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  1.  9
    A Phenomenological Reply to Berkeley’s ‘Water Experiment’.Eldon C. Wait - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:262-268.
    Berkeley introduces his water experiment in order to demonstrate that in perception the perceiver does not reach the world itself but is confined to a realm of representations or sense data. We will attempt to demonstrate that Berkeley's description of our experience at the end of the water experiment is inauthentic, that it is not so much a description of an experience as a reconstruction of what we would experience if the receptor organs were objects existing in a space partes (...)
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  2. Systems Thinking in the Twenty-First Century.Elena B. Agoshkova - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:1-6.
    Systems thinking is an important factor in solving global problems. The twentieth-century has witnessed the development of a systems paradigm and different spheres of systems knowledge. However, further development of systems thinking necessitates overcoming the contradictions between different schools and unifying them into a single systems conception. With this in mind, systems problems are examined in light of the theory of knowledge. It is suggested that the gnosiological definition of the notion 'system' should be used as a basis for a (...)
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  3. Arrow of Time.E. V. Altekar - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:7-14.
    Humanity has tried to comprehend two fundamental events since time immemorial: the birth of the universe and the emergence of life. Recently, it is claimed that these events can be understood comprehensively by means of a metaphor: the 'arrow of time.' The purpose of the present paper is twofold: to build an epistemological structure that underlies the principle of time's arrow; and to pursue the unity of science in a novel fashion.
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  4. A Global Theory of Knowledge for the Future.Edward J. Bartek - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:15-21.
    There is too much factual knowledge to grasp even a speck of the whole. This makes for an excessive diversity that lacks in coherent unity. With no coherency in the parts, there will be no coherent truth in the whole. Without coherent truth there is only a relative truth. Relative truth makes for contradiction from different viewpoints, perceptions, and perspectives. Contradictions deny a common definition and meaning of truth, morality, justice, and beauty. They also deny common standards, values, principles, and (...)
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  5. Representationalism and Antirepresentationalism.Janos Boros - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:22-34.
    The notions of representationalism and antirepresentationalism are introduced and used in contemporary philosophical discussions by Richard Rorty to describe his and the neopragmatists' attitude toward traditional problems of epistemology. Rorty means that the history of philosophy shows that there are no final answers to the traditional questions about knowledge, truth, and representation; consequently, they should be rejected. Rorty thinks such questions should be eliminated from philosophy since there is no possibility to get outside of our mind and language. We cannot (...)
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  6. Normalizing Naturalized Epistemology.Michael Bradie - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:35-40.
    The most trenchant criticism of naturalistic approaches to epistemology is that they are unable to successfully deal with norms and questions of justification. Epistemology without norms, it is alleged, is epistemology in name only, an endeavor not worth doing. What one makes of this depends on whether one takes epistemology to be worth doing in the first place. However, I shall argue, it is possible to account for justification within a naturalistic framework broadly construed along Quinean lines. Along the way (...)
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  7.  9
    Kant’s Attack on the Amphiboly of the Concepts of Reflection.Andrew Brook & Jennifer McRobert - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:41-46.
    In the neglected 'Amphiboly of the Concepts of Reflection,' Kant introduces a new transcendental activity, Transcendental Deliberation. It aims to determine to which faculty a representation belongs and does so by examining the representation's relationships to other representations. This enterprise yields some powerful ideas. Some of the relationships studied have great interest, numerical identity in particular. Indeed, seeing Kant discuss it here, one wonders why he did not include it in the Table of Categories. Kant gives a solid argument for (...)
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  8.  1
    Kant, the Body, and Knowledge.Andrew N. Carpenter - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:47-53.
    I discuss the philosophical significance of Kant's great cosmological work of 1755, the Universal Natural History. I discuss how Kant's interest in Newtonian universal forces led him to affirm a peculiar version of the physical influx theory. I argue that Kant's speculations about life on other planets are highly significant because they point to a key feature of Kant's theory of physical influx, namely that "the nimble motions of the body" stand as necessary conditions of the possibility of knowledge. This (...)
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  9.  3
    Gettiers Problem: Eine Pragmatische Lösung.Claudio F. Costa - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:54-62.
    In der Arbeit wird eine "konservative" Lösung von Gettiers Problem entwickelt, wonach die klassische Wissensdefinition nicht erweitert oder ersetzt wird, sondern auf eine vereinigende Weise interpretiert. Die Hauptidee ist, daß Gettiers Beispielen prinzipiell geantwortet werden können, wenn die logische Verbindung zwischen der Bedingung der Wahrheit der Aussage und die Bedingung der Rechtfertigung des Glaubens an dieser Wahrheit explizit gemacht wird.
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  10.  1
    ¿Son las leyes logicas leyes psicologicas?Mariano Crespo - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:63-69.
    Uno de los problemas que han acompañado a la lógica desde sus inicios es el del esclarecimiento del estatuto de las leyes lógicas. A lo largo de toda la historia, pero de una forma especial a finales del siglo pasado e inicios de este, se mantuvo que las estas leyes no son sino leyes psicológicas que se fundan, en última instancia, en la peculair constitución psicológica del ser humano. El estudio de esta posición así como de la crítica llevada a (...)
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  11.  1
    Two Points Against Naturalized Epistemology.Bahaa Darwish - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:70-80.
    My aim is to raise two points against naturalizing epistemology. First, against Quine’s version of naturalizing epistemology, I claim that the traditional questions of epistemology are indispensable, in that they impose themselves in every attempt to construct an epistemology. These epistemological questions are pre- and extra-scientific questions; they are beyond the scientific domain of research, thus, for a distinct province of inquiry. Second, I claim that no naturalistic account can be given as an answer to the traditional question of justification. (...)
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  12.  1
    Aristotelian Intellectual Intuition, Basic Beliefs and Naturalistic Epistemology.James B. Freeman - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:88-93.
    I first argue that Aristotelian intellectual intuition generates basic beliefs which are not inferred — inductively or deductively — from other beliefs. Both involve synthetic intuitive insight. Epagoge grasps a connection and nous sees its general applicability. I next argue that such beliefs are properly basic by adapting an argument made by Hilary Kornblith. According to Kornblith, the world is objectively divided into natural kinds. We humans perceive the world divided into natural kinds. There is empirical evidence suggesting that we (...)
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  13.  1
    Conocimiento y transversalidad.Sílvio Gallo - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:94-99.
    El conocimiento contemporáneo está marcado por una excesiva compartimentación. Esto es fruto de la disciplinaridad, que tiene un doble sentido: tanto induce a la delimitación de un campo específico como a la jerarquización y al ejercício del poder. La propuesta interdisciplinar surgió para proporcionar el tránsito entre los varios compartimentos del saber contemporáneo. Debemos preguntarnos: ¿esa propuesta da conta de superar la histórica compartimentación del saber? Este artículo defende que no, y propone su superación, tomando por basie un nuevo paradigma (...)
