sustainable development strategy. The sustainable development is a balance between natural environment and artificial environment . Russian thinkers of the early XX century introduced a notion of noosphere. One of the (...)
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  242.  24
    Theodore Roszak and Counterculture: Rethinking the World’s Challenges.Mira Sultanova - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:99-108.
    In his works for a few decades since the 1960s, Theodore Roszak, professor of California State University, has made an emphatic call to rethink all the fundamental objectives and values of the techno-scientific civilization and consumer society. His name became famous when he published his book “The Making of a Counterculture. Reflections on the Technotronic Society and Its Youthful Opposition” (New York, 1968), supporting the oppositional movement of the young Americans which he named counterculture. Theodore Roszak came to the conclusion (...)
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  243.  18
    Sense in Epistemology of Social Science.Greg Yudin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:109-115.
    There has been recently a substantial rise of relativism in the epistemology of social science. It has seriously discredited normative function of the epistemology and changed the context of epistemological discussion. Some hold that the problem of relativism cannot be solved by scientific means, because it ultimately depends on personal beliefs. However, present paper shows that there are different scientific strategies of coping with relativism. The key argument is that the epistemological stance towards relativism is closely related to the conceptualization (...)
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  244.  33
    Dynamics of Human Society.Xinyan Zhang - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:117-119.
    One conjecture is presented in this paper, which assumes that human societies might be understood as two measurable dynamic states.
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  245. Towards One Kind of Social Science as Phronesis.Hongwen Zhu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:121-127.
    Social science, as a social and intellectual institution, inherent in modernity, as well as the modern social systems and orders, is the prerequisite and manifestation of the reflexivity in the modern world. There are, however, some fundamental problems in modern social science, in terms of its specialized system and methodological paradigms and conceptions.
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  246.  30
    Философское осмысление глобального перехода жизни на земле.Э Демиденко - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:147-155.
    В статье ставится вопрос о необходимости философского осмысления новых явлений в эволюции общества и Универсума в связи с начавшимся глобальным переходом жизни на Земле. Как показывает анализ, под воздействием техногенного общественного развития происходит нарастающее разрушение биосферы, человека и биосферной жизни, на смену земной естественной, биосферной метасистеме жизни приходит искусственная, техносоциоприродная. Эта формирующаяся новая целостность включает в себя глобализирующийся метасоциум (техногенный социум), техносферу, трансформированные на основе искусственного отбора и биотехнологий живые организмы, материальную и духовнуюкультуру, многогранный духовный мир человека, биологически обедненное географическое (...)
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  247.  16
    Техногенное общество: Новые грани исследования.Е Дергачева - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:157-165.
    In article the social-philosophical concept of technogenic societies developed by the author is submitted. The essence of the technogenic society consists in the basic change of the public productive forces which have expressed in sharp increase of value of scientific and technical productive forces that is caused by transition to industrial, and to a scientific-technological way of manufacture of a public life and accordingly - to an industrial and postindustrial society. Substantial characteristics of the technogenic society are defined also by (...)
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  248.  9
    Справедливость как одна из доминант формирования российской модели гражданского общества.Россия Ю. Карагод - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:177-183.
    Traditional Russian ideas concerning fairness, justice and rights are directly connected with state-paternalistic moods in the society. In many respects they have caused specificity and reforming rates of the country. These ideas are based on religious and historical distinctive features. Ruling power is the main source regulating adoption of fair decisions. One of the supposed conditions of civil society creation is the formation of idea of civil society as a fair society capable to generate a community of socially responsible persons.
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  249.  20
    Marx and the Living Flower.Kevin M. Brien - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45 (1-2):77-86.
    This paper is aimed at a rethinking of the spiritual in relation to Marx. Drawing from Marx’s own formulations, it makes clear that Marx made an important distinction between religion and the spiritual, and that he did indeed speak of the spiritual in positive ways. Much of the discussion centers on Marx’s famous passage speaking about religion as “the opium of the people.” Therein Marx writes that: “Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers from the chain, not so that man will (...)
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  250.  76
    Process, Image & Intelligence: How Krishnamurti’s Experience of the “Process” is or is Not Relevant to Models of Consciousness.Jim Bardis - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:49-55.