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  14. Transcendental Philosophy and Its Specific Demands.Manfred Gawlina - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:100-107.
    One needs specific initiation into the classics of transcendental philosophy because all say farewell to the common sense view of things. The three types of transcendental thinking converge in conceiving rational autonomy as the ultimate ground for justification. Correspondingly, the philosophical pedagogy of all three thinkers is focused on how to seize and make that very autonomy intellectually and existentially available. In the concrete way of proceeding, however, the three models diverge. Descartes expects one to become master of oneself and (...)
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  15. La Teoria del Conocimiento en Leonardo Polo.Luz González Umeres - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:248-255.
    This paper shows new perspectives derived from the theory of knowledge propounded by Leonardo Polo, a contemporary Spanish philosopher who rediscovered the Aristotelian notion of knowledge as energeia. It is impossible to understand this notion without giving up the "limite mental" — a Polian discovery — with which modern philosophy has conditioned us. Abandoning the limite mental opens new horizons, making it possible for us to revise some of the theses of contemporary philosophy of education, such as the idea of (...)
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  16. Biology, Pragmatism and the Question of Contradiction.Miriam Graciano - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:108-115.
    In this article I present H. R. Maturana's work as an alternative that reinforces pragmatism in the task of thinking philosophy through the evolution of biological species. I try to demonstrate how Maturana's biology dilutes the principal argument against American Neo-pragmatism. This criticism uses the argument of performative contradiction as it has developed in the European Neo-Kantian philosophy. Thus, I begin by presenting Apel's arguments which are contrary the perspective of the detranscendentalization of the Post-Nietzschenian philosophy. I conclude that analytical (...)
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  17. BonJour’s ‘Basic Antifoundationalist Argument’.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:116-126.
    BonJour argues that there can be no basic empirical beliefs. But premises three and four jointly entail ‘BonJour’s Rule’ — one’s belief that p is justified only if one justifiably believes the premises of an argument that makes p highly likely — which, given human psychology, entails global skepticism. His responses to the charge of skepticism, restricting premise three to basic beliefs and noting that the Rule does not require ‘explicit’ belief, fail. Moreover, the Rule does not express an epistemic (...)
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  18.  1
    Knowledge by Invention.Priyedarshi Jetli - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:127-132.
    I argue for the possibility of knowledge by invention whch is neither á priori nor á posteriori. My conception of knowledge by invention evolves from Poincaré’s conventionalism, but unlike Poincaré’s conventions, propositions known by invention have a truth value. An individuating criteria for this type of knowledge is conjectured. The proposition known through invention is: gounded historically in the discipline to which it belongs; a result of the careful, sincere and objective quest and effort of the knower; chosen freely by (...)
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  19. Willing and Knowing.Riku Juti - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:133-136.
    This paper discusses W. K. Clifford's classic paper, "The Ethics of Belief," and the significance of his use of the locution "knowingly and willingly" in the context of morally irresponsible ignorance. It is argued that this locution can point to a very subtle and important distinction in the premisses of ethically responsible belief formation. An analysis of willful ignorance is then given. It is argued that, strictly speaking, there is no such thing as willful ignorance: what is called willful ignorance (...)
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  20. Are Spinozistic Ideas Cartesian Judgements?Timo Kajamies - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:137-143.
    Some commentators maintain that Spinozistic active ideas are judgements. I shall call this view the common interpretation, since it is popular to interpret Spinoza as reacting against Descartes’ theory of ideas. According to this reading, Spinozistic ideas are considered not as Cartesian ideas but as Cartesian judgements. One clear difference between Descartes and Spinoza is that Spinoza holds that ideas are active, while Descartes does not. According to the common interpretation, Spinoza and Descartes use the concept of activity in the (...)
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  21.  4
    Belief Worlds and Epistemic Possibilities.Hylarie Kochiras - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:144-149.
    This paper develops an individualistic, belief-based account for a limited class of epistemic possibility statements. Section I establishes the need for such an account by reviewing a recent version of the majority view and contesting two key assumptions. I argue that some epistemic possibilities are belief-based-contra the assumption that all are knowledge-based. Against the assumption that all epistemic possibility statements are analyzable in terms of the speaker's "relevant community," I contend that the truth value of some statements is a function (...)
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  22. Der Apriorismus Kants im Lichte der Interpretation Maimons.Roman Kozlowski - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:150-154.
    Maimon schreibt in seinem Werk: „Die termini: Erkenntnis a priori und Erkenntnis a posteriori sind sehr unglücklich gewählt, und daher sind sie nach meiner Meinung der Hauptgrund ernster Streitereien und Mißverständnisse der Philosophie. Man könnte jedoch diese Begriffe weiterhin beibehalten, aber nur unter der Bedingung, daß sie genauer präzisiert werden, als es bisher der Fall war." Indem ich mich hier auf den Gedankengang Maimons berufe, möchte ich die Darstellung der Maimomschen Interpretation des Apriorismus Kants beginnnen. Das Problem der Erkenntnis im (...)
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  23. The Significance and Priority of Evidential Basis in Epistemic Justification.Zekiye Kutlusoy - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:155-163.
    There are various approaches to epistemology as well as to the philosophy of science. The attempt to naturalize them is the newest approach. In the naturalistic framework, epistemology turns out to be identical with the philosophy of science. The main characteristic of both naturalized epistemology and naturalized philosophy of science is their methodological monism. Therefore, both of these meta-level areas of philosophy pursue only one scientific discipline to be a meta-method for themselves. There are objections to naturalism on the basis (...)
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  24.  1
    Circularity and Stability.Markus Lammenranta - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:164-169.
    William Alston argues that there is no way to show that any of our basic sources of belief is reliable without falling into epistemic circularity, i.e. relying at some point on premises that are themselves derived from the very same source. His appeal to practical rationality is an attempt to evaluate our sources of belief without relying on beliefs that are based on the sources under scrutiny and thus without just presupposing their reliability. I argue that this attempt fails and (...)
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  25. Subject-Object Relation in Mull' Sadr'’s Theory of Knowledge.Ali Mesbah - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:170-175.
    Dividing knowledge to knowledge by presence and knowledge by representation, Mullâ Sadrâ treats the subject-object relation with regard to each one of them differently. In the former, the subject is united with the object, or rather they are one, and the reality of knowledge is this very unity. In this type of knowledge, there is no medium. Such unity culminates, on the one hand, in knowledge by presence comprehensively and completely conveying the objective reality, and in its untransferability on the (...)
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  26.  1
    Subject, Education, Truth.Ludmila A. Mikeshina - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:176-179.