    Written in broad strokes, this paper attempts to draw form Krishnamurti’s life and teachings, a hermeneutics of the human soul’s quest-journey towards transcendent wholeness. It begins with an attempt to frame K’s “process” (the name given to the painful ordeals in his youth that many believe were the catalyst responsible for his metamorphosis) through a variety of disciplines and cultural perspectives, some of which underscore the impasse of scientific objectivity and the limits of phenomenalist categories in general. It then explores (...)
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  251.  48
    A Religião e a Dinâmica da sua Manifestação: A Oração como tema da Fenomenologia.João J. Vila-chã - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:429-476.
    Starting with an account of some of the main elements that are constitutive of the contemporary approach to the phenomena of religion, whereby special attention shall be given to the phenomenological approaches to the phenomenon of Religion as such, this paper shall, in the following moment, proceed with a reflexive analysis of some of the crucial analytic aspects of religion on the basis of a philosophical study of one of its most universal manifestations, i.e., the phenomenon of Prayer. We shall (...)
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  252. The Relationship Between Religion and Philosophy in the Islamic Philosophy.Mehdi Najafi Afra - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:9-18.
    In spite of orientation of philosophy in the western philosophy after renaissance when the relation between religion and philosophy was weakened and broken, in the Islamic world in particular Iranian society the strong relation appeared between religion and philosophy. However this relationship alleviated diversity and audaciousness of philosophical thought, but it deepened and widened religious thoughts. In fact, entrance of philosophical discussions in the realm of religion causes the rational interpretation of religion and lessens fanaticism and dogmatism and it excludes (...)
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  253.  21
    Rethinking Mircea Eliade’s Philosophical Foundations: Continuities Between His Life and Thought.Shin Ahn - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:19-25.
    This paper examines philosophical foundations of Mircea Eliade's creative hermeneutics. Analyzing his concept of “terror of history” and autobiography, I will argue that his philosophy of religion is useful for Korean scholars to recognize the meaning of Korean religions, which have been overlooked by Western scholars of religions. Paying attention to the continuities between his life and thought, I will explain Eliade’s “primitive ontology” and defend recent criticisms of his method and theory. His views on “new humanism” and “cosmic religion” (...)
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  254.  30
    Vérité et Royauté.Roland Jean Akiki - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:379-391.
    Une approche philosophique de la prière à des fins politiques est possible dans le cas où les deux substantifs sont mis en relais inconditionnel. Le premier élément responsable de cette filature des liens c’est la présence de l’autre. Prier et faire de la politique sont deux activités humaines trop humaines qui exigent l’ouverture à l’autre, pour l’autre comme pour l’édification de sa propre identité individuelle et collective. Comme les rites et les cultes, la liturgie, notamment la prière collective, a un (...)
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  255.  21
    Unity and Diversity Principle in Jagannatha’s Worship.Timoschuk Alexey - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:27-31.
    Xenophanes claimed that God is a ball, which means that he is a perfect body. This idea is well developed in Jagannatha worship, who is a central Deity in Orissa, India. It’s a round form of Krishna, who is usually depicted in a human like form. Jagannatha, his brother Baladeva and sister Subhadra are justified as round forms because of their specific manifestation of ecstasy, that, according to aesthetical theory (rasa tattva) happened to them. Yet there are many other explanations (...)
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  256. Mircea Eliade’s Challenge to Contemporary Philosophy.Douglas Allen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:33-40.
    Mircea Eliade, often described by scholars and in the popular press as the world's most influential scholar of religion, symbolism, and myth, was trained as a philosopher, received his Ph.D. in philosophy, and taught in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Bucharest in the 1930s. Although he became a historian and phenomenologist of religion within the field of religious studies, his approach, methodology, and analysis are informed by philosophical assumptions and philosophical normative judgments. In several of his writings, (...)
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  257.  41
    Creation and Evolution.Robin Attfield - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:41-47.