    Two processes develop in human culture and society that implicate each other. The first is, according to Hegel, the development of universal experience and knowledge in any individual since individuals are never born complete as what they are supposed to be. The second is the subjectivization of the universal experience and knowledge into unique and singular forms of the self and self-consciousness. An analysis of these two processes in the history of philosophy has revealed the interconnections between the cognizing subject, (...)
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  27. Cognitive Scepticism Of Nagarjuna.D. K. Mohanta - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:180-189.
    This paper aims at a critical exposition of some arguments by Nagarjuna against the cognitivist claims of the Nyaya philosophers, and a possible cognitivist critique of the skeptical arguments of Nagarjuna. My argument is presented in two broad sections. The first deals mainly with an exposition of Nagarjuna's charges against the concept of pramana, while the second is devoted to critical evaluation of the Nagarjunian charges. I conclude with the impression that there is hardly any common ground on which a (...)
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  28. Explanation, Understanding, and Subjectivity.Dwayne H. Mulder - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:190-195.
    Many theorists of explanation from Hempel onward have worked with the explicit or implicit assumption that considerations of the subjective sense of understanding should be kept out of the formulation of a proper theory of explanation. They claim that genuine understanding of an event comes only from being in an appropriate cognitive relation to the true explanation of that event. I argue that considerations of the subjective sense of understanding cannot be completely removed from the process of formulating and justifying (...)
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  29.  1
    In Spite of Davidson’s Arguments for “The Folly of Trying to Define Truth,” Truth Can Be Defined.Dan Nesher - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:196-203.
    Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true (...)
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  30.  7
    What Anti-Individualists Cannot Know A Priori.Susana Nuccetelli - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:204-210.
    The attempt to hold both anti-individualism and privileged self-knowledge may have the absurd consequence that someone could know a priori propositions that are knowable only empirically. This would be so if such an attempt entailed that one could know a priori both the contents of one’s own thoughts and the anti-individualistic entailments from those thought-contents to the world. For then one could also come to know a priori the empirical conditions entailed by one’s thoughts. But I argue that there is (...)
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  31.  1
    Consistency and Epistemic Probability.Doris Olin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:211-216.
    Is consistency always epistemically virtuous? In this paper, I examine one threat to the traditional view that consistency is a minimum requirement for rational belief. Central to the argument is the notion of epistemic probability, understood as the degree of support or confirmation provided by the total available evidence. My strategy in examining this argument is to apply analogous reasoning to carefully tailored examples. The conclusions which emerge are substantive, informative and utterly implausible. I conclude, first, that the argument for (...)
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  32. Event and Milieu.Andrei Rodin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:217-221.
    I consider how the notion of event is used in such important branches of twentieth-century thought as relativity, quantum mechanics, Marxist sociology and psychoanalysis. I show that in each case there is the same concept of event as of a series of communications. It is also shown that this new concept of event corresponds to traditional concepts of historical events. I analyze the difference between the concept of event and that of fact. Since a fact presupposes "an external observer" it (...)
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  33. Human Life And World.W. Kim Rogers - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:222-227.
    I dispute the claim that the disclosure of the life-world by phenomenology is an accomplishment of 'permanent' significance. By briefly reviewing the meaning of the "world" and "life-world" in the writings of Husserl, Gurwitsch, Schutz-Luckmann, Ortega, Heidegger, Jonas, Straus, Sartre and Merleau-Ponty, I show that they all treat the world, or rather the affairs which comprise it, as passively present whether viewed as a mental acquisition or as the "Other." But the meaning of the world-as that wherein are met physical (...)
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  34. The Knowing Psychical Body.Stephanie Grace Schull - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:228-234.
    By offering four epistemological structures as guidelines, I will review the relationships as described by Freud between internal and external perceptions, conversion, and over-determination. In doing so, I have speculated that a second preconscious dynamic should be recognized as functioning within this system, namely the psychical body. The activity of this preconscious psychical body promises to resolve the aporias that arise in Freud's work concerning the role of internal perceptions in the processes of conversion and over-determination. In the end, I (...)
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  35. Epistemology of Material Properties.Joachim Schummer - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:235-241.
    This paper presents an epistemological approach to the investigation of material properties that is opposed to both phenomenalistic epistemology and recent linguistical and ontological accounts of matter/mass terms. Emphasis is laid on the inherent context dependence of material properties. It is shown that, if this is taken seriously, some deep epistemological problems arise, like unavoidable uncertainty, incompleteness, inductivity, and nonderivableness. It is further argued that some widely held epistemological accounts, namely that of essentialism, constructivism, and pragmatism, all reveal some serious (...)
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  36.  1
    Expertise and Rationality.Herman E. Stark - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:242-247.
    I explore the connection between expertise and rationality. I first make explicit the philosophically dominant view on this connection, i.e., the ‘expert-consultation’ view. This view captures the rather obvious idea that a rational way of proceeding on a matter of importance when one lacks knowledge is to consult experts. Next, I enumerate the difficulties which beset this view, locating them to some extent in the current philosophical literature on expertise and rationality. I then propose that different lessons should be drawn (...)
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  37. An Internalist Rejoinder to Skepticism.Gregg Ten Elshoff - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:81-87.
    In what follows, I will offer a rejoinder to one popular and influential version of external world skepticism which avoids begging questions against the skeptical conclusion, arguing from prudential considerations to a dismissal of skeptical worries, and arguing for epistemological conclusions from semantic premises.
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  38.  1
    Coherence and Epistemic Rationality.Susan Vineberg - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:256-261.
    This paper addresses the question of whether probabilistic coherence is a requirement of rationality. The concept of probabilistic coherence is examined and compared with the familiar notion of consistency for simple beliefs. Several reasons are given for thinking rationality does not require coherence. Finally, it is argued that incoherence does not necessarily involve fallacious reasoning.
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  39. The Classical Conception Of Rationality.Monika Walczak - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:269-276.
    The aim of this paper is to describe the classical conception of rationality, i.e., to indicate the theses traditionally associated with this conception. I do not intend to discuss these theses in detail. Rather, I focus on the question regarding the main elements of the classical conception of rationality. I am interested in the rationality of cognition and of knowledge, especially in the rationality of science.
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  40.  1
    Defending Longino’s Social Epistemology.K. Brad Wray - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:277-284.
    Though many agree that we need to account for the role that social factors play in inquiry, developing a viable social epistemology has proved to be a difficult task. According to Longino, it is the processes that make inquiry possible that are aptly described as social, for they require a number of people to sustain them. These processes not only facilitate inquiry, but also ensure that the results of inquiry are more than mere subjective opinions, and thus deserve to be (...)
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  41. De como interpretar el argumento del sueno.Mauricio Zuluaga - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 45:285-290.