    It is not inconsistent to believe in both creation and in Darwinian evolution at the same time as rejecting creationism, and endorsing a realist stance about religious and scientific language. Belief in creation is argued to be every bit as defensible as Darwinism, and reconcilable with phenomena such as predation. If (as Richard Dawkins holds) evolution is the only possible pathway to life as we know it, then a life-loving creator would select this pathway. If it is not the only (...)
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  258.  20
    Verdad y Diálogo Interreligioso.Jorge Ayala - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:411-417.
    The planetary civilization we are having affects positively world's religions. The former model, based on the isolation, suspicion and competency among religions, is being substituted for the search of common ties of those religions. The interreligious dialogue does not intend to eliminate the religious differences in order to create a common religion. On the contrary, starting from these differences, we are interested in those unity ties shared by all of them, beginning with the ethical-moral values. This contribution of religions to (...)
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  259.  19
    The Dialectic of Purgation in St. John of the Cross' Mysticism.Peter Gan Chong Beng - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:117-124.
    This paper endeavours to unravel the dialectical structure embedded within St. John of the Cross’ delineation of the phase of purgation in the economy of mysticism. Two correlative opposites that figure prominently in some systems of theistic mysticism are infinite-finite and grace-effort. The premise of this paper is that those pairings are not dichotomous contraries but are opposites that are amenable to some form of reconciliation. With the aid of a triadic dialectical scheme it is possible to map out the (...)
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  260.  23
    Bhakti Marga of Sant Kabir.Dr B. Bhanusree - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:57-64.
    Bhakti marga is one of the three important paths of attaining spiritual advancement. The concept is as old as Vedas, developed and elaborated periodically and gradually. In the medieval India ‘Bhakti’ was spread all over the country through Sant Kabir. This paper aims at describing the concept of Bhakti according to Sant Kabir. The essence of Bhakti is love; the best and appropriate method to unite man with God. It is very subtle in nature. Inculcating love in one’s own heart (...)
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  261.  39
    The Dialectic of Theological Reason Reversing the Ontological, Cosmological and Teleological Arguments.Nikolai Biryukov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:65-68.
    The famous triad of ‘rational proofs’ of God’s existence may, if their underlying intuitions are taken at face value, be reversed to prove the contrary, namely the non-existence of God. The ontological argument, for example, proceeds from the notion of God as the ‘real most’ or ‘absolutely real’ being. However, the existence of an entity thus defined must be beyond doubt, for if distinguishing between ‘levels of reality’ makes any sense at all, ‘more real’ must also mean ‘more manifest’. And (...)
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  262.  20
    A Conceptual Pattern for the “Historical Being” Communication.Nicolae Branzea - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:69-76.
    Lucian Blaga (1895-1961), the famous Romanian philosopher who started as a poet and took his PhD in Philosophy and Biology in Vienna is our contemporary, illustrating the spiritual changes at the borders between modernism and postmodernism; he is meant to be studied from the perspective of the postmodernist philosophy of religion. Lucian Blaga was a writer, playwright, journalist, professor and librarian who had a vaste writing; as a philosopher he is a unique author of philosophical system, in the Romanian philosophy (...)
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  263.  38
    Apatheism: The New Face of Religion?Milenko Budimir - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:87-93.
    In an essay published in the May 2003 issue of Atlantic Monthly, Jonathan Rauch describes a phenomenon he refers to as ‘apatheism’ which he defines as “… a disinclination to care all that much about one’s own religion, and an even stronger disinclination to care about other people’s [religion]…” The phenomenon thatRauch describes seems to refer not to an epistemological state but rather to a normative way of being in the world. It also appears to be linked in some important (...)
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  264.  14
    Del Por Qué Considero Que La Filosofía De La Ciencia Social Constituye Una Parada Obligada En El Acontecer De La Teoría Social Desde Una Perspectiva Sociológica.Omar Antonio Ponce Carrillo - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:419-427.
    En este escrito intento exponer la manera en que establezco una relación entre la filosofía de la ciencia social y la teoría social. Lo anterior se da “incidentalmente” a partir de mi propio trabajo en teoría social; el cual se origina en la Teoría de la Estructuración de Anthony Giddens y actualmente involucra al Naturalismo Crítico. Mi interés original en la teoría social, el cual giraba en torno al trato que Giddens le da a la dualidad agente-estructura a través de (...)
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  265.  12
    Holy Grace or Moral Behaviour?Rodica Croitoru - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:95-100.
    To the faithful it is proper to draw the conclusion that in religion the appropriate way comes from the cultivation of virtue to the possibility of his endowment with grace; he should realize that the opposite way, from his endowment with grace with the view to make his way to virtue easier is not but an illusory way with a limited moral and religious meaning. From here follows that to God we cannot address but desires which passed the test of (...)
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  266.  15
    Rethinking Religious Epistemology.Gary Stephen Elkins - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:101-108.
    Philosophers of religion propose an assortment of epistemic preferences with reference to the extent and limits of knowledge of God, ranging from moderate fideism to robust rationalism. In the past two decades, a seismic shift has occurred away from more classical strategies to movements that reflect the current Zeitgeist (e.g. postmodernism and pseudo-modernism). In my paper, I will argue for rational confidence and epistemic modesty in an attempt to find some balance between faith and reason.
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  267.  63
    God as the Universal Reflection of Human Essence.Nicolay Fomin - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:109-116.
    God as the universal reflection of Human essence has discovered Materialistic monism with understanding of substance as the reality of all existed, including universal: qualities – continuity, interruptness, corpuscleness, reflection; characteristics – transition from quantity to quality and vice versa, unity and struggle of opposites, denial of denial, unity of substance; states – rest, development, form, motion; processes – physical, chemical, biological, mental, where Man and God are united. The Materialistic consists of the unity of methodological, theoretical, sociological, statistical and (...)
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  268.  34
    Philosophy and Children’s Religious Experience.Maughn Gregory - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:125-135.
    Philosophy serves to determine and clarifying the meaning of experience, and to make experience more meaningful, in both of the senses that Dewey distinguished: to broaden the range and amplify the value of qualities we experience, and to multiply their relevant ties to other experiences. Children’s experience is replete with philosophical meaning, and in facilitating children’s search for meaning, we are obliged to lead them in the directions that we ourselves have found most fruitful, though we should avoid the “adultist (...)
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  269.  31
    Between Kant and Weber: Secular Philosophy of Religion and Secularization Hypothesis in Hegel´s Thought.M. Haeussler - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:137-143.
    Adopting Kant´s implicitly secular standpoint, Hegel in his first major work, the Phenomenology of the Spirit, overcomes Kant´s ambivalence by formulating an explicitly secular theory of Religion. In addition to that, he elaborates a hermeneutic approach which enables him to explain the genesis of his secular position. Therefore, it has to be acknowledged that Hegel formulated a secularization theorem referring to a dynamics inherent in Christianity, and that he did so nearly one hundred years before Max Weber.
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  270.  46
    The Concept of Muslem Civilization in Malek Bennabi’s Philosophy.Hassina Hemamid - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:145-153.
    In this paper, I try to explore Bennabi’s contribution to social theory, his views and the approach he developed in dealing with issues concerning human society and civilization. I also try to show his efforts to build a huge theory that would apply to every human society, and to encircle all of civilization. Because Bennabi was raised in circumstances that appeared to confirm the military, scientific, economic and political superiority of the west. He tried to analyse and define the causes (...)
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  271.  22
    Religion – A Factor of Slavery and Obedience?Ivan Kaltchev - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:155-164.
    In this research the problem of liberty is considered in the context of religion as I am searching for an answer of the question if religion is not the main reason for limitation of freedom? My research is based on the philosophical essay of John S. Mill “On liberty”. An essential specification for this analysis is the fact that it is mainly interested in Christianity and to rather less extent, in the other religions. I am inclined to agree with the (...)
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  272.  11
    Minjung Hermeneutics in the Postmodern World.Hiheon Kim - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:165-170.
    Coming into the 21st century, Korean religious (Christian) societies seem to lose the hope for social transformation. There are few voices to speak out for the common good especially on behalf of the helpless people. Prevailing is a relativist social ethic, which is ironically based on absolutist understandings of religious beliefs, that each social group deserves its own share, and any request for an ultimate ethical calling sounds obtrusive and extravagant. This is one of the worst aspects in our contemporary (...)