    Generalmente se ha asumido que el argumento escéptico del sueño señala la imposibilidad de determinar si se está dormido o despierto. En esta ponencia quiero mostrar que tal interpretación es errada y que lo que el argumento del sueño ataca es la estructura causal de la percepción, comprometiendo al escéptico con el realismo y el fundacionismo. Si se comparten estos compromisos con el escéptico con el realismo y el fundacionismo. Si se comparten estos compromisos con el escéptico, no habrá manera (...)
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  42.  1
    Cultural Differentiation and Moral Orientation.Sharon Anderson-Gold - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:1-8.
    In contrast with his major ethical works, Kant’s writings on history are replete with the theme of the social character of moral development and the interdependence of individual and community. I argue that historical-moral progress is an important part of Kant’s comprehensive ethical theory. However, in order to link the moral goals of humanity with the moral goals of individuals, judgement must have a dimension that can apprehend the purposiveness of those human achievements which are social in their significance and (...)
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  43. Humanity Educating Philosophy.Jeffrey W. Bulger - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:15-22.
    This treatise is a contribution towards the understanding of why humankind cannot agree on the foundation of morality and why moral pluralism is the logical constitution of moral reality. The synergistic-reflective-equilibrium model is the model that will describe how persons can make moral decisions as pluralistic agents. If this model is correct, then it will not be a new discovery, rather, it will be a new description of how pluralistic agents do in fact make moral decisions. This synergistic-reflective-equilibrium description should (...)
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  44.  1
    Evolutionary Ethics and Biologically Supportable Morality.Michael Byron - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:23-28.
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory if natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but group selection cannot explain the evolution of morality, since morality is a one-group phenomenon and group selection is a many-group phenomenon. (...)
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  45.  1
    Virtue Ethics (Not Too) Simplified.Philip Cafaro - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:29-36.
    There are two basic types of ethical judgments: deontological judgements that focus on focus on duty and obligation and eudaimonist judgements that focus on human excellence and the nature of the good life. I contend that we must carefully distinguish these two types of judgement and not try to understand one as a special case of the other. Ethical theories may be usefully divided into two main kinds, deontological or eudaimonist, on the basis of whether they take one of the (...)
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  46. Imaginanacion y Conversacion.Angela Calvo de Saavedra - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:37-42.
    La investigación moral emprendida por Hume se inscribe en el proyecto de abordar filosóficamente la naturaleza humana-"la capital"-de manera experimental, realizando una geografía mental a partir de la observación atenta y delicada de la vida humana como aparece en sus diarias ocupaciones, interacciones y placeres. Se trata de disponer de manera ordenada las fuerzas y la extensión del entendimiento, las pasiones, el gusto y el sentimiento. El ánimo que lo impulsa es doble: instruir a la humanidad, reduciendo así el poder (...)
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  47. A Taxonomy of Moral Realism.M. Y. Chew - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:51-54.
    The realist dispute in ethics has wide implications for moral ontology, epistemology, and semantics. Common opinion holds that this debate goes to the heart of the phenomenology of moral values and affects the way in which we understand the nature of moral value, moral disagreement, and moral reflection. But it has not been clearly demonstrated what is involved in moral realist theory. I provide a framework which distinguishes three different versions of the theory while at the same time showing the (...)
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  48. Plato’s Republic.Jacqueline Chin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:55-62.
    In reading the Republic, there is no reason to search for arguments which show that Platonic justice entails ordinary justice. The relationship between inner justice and ordinary justice is of no importance in Plato's Republic. We note that Plato tries to argue from the very first book that the true source of normativity lies in knowledge attained by philosophical reason. What is crucial, then, is the relationship between inner justice and acts which brings about a just polis.
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  49. Liberalismo Versus Comunitarismo En La Cuestión De La Universalidad Ética.Ubiratan B. de Macedo - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:139-143.
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  50. Cosmology and Moral Philosophy.Vladimir N. Dubrovsky - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:63-68.
    The universe as a whole can be shown to consist of two worlds: the real world and the transcendental world. The real world is a multitude of passing things in a gravitational field: it is the world of nature, every unit of which is born, develops, degrades and dies. The transcendental world is the world of the integrated, nonpassing, unborn and undying, internally functioning Unity, which is the other side of the real world as roots to a tree and its (...)
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  51. ¿Es posible una fundamentación trascendental de la ética?Graciela Fernández - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:69-74.
    Did Kant fail in his attempt to give a transcendental foundation to ethics? In this paper, I maintain that historically considered, Kant never attempted such a thing. But at the same time, I argue that transcendental philosophy plays an important role in the growth of moral knowledge. Beyond the founding aspect, transcendental philosophy has made discoveries on moral matters. But, it is important for the old and the new transcendental philosophy to recognize its own basic theories, and limit its foundational (...)
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  52. Die Urbild-Abbild-Problematik aus ethischer Sicht.Karen Gloy - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:75-82.
    Nach einer heute weit verbreiteten Auffassung besteht zwischen Sein und Sollen, deskriptien und normativen Aussagen, Theorie und Praxis eine Interdependenz. Man hegt die Meinung, daß die vorstellung, die wir uns von der Welt machen, das Bild von der Nature, der Gesellschaft oder von welchem Bereich immer, bestimmte Handlungsintentionen aufweist, d.h. bestimmte Verhaltensweisen veranlaßt und urgiert, während sie andere zurückweist, ablehnt, verhindert. Ein bestimmtes theoretisches Rahmenwerk enthält Anreize und Motivationen für bestimmte Handlungen, wie es Hemmschwellen für andere Verhaltensweisen aufbaut. Es enthält (...)
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  53. The Magnetism of the Good and Ethical Realism.Irwin Goldstein - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:83-87.
    Ethical antirealists believe the words ‘good’ and ‘bad’, and ‘right’ and ‘wrong’, do not signify properties that objects and actions have or might have. They believe that when a person calls pain or any other event ‘bad’ and adultery or any other action ‘wrong’, he does not report some fact about that object or action. J. L. Mackie defends ethical anti-realism in part by appealing to an ontological queerness he believes value properties would have if they existed. "If there were (...)
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  54.  1
    Self-Worth and Moral Knowledge.Christopher W. Gowans - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:88-95.
    I argue that persons are unlikely to have moral knowledge insofar as they lack certain moral virtues; that persons are commonly deficient in these virtues, and hence that they are regularly unlikely to have adequate moral knowledge. I propose a version of this argument that employs a broad conception of self-worth, a virtue found in a wide range of moral traditions that suppose a person would have an appropriate sense of self-worth in the face of tendencies both to overestimate and (...)
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  55.  5
    My Dinner with David.Norman Haughness - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:96-102.
    According to the views expressed in this paper, influences unrelated to the conclusions of Immanuel Kant and G. E. Moore respecting what they saw as the appropriate foundation for moral systems seems to have been at work in the reactions of both to the earlier criticisms of David Hume. Building on a "recent meeting" with Hume in a pub on Princes Street in Edinburgh, I develop the suggestion that both Kant and Moore were loyal to traditional notions of an intuited, (...)
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  56.  1
    Aristotle and Mathematical Ethics for Happiness?Raymond M. Herbenick - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:103-111.
    Philosophers since antiquity have argued the merits of mathematics as a normative aid in ethical decision-making and of the mathematization of ethics a theoretical discipline. Recently, Anagnostopoulos, Annas, Broadie and Hutchinson have probed such issues said to be of interest to Aristotle. Despite their studies, the sense in which Aristotle either opposed or proposed a mathematical ethics in subject-matter and method remains unclear. This paper attempts to clarify the matter. It shows Aristotle’s matrix of exactness and inexactness for ethical subject-matter (...)
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  57.  2
    Kant’s Moral Constructivism and His Conception of Legislation.Patrick Paul Kain - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:112-119.
    Some hold that Kant’s conception of autonomy requires the rejection of moral realism in favor of "moral constructivism." However, commentary on a little noticed passage in the Metaphysics of Morals reveals that the conception of legislation at the core of Kant’s conception of autonomy represents a decidedly anti-constructivist strand in his moral philosophy.
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  58. Die Moralität der Natur und die Natur der Moralität.Christian H. Krijnen - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:120-126.
    In what follows, I evaluate whether so-called evolutionary ethics is able to answer basic ethical questions. I argue that it cannot on the basis of its methodological structure. The philosophical notion of validity confronts evolutionary ethics with unresolvable difficulties. My criticisms derive from the modern idealistic transcendental tradition of philosophy-a tradition which many evolutionary philosophers themselves criticize.
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  59.  2
    Is Kant’s Ethics Overly Demanding?John W. Lango - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:127-132.
    Is Kant’s "Formula of the End in Itself" overly demanding? In addressing this question, I sketch a conception of co-obligation, that is, a sort of moral requirement that holds, not of persons distributively, but of persons collectively. I then raise a problem of devolution: How does a co-obligation for all persons devolve upon me? For instance, given that we must maximize happiness, it does not seem to follow that I must always act so as to maximize happiness. In partial answer (...)
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  60.  1
    Are There Things Which We Should Not Know?Agnieszka Lekka-Kowalik - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:133-138.
    It has been claimed that decisions concerning scientific research topics and the publication of research results are purely methodological, and that any moral considerations refer only to research methods and uses of acquired knowledge. The arguments advanced in favor of this view appeal to the moral neutrality of scientific knowledge and the intrinsic value of truth. I argue that neither is valid. Moreover, I show three cases where a scientist’s decision to begin research clearly bears moral relevance: when starting an (...)
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  61.  1
    Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine.Alistair M. Macleod - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:144-149.
    In opposition to the instrumental doctrine of rationality, I argue that the rationality of the end served by a strategy is a necessary condition of the rationality of the strategy itself: means to ends cannot be rational unless the ends are rational. First, I explore cases-involving ‘proximate’ ends — where even instrumentalists must concede that the rationality of a strategy presupposes the rationality of the end it serves. Second, I draw attention to the counter-intuitive consequences — in cases involving ‘non-proximate’ (...)
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  62. Ethics and Reality.Alison Roberts Miculan - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:150-155.
    One of the most pervasive problems in theoretical ethics has been the attempt to reconcile the good for the individual with the good for all. It is a problem which appears in contemporary discussions as a debate between emotivism and rationalism, and in more traditional debates between relativism and absolutism. I believe that a vital cause of this difficulty arises from a failure to ground ethics in metaphysics. It is crucial, it seems to me, to begin with "the way the (...)
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  63.  1
    Evolutionary Ethics.John Mizzoni - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:156-160.
    Michael Ruse has argued that evolutionary ethics discredits the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Ruse must employ dubitable assumptions, however, to reach his conclusion. We can trace these assumptions to G. E. Moore. Also, part of Ruse’s case against the foundations of ethics can support the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Cooperative activity geared toward human flourishing helps point the way to a naturalistic moral realism and not exclusively to ethical skepticism as Ruse supposes.
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  64.  2
    The Construction of Juridical Space.Douglas Moggach - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:161-166.
    This paper examines the relation between Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals and his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, in order to explain the analogy in the doctrine of right between juridical interactions and the movement of bodies according to mechanical laws. Kant’s various formulations of the idea of reciprocal action, and his concept of limit, are central to the examination. A comparison with Fichte is suggested, and implications for the theory of property are indicated.
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  65. El Papel Educador de la Sociedad en la Adqusición de la Virtud.Patricia Moya Canas - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:43-50.
    En este artículo se explica el papel educador de la sociedad en la adquisición de la virtud desde la perspectiva aristotélica, teniendo en cuenta el análisis que realiza sobre estos temas Gadamer en sus obras Verdad y Método I y II. Este autor destaca la peculiaridad de la razón práctica que, a diferencia del modo de operar de la ciencia teórica, tiene como objeto el hecho fáctico. En el trabajo se analizan, en primer lugar, los aspectos en los que la (...)
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  66.  1
    Aristotelian Perspectives on Social Ethics.Joanna G. Patsioti - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:167-174.
    I examine the philosophical perspectives of Aristotle on issues of medical ethics and on his social ethics in general, including the moral issues of abortion, euthanasia, and other issues of social ethics such as the issue of cloning. I have chosen the domain of applied ethics as viewed from the Aristotelian point of view precisely because certain issues have been virtually unexamined by scholars. I shall direct attention to certain treatises of the Aristotelian corpus such as On the History of (...)
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  67. Justice As Desert.Christopher Phillips - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:175-180.
    Philosopher Matthew Lipman, in Social Inquiry, says that there are instances in which 'what one deserves may be specified fairly readily. A sick child deserves medicine, a hungry child deserves food, children deserve an education...' This seems to imply that these are cases in which what one deserves is clear-cut, and only when 'the cases become more complicated' does it become 'progressively more difficult' to determine desert. I would submit that these cases are not nearly so cut-and-dry, in terms of (...)
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  68. Noch Einmal in Sachen Normativität und Autonomie der Ethik.Gut Przemysla - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:181-184.
    Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist, die fundamentalen Gründe dafür zu bestimmen daß die Ethik von ihrem Wesen her normativ ist und daß sie als theoretische und autonome Disziplin möglich ist. Seit dem Positivismus begegnet man immer häufiger der gegenteiligen Ansicht, daß eine als normative und autonome Disziplin verstandene Ethik nicht real sei. Man meint, sie [die Ethik] müsse durch reduktive Analyse entweder als Teil der Biologie oder als Fragment der Soziologie interpretiert werden-wer schon Comte von einer ‘sozialen Physiologie’ sprach. Die (...)