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  273.  25
    Overconfessional Syncretic Mystical Currents in Russia and Germany at the Beginning of the ХХ Century: about the Problem of Influence of Religious Purposes on the Spiritual Choice among Intellectuals.E. V. Kryazheva-Kartsieva - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:487-500.
    Doubtless interest for a modern science represents the answer to a question on the reasons of passion among intellectuals in Russia and Germany for overconfessional currents like theosophy and antroposophy. The author distinguishes the spiritual crisis like the most important prerequisite of passion for works of E. Blavatskaja and R. Shtajner. E. V. Kriageva-Kartseva compares the activity of different theosophical and antroposophical societies in two countries at the beginning of the ХХ century and draws some conclusions. For example, the author (...)
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  274.  26
    Religious Universalism: Swami Vivekananda’s Vision.Pardeep Kumar - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:171-176.
    Swami Vivekananda formulated religious universalism for solving various issues of society. Religion, for him was realization. He gave a wide definition of religion in the form of humanism. Religion does not just teach man to refrain from evils but it is doing well for others. If religion is understood in correct sense, much of our social evils in the society would be solved. It did not consist of doctrines or dogmas. For him being religious did not mean being Hindu, Christian, (...)
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  275.  21
    Inquiry in to the Russian Ecological Eschatology Ideology.Liang Kun - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:511-525.
    Compared with the related western studies, Russian ecological philosophy has paid more attention to Eschatology and represented a unique path of thinking, that is, an intense rational conception and a religious consciousness. In the era of globalization, Russian ecological Eschatology, as an active response of Russian ideology to the world ecosystem crisis, contains a strong eschatological emotion and a spirit of salvation. It mainly deals with the sin and punishment between the nature and human being as well as the endeavor (...)
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  276.  13
    Implicaturism: A Pragmatic View on Existential Claims in Religion.Tommi Lehtonen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:177-183.
    In this paper, I will introduce and argue for a new view on religious faith and language, a view that focuses on the use and context of use of religious expressions. I call this view implicaturism. As one may guess, ‘implicaturism’ comes from ‘implicature’, a term coined by Paul Grice. For Grice, implicature is a technical term for certain kinds of inferences that are drawn from statements without those inferences being logical implications or entailments. In the view of religious faith (...)
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  277.  2
    Implicaturism: A Pragmatic View on Existential Claims in Religion.Tommi Lehtonen - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:177-183.
    In this paper, I will introduce and argue for a new view on religious faith and language, a view that focuses on the use and context of use of religious expressions. I call this view implicaturism. As one may guess, ‘implicaturism’ comes from ‘implicature’, a term coined by Paul Grice. For Grice, implicature is a technical term for certain kinds of inferences that are drawn from statements without those inferences being logical implications or entailments. In the view of religious faith (...)
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  278.  12
    The Global Ethic and Its Religious Grounds.Qingping Liu - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:199-205.
    The Declaration of the Parliament of the World’s Religions tries to establish a global ethic by jointly affirming some irrevocable and unconditional ethical directives on the grounds of their special ultimate realities. Through some case analysis of Christianity and Confucianism, this essay argues that, because these religions often assign a supreme position to these ultimate realities alone and make them trump anything else in a particularistic way, they have to subordinate those ethical directives to these realities. As a result, those (...)
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  279.  11
    Three Philosophical Sources of Contemporary Secularism in European Culture.Paweł Mazanka - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:213-219.
    The contemporary secularism is found to be a philosophy of life “as if there were no God” or a kind of ideology, which demands an absolute autonomy of human being to shape his destination. In the philosophy of Descartes at least three sources of secularism could be found: his theory of cognition which resulted in developing other than the classical concept of truth and rationality; his metaphysics; his arguments for the existence of God and in his concept of the nature (...)
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  280.  60
    The Atheist Solution to the Problem of Evil.W. Moore - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:221-227.