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  69. What May We Do?Hermann Rampacher - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:185-195.
    Social standards guide us in what to do and what to refrain from doing. But can social — moral or legal — standards be trusted? This paper presents an evolutionary ethical theory that generates trustworthy ethical norms. Each norm is assigned a demonstrable risk, called an ethical risk, that depends on both human behavior and danger to the survival of society. The assigned risk is minimal if and only if everybody obeys the norm. The higher the risk assigned to a (...)
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  70. Autonomy, Education, and Societal Legitimacy.Edward Sankowski - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:196-201.
    I argue that autonomy should be interpreted as an educational concept, dependent on many educative institutions, including but not limited to government. This interpretation will improve the understanding of autonomy in relation to questions about institutional and societal legitimate authority. I aim to make plausible three connected ideas. Respecting individual autonomy, properly understood, is consistent with an interest in institutions in social and political philosophy. Such interest, however, does require a broadening of questions about institutional and societal legitimacy. Individual autonomy (...)
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  71. Justification of Punishment!Jitendra Nath Sarker - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:202-206.
    Both utilitarians and the deontologists are of the opinion that punishment is justifiable, but according to the utilitarian moral thinkers, punishment can be justified solely by its consequences, while the deontologists believe that punishment is justifiable purely on retributive ground. D. D. Raphael is found to reconcile both views. According to him, a punishment is justified when it is both useful and deserved. Maclagan, on the other hand, denies it to be justifiable in the sense that it is not right (...)
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  72.  26
    Happiness and Luckiness.Paul Schollmeier - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:207-214.
    Moral philosophers, beginning with Bernard Williams and Thomas Nagel, have recently broached the topic of moral luck in the philosophical literature. They limit their discussion however to considerations of how luck affects our ability to carry out actions or how it affects the consequences of our actions. I wish to suggest that luck is also an important factor in determining our actions as ends in themselves. What actions we may choose to perform for their own sake in a given situation (...)
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  73. On Foundation Problems of Normative and Educational Ethics.Horst Seidl - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:215-222.
    The controversies in our time between teleological and deontological ethics which come down to the problem "from being to ought," referring to human being or nature, can be resolved only by an adequate conception of human nature. Taking up the ancient tradition again, we can re-examine the teleological conception of human nature as primarily instinctive and selfish, and say that human nature is constituted also by reason and that the instinctive nature is predisposed to be guided by reason or intellect. (...)
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  74.  3
    Moral Goodness Alone Is ‘Good Without Qualifications’.Josef Seifert - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:223-230.
    Kant says that moral values are ‘good without qualification.’ This assertion and similar remarks of Plato can be understood in terms of a return to moral data themselves in the following ways: 1. Moral values are objectively good and not relative to our judgments; 2. Moral goodness is intrinsic goodness grounded in the nature of acts and independent of our subjective satisfaction; 3. Moral goodness expresses in an essentially new and higher sense of the idea of value as such; 4. (...)
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  75. The Geometry of Ethics.Maurice F. Stanley - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:231-236.
    The language of ethics can be viewed as consisting of de facto analytic claims: ‘Murder is wrong,’ ‘One ought to meet one’s responsibilities,’ etc. I argue that it is narrow-minded to think, as Quine and others do, that we should put scientific and mathematical claims above those of ethics, for the terms of ethics fit together just as geometrical terms do, and it does not matter whether there is any correspondence between such terms and an ‘external world.’ What matters is (...)
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  76. Considérations sur l’identité de la morale actuelle.Vidam Teodor - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:237-241.
    This study presents some clarifyings of conceptual order concerning the understanding of several basic terms such as: morality, morals and ethics. Morality is presented as a colective work, spontaneous, as a result of peculiar experience, not as a lived or experimented experience, but one that refers to the effort of achievement of an ideal. Due to the internal conditions that made it possible morality is founded affectivly before it manifests rationally. Morals is in the same time a product and a (...)
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  77.  2
    Why Couldn’T Kant Be A Utilitarian?Toshiro Terada - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:242-247.
    In his essay "Could Kant Have Been a Utilitarian?", R. M. Hare tries to show that Kant's moral theory contains utilitarian elements and it can be properly asked if Kant could have been a utilitarian, though in fact he was not. I take seriously Hare's challenge to the standard view because I find his reading on the whole reasonable enough to lead to a consistent interpretation of Kant's moral philosophy. Still, I hardly believe that it is necessarily concluded from Hare's (...)
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  78.  5
    Two (Faulty) Responses to the Challenge of Amoralism.John J. Tilley - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:248-253.
    To the question "Why should I be moral?" there is a simple answer that some philosophers find tempting. There is also a response, common enough to be dubbed the standard response, to the simple answer. In what follows, I show that the SA and SR are unsatisfactory; they share a serious defect.
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  79. Moral Sentiments and Determinism.Antonio Trajano Arruda - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:9-14.
    P. F. Strawson’s essay "Freedom and Resentment" was a landmark in the study of determinism, free-will, and morality. It contributed a much-needed correction to the problem of overintellectualization as found in twentieth-century compatibilist literature. Although most of the central claims in Strawson’s essay are important and true, it fails to fill the lacuna in the analysis, discussion and proposals of traditional compatibilism. The reasons may be summarized as follows. The web of moral demands, feelings and participant attitudes comprises a set (...)
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  80. Negotiating Ethics as a Two Level Debate.Robert van Es - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:254-262.
    As a form of moral debate, discourse ethic, according to Habermas, is based on regulated discussion. Participating moral agents share a common understanding in the ideal speech situation. Following procedures they try to reach consensus on questions of justice and rights. Critics of discourse ethic point to the bias of Western assumptions regarding agents and methods, the danger of elitism, and the optimism and the pacifism that run through the theory. After modification, Habermas distinguishes two types of discourse: the discourse (...)
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  81.  1
    Partial Contractarianism and Moral Motivation.Paul Voice - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:263-268.
    In this paper I argue that David Gauthier’s answer to the Why be moral? question fails. My argument concedes the possibility of constrained maximization in all the senses Gauthier intends and does not rely on the claim that it is better to masquerade as a constrained maximizer than to be one. Instead, I argue that once a constrained maximizer in the guise of "economic man" is transformed through an affective commitment to morality into a constrained maximizer in the guise of (...)
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  82. The Illusion of the Good.Mourad Wahba - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:269-271.
    The question of ethics relates to the good and its contrary, evil. What ethics does with its object is to seek to understand it, that is, not to produce either the concept of the good or the actions that fall under that concept. Thus, the question that follows is: What is the good?, or strictly speaking, what is the definition of the good? But the definition asked for, as any other definition, is necessarily related to the science of language. But (...)
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  83.  1
    The Relationship of Freedom to the Acquisition, Possession, and Exercise of Virtue.Moira M. Walsh - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 44:272-276.
    There are three common objections that any broadly Aristotelian virtue theorist must face, insofar as he or she holds that acts must be performed from a firm and stable disposition in order to express virtue, and that virtue is in some way a praiseworthy fulfillment of human potential. Each of these objections accuses the virtuous person of not fully exercising his or her rationality and freedom, and thus of being somehow less than fully human.
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  84.  2
    The Educational Value of Plato’s Early Socratic Dialogues.Heather L. Reid - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:113-118.
    When contemplating the origins of philosophical paideia one is tempted to think of Socrates, perhaps because we feel that Socrates has been a philosophical educator to us all. But it is Plato and his literary genius that we have to thank as his dialogues preserve not just Socratic philosophy, but also the Socratic educational experience. Educators would do well to better understand Plato's pedagogical objectives in the Socratic dialogues so that we may appreciate and utilize them in our own educational (...)
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  85.  2
    Music, Science, and Analogies.Edward Slowik - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:136-142.
    This essay explores the benefits of utilizing non-scientific examples and analogies in teaching philosophy of science courses, or general introductory courses. These examples can help resolve two basic difficulties faced by most instructors, especially when teaching lower-level courses: first, they can prompt students to take an active interest in the class material, since the examples will involve aspects of the culture well-known to the students; second, these familiar, less-threatening examples will lessen the students' collective anxieties and open them up to (...)
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  86. Teaching Philosophy as Education and Evaluation of Thinking.Giuseppe Boncori - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:1-7.
    Teaching philosophy and critical thinking is one of the main ways to clearly reaffirm the value of human persons and of goodness and freedom. It is not sufficient to propose a philosophical message, but we must teach it systematically with a real synergy between teachers and parents. We must also build a curriculum, which includes an evaluation model based on clear goals and objectives: the intermediate and final evaluation and assessment will enable us to be sure that we have reached (...)
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  87. The Use of Reading Questions As a Pedagogical Tool.Anne-Marie Bowery - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:8-15.
    In this paper I examine the text of the Symposium to illustrate two non-philosophical responses to Socrates' pedagogical provocation. While Apollodorus and Aristodemus, two Socratic disciples, demonstrate their erotic commitment to Socrates, they do not practice philosophy. They manifest their non-philosophical behavior in two ways. First, they idolize and imitate Socrates. Second, they constantly tell stories about Socrates. In the first section I analyze Aristodemus' and Apollodorus' emotional attachment to Socrates. While both disciples are genuinely protective of Socrates, their behavior (...)
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  88.  2
    Teaching an Applied Critical Thinking Course.Elliot D. Cohen - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:16-22.
    Encouraging students to apply classroom knowledge in their personal, everyday life is a major problem confronting many teachers of critical thinking. For example, while a student might recognize an ad hominem argument in a classroom exercise, it is quite another thing for him or her to avoid the same in interpersonal relations, say with parents, siblings, and peers. One approach to this problem is the creation of interaction software to which students can turn for input on the rationality of their (...)
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  89. Teaching the Confessions, Books 1-8: Theme and Pattern.Quentin Colgan - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:23-29.
    Augustine's passionate and immensely personal account of his conversion has enthralled readers for centuries. Unfortunately, the passion and personal nature of the writing can stand as a barrier to comprehension, especially when the text is taught at the undergraduate level. Add to this the fact that the work has the character of one long and substained prayer to God, contains many passages that are tediously introspective, and refers to a time and place that are foreign to today's undergraduates, the task (...)
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  90.  1
    Filosofía, Educación y Rock.Ernesto Gustavo Edwards & Alicia M. Nica Pintus - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:30-35.
    Our proposal suggests an alternative method of teaching philosophy systematically in a scholarly and academic way by drawing a meaningful connection between studies and real life. From a different perspective, our 'texts' will be those with which our students are most acquainted: rock music. We discuss the fundaments of meaningful learning, show how philosophy can be related to rock music, and apply this relation pedagogically. Taking the concept of freedom as an example, we use texts from traditional philosophical thinkers as (...)
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  91. The World Consensus Game.David W. Felder - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:36-42.
    The World Consensus GameTM allows anyone to contribute to the creation of a world consensus on issues that divide people. Participants can look up positions that have been taken on contious topics and contribute to the discussion. Participation is easy. Once you identify a question that interests you, a map is provided that shows the positions previously taken along with definitions of these various positions. You can examine arguments in favor of a given position, including the argument judged best by (...)
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  92. Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically?Maura J. Geisser - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:43-53.
    Researchers have found that development of what is called the "mature theory of mind" normally occurs between the ages of 3 and 5. Astington, de Villiers, Peterson, and Siegel point to age 4 as the critical age for syntactic development involving embedding sentences associated with the use of mental verbs, such as "think", "know", and "feel". These verbs are necessary for the representation of mental states such as knowledge, belief, and pretense. For example, "I thought the dragon was fierce" involves (...)
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  93.  2
    Teaching Philosophy on the Internet.Garth Kemerling - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:54-59.
    I defend the practical value of teaching undergraduate philosophy courses in the Internet. Three important objectives of philosophical education can be achieved as effectively by electronic means as in the classroom. First, information about the philosophical tradition can be conveyed by hypertext documents on the World-Wide Web. Second, philosophical dialogue can be conducted through participation in an electronic forum. Third, close supervision of student writing can be achieved by means of e-mail submission of written assignments. In each case, I argue (...)
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  94.  1
    Exploring Subjectivity in Teaching Philosophy.Rudi Kotnik - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:60-66.
    In the teaching of philosophy, we need to be connect with everyday life. Students in introductory courses can be more motivated when philosophical problems have personal significance. Take the topic of 'selfhood.' Introductory textbooks generally begin with the oracle at Delphi: "Know thyself!" But this motto is usually treated as the search for general knowledge of the individual or of human nature. Is it possible for a student to acquire some knowledge about him or herself during this course and reflect (...)
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  95.  6
    Teaching Argument Evaluation in An Introductory Philosophy Course.Jonathan Lavery & Jeff Mitscherling - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:67-74.
    One of the greatest challenges in teaching an introductory philosophy course is convincing students that there are, indeed, reliable standards for the evaluation of arguments. Too often introductory students criticize an argument simply by contesting the truth of one of its claims. And far too often, the only claim in an argument that meets serious objections is its conclusion. For many students, the idea that an argument displays a structure which can be evaluated on its own terms is not very (...)