    In Rethinking the Philosophy of Religion Today, this paper would like to advance the atheist solution to the problem of evil that has occasionally in the past been suggested by philosophers, but has largely been neglected in the Philosophy of Religion. In discussing this solution, the paper focuses on the reasons upon which philosophers regard the giving up of one or more of the attributes of God in theism to be an adequate solution to the problem of evil. Concerning the (...)
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  281.  24
    On Theological Anthropology and Philosophical Theology.Eva Neu, Michael Ch Michailov & Guntram Schulz - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:229-237.
    INTRODUCTION: Philosophy is the unique science which considers all other sciences in systematically unity (Kant). The classical anthropology (Platon, Aristoteles, Descartes, Hume, Kant, etc.) considers the human and his "spheres" (biological, psychological, logical, philosophical, theological) and his interdependence with nature and society. A philosophical theology investigates spiritual phenomena, described by religions and parapsychology in context of ethics, epistemology (incl. metaphysics), aesthetics. A theological anthropology should consider these phenomena multidimensional in context of a holisticscience, i.e. physico- (Kant), bio- (Lüke), psycho-, logico-, (...)
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  282.  18
    The Place of Wisdom In the Philosophy of Religion.Mehmet Önal - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:239-250.
    In this paper, I will try to make clear that aspect of wisdom which relates to the practical application of revealed commands through prophetic practices and traditions of the other founders of religions. Here, I also refer to the wisdom in the Qur’an and the Old and New Testaments of the Bible as examples of the use of this concept in religion. Although both philosophy and religion require using the form of wisdom within a holistic approach, in the course of (...)
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  283.  23
    Theocratic Friendship as the Key to Kantian Church Government.Stephen Palmquist - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:251-260.
    In Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason, Kant outlines a system of church government that strikes many as an unworkable ideal. The “invisible church” is to be structured according to four basic principles that correspond directly to the categories from the first Critique. Whereas ordinary political systems must involvecoercion, a church is to be a free association of persons governed by non-coercive, internally legislated moral laws. Is this a realistic blueprint for church government? Kant’s metaphor of a “household” as (...)
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  284.  19
    Plantinga and Leibniz’s the best world.Chansoo Park - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:527-533.
    An atheist argument usually goes like this. If God exists and is omnipotent as believed, He could have created any possible world as he pleased. The existence of moral evil, though, makes problematic the existence of God, or His omnipotence at least. Plantinga's answer to an atheist is: it is not that God, as omnipotent, could have created any possible world as he pleased, but rather it is that God, even though omnipotent, could not have created the world as he (...)
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  285.  13
    Plantinga and Leibniz’s the Best World.Chansoo Park - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:261-264.
    An atheist argument usually goes like this. If God exists and is omnipotent as believed, He could have created any possible world as he pleased. The existence of moral evil, though, makes problematic the existence of God or His omnipotence at least. Plantinga's answer to an atheist is: it is not that God, as omnipotent, could have created any possible world as he pleased, but rather it is that God, even though omnipotent could not have created the world as he (...)
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  286.  42
    Subject From Ethic? Or Subject From Philosophy?Wonbin Park - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:265-269.
    Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995), a French Philosopher and a Jew, became known first for his role in the introduction of Husserl’s phenomenology to France, and later for his criticisms of Husserl and Heidegger. As the Holocaust gave a significant impact on many theologians and philosophers to establish their theoretical systems, Levinas realized how ethic of responsibility was important through his personal tragic experience. What most peculiar character of his experience is that it leads him to cast a doubt a subject-oriented modern (...)
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  287.  13
    Cross-Confessional Investigation of Religious Visions of the World.Victor Petrenko - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:271-278.
    The majority of world religions have developed in the course of overcoming tribal and clan identity. The idea of "One God" carries the implication, overtly or not, of uniting mankind on basis of religious belief. The rise of world religions was associated with rise of huge empires and states where various ethnic groups coexisted, not only on the basis of force alone, but also on basis of common religious belief and value systems imposed by religious ideology. Governing polyethnic territories, developments (...)
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  288.  24
    Pragmatic Aspects of Kantian Theism.Sami Pihlström - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:279-287.
    This paper proposes a re-evaluation of the theism vs. atheism controversy from a Kantian transcendental perspective, connected with Jamesian pragmatism. Insofar as there is a morally vital human need to postulate the reality of God, and insofar as this theistic postulation can be regarded as rational or legitimate from the perspective of “practical reason”, metaphysical and ethical aspects of the theism issue turn out to be deeply entangled with each other. A Kantian-cum-pragmatist philosophy of religion will inevitably approach the question (...)
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  289.  37
    The Concept of God.Asokananda Prosad - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:289-297.
    “Rethinking Philosophy Today” is very much applicable in every respect when we delve deep in philosophy to co-ordinate science and religion. Since science has a great part to set people brood over religion, we must think today over and over again about something very specific in the world of religion from the point of view of science to enlighten philosophy. In every religion, as a matter of fact, Concept of God is deeply thought of. Earlier we could think about the (...)
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  290.  9
    Religion for Practical Affairs: A Gandhian Approach.Remi Rajani - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:299-304.
    Unlike majority of classical and contemporary Indian philosophers, Gandhi was a practical philosopher, an experimentalist and a laboratiorian who developed practical instruments and carried out experiments for the existing life problems without bothering to build a consistent structure of philosophy. For this very reason there seems an ambiguity to call Gandhi as a philosopher. However, it seems to me that Gandhi was a practical philosopher who laid a pragmatic approach and method to his new insights for social and political action (...)
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  291.  14
    Ecstatic Historical Time and the Eclipse of Christianity in Heidegger’s “Hegel and the Greeks”.Raj Sampath - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:305-311.
    In the 1958 lecture, “Hegel and the Greeks,” how does Heidegger intimate a complex sense of historical temporalization when he suggests that the ‘whole of philosophy in its history’ is contained in the title: “Hegel and the Greeks?” Our hypothesis may appear contrarian to contemporary assumptions: a complex notion of origin as paradoxically ‘futural’— particularly in its metaphysical breadth in say the Phenomenology of Spirit and the Science of Logic—is also at work in Heidegger’s thought. This is particularly acute when (...)
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  292.  15
    Yata Mat Tata Path: An Ecological Approach to Religions.Jitendra Sarker - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:313-319.
    ‘Yata mat tata path’ means ‘every faith is a path to God’. It is such a generous religious doctrine that has admitted the truth of all religions. This doctrine emerges on the soil of India in the second half of the Nineteenth Century as a reaction against the notion that my religion is the only true religion and other religions are false. According to Sri Ramkrishna, the exponent of the dictum, such dogmatic assertions promote contemptuous attitude towards the followers of (...)
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  293.  15
    Dewey and the Problem of Religion.Robert Sinclair - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:321-327.
    This essay explores the tension between those who find value in the example of the religious life and others who take the intellectual bankruptcy of religious doctrines as recommending the complete abandonment of religion. It briefly describes John Dewey’s attempt to overcome this tension through a rethinking of the religious life and the sources of its continuing value and purpose. Dewey responds to this conflict over religion by attempting to emancipate its fundamental valuefrom the constraints of any supernatural affiliation. He (...)
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  294.  16
    Rethinking Indian Philosophy: Identity and Globalization.Nirbhai Singh - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:329-336.
    Today India is being crushed between two millstones of internal disintegration of man’s personality and society vis-à-vis globalization. India’s spiritual culture and multiple human cultures are being crushed. Indian culture is a lived experience of the inner self. We are to develop an integrative world-view of Indian Philosophy. We are concerned with Indian Philosophy in 2008. Philosopher analyzes ideology for restoring justice in society. He creates values, judgement and tries to translate them in praxis. His thinking is distinct from history (...)
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  295.  21
    Synergetics and… Plotinus: On His Modernity.I. V. Smirnov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:337-343.
    The author investigates some Plotinus’ metaphors such as: war as the father of all things, universal life as a theatre performance, longings, works and horrors of bloody terrestrial life as a childish "external game", a battle as pyrrhic… All the mentioned metaphors are important for correct interpretation of ideas by the late Hellenistic philosopher. Plotinus’ doctrine of chaocosmic harmony is stated in its comparison with the data of modern science (of synergetics). The author of the paper confirms a conclusion that (...)