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  96. Teaching Meditation to Classes in Philosophy.Arthur O. Ledoux - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:75-82.
    In alignment with the overall theme of the congress, "Philosophy Teaching Humanity," this paper proposes that teachers of philosophy consider instructing their students in simple techniques of meditation. By meditation I mean the practice of mindfulness which typically begins by paying clear, steady, non-reactive attention to the sensations of one's own breathing, and then extending this attention to embrace all bodily sensations, feelings, moods, thoughts, and intentions. I discuss how to integrate meditation practically in the philosophy classroom and then respond (...)
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  97.  1
    Decentered Classrooms.Ronnie Littlejohn & Mike Awalt - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:83-88.
    This presentation explains how problem-based learning and the World Wide Web may be used in collaboration to shift student learning experiences in dramatic ways and to encounter the tasks and concerns of philosophy. We will provide a guided tour of the web site and the problems used in the course, and will describe how these pedagogical strategies may be used to complement traditional classroom venues without making a commitment to offering a course completely on-line for distance learning scenarios. Problem-based learning (...)
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  98. Bernard Bolzano-Pedagogue.Helena Lorenzová - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:89-92.
    Bernard Bolzano, the famous logician and mathematician, worked from 1805-1819 as a religious professor at the Prague University. His studies focused on three main themes: ethical education, including a rather liberal sexual education as well as the problems of the coexistence of Czechs and Germans in one country ; social problems, where he formulated for the first time his social-utopian vision of human society based on the fundamental equality of people, ideas later gathered in his book, Von dem besten Staate; (...)
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  99.  2
    Shame and Learning in Plato’s Apology.J. Aultman Moore - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:93-97.
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  100.  1
    Philosophy, Interdisciplinary Teaching and Student Experience.Bert Olivier - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:98-104.
    This paper focuses on novel approaches open to teachers of philosophy in particular, but more generally also to other university teachers, in the face of what Allan Bloom saw as the waning of a literary culture. It is argued that, although some of Bloom's suggestions regarding the successful engagement of students' interest-against overwhelming odds-are didactically valuable, he neglects precisely those avenues from which students could benefit most on the basis of their own experience in a world largely devoid of literary (...)
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  101.  1
    The Dream Hypothesis, Transitions, and the Very Idea of Humanity.James F. Perry - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:105-112.
    Why should we believe in such a thing as humanity? Should we accept appearances or take authority as our guide? Should we point to some pragmatic advantage to be gained by believing it, or is there proof? Philosophy offers such proof, contained in the dream hypothesis of the Buddha and Plato. The dream hypothesis reveals our common ground. It refers to a familiar experience in terms of which young people of every time and place can understand why routine, authority, definition (...)
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  102. Socratic Paideia.W. T. Schmid - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:119-128.
    I emphasize four points: Socratic dialectic challenges the interlocutor not only to acquire the correct moral opinions, but to question and think for oneself and to develop one's own moral rationality; it involves anticipatory acts of several types of virtue: courage, moderation, and justice and concern for the common good as opposed to competition and jealousy; what is at stake is not only the topic of the particular exchange, but the opportunity for membership in a rational/educational community; and the fact (...)
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  103. Levinas on the Border.Jules Simon - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 43:129-135.
    This essay explores my own situation of teaching philosophy in a more or less traditional undergraduate setting but in a way that is especially relevant to the theme of this Congress, namely, the theme of "philosophy educating humanity." In my case, I teach philosophy but from a perspective that is non-traditional and which undercuts the standard questions originating from and orienting around a "philosophia perennia." Specifically, I teach philosophy of religion from the perspective of Jewish philosophy, and even more specifically, (...)
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  104.  1
    Rawlsian Affirmative Action.Robert Allen - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:1-8.
    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls presents a method of determining how a just society would allocate its "primary goods"-that is, those things any rational person would desire, such as opportunities, liberties, rights, wealth, and the bases of self-respect. Rawls' method of adopting the "original position" is supposed to yield a "fair" way of distributing such goods. A just society would also have the need to determine how the victims of injustice ought to be compensated, since history suggests that (...)
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  105. Pedagogía de la función crítica.Susana Raquel Barbosa - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:9-16.
    Desde la obra de Max Horkheimer se asume que la profesionalización de las humanidades ha dado por tierra lo que en su emergencia estas significarán. Por otro lado, ya desde las convicciones del pensamiento griego, es de consenso que lo filosófico está reñido con lo servil. Se toma este término es dos direcciones: la filosofía no depende de las ciencias-ni las sirve-y la filosofía no es un saber de tipo utilizable-como las estrezas estadísticas. En este artículo se indaga la función (...)
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  106.  1
    Religious Education in the Public Schools.Julia J. Bartkowiak - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:17-22.
    Recently, several authors have cited traditional liberal principles to argue that religious education must be offered in public schools in the United States of America. These authors claim that exposure to a variety of religious beliefs and traditions is a necessary means to attaining the two goals of providing children with "open futures" and encouraging tolerance of religious diversity. This paper contends that these arguments are seriously flawed, and provides reasons which demonstrate that, in practice, these two goals cannot be (...)
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  107. The Social Contract Tradition.John A. I. Bewaji - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:23-34.
    The classical contract tradition of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau have enjoyed such fame and acceptance as being basic to the development of liberal democratic theory and practice that it would be heretical for any scholar, especially one from the fringes, to critique. But the contract tradition poses challenges that must be given the flux in the contemporary sociopolitical universe that at once impels extreme nationalism and unavoidable globalism. This becomes all the more important not in order to dislodge the primacy (...)
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  108. La fonctionnalité de l’idée de “champ” dans les sciences.Ioan Biris - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:35-41.
    Cette étude part de l'observation que l'idée de 'champ,' tout comme celle de 'fonction' représente une nouveauté de la pensée moderne. Employée surtout en physique, l'idée de 'champ' est fréquemment utilisée ces derniers temps dans les sciences sociales. El term de 'champ' reste tout de même un terme polymorphe. Cette étude se propose de tirer au clair les cadres conceptuels de ce terme et sa fonctionnalité pour le domaine du social. A cette fin, on considère qu'il faut fructifier la tradition (...)
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  109. Aproximación Metodológica al problema de la comprensión.Gustavo Caponi - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:42-47.
    In The Open Society and Its Enemies and The Poverty of Historicism, Popper argues that there is no essential methodological distinction between human and natural sciences. Each of them, he claims, endeavors to elaborate and test causal explanations of the phenomenal world. However, in later writings he revises his position. The very notion of "situational analysis" is more and more identified with the notion of "objective understanding." Such a notion is thought of as referring to the method which is peculiar (...)
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  110. Lo Normal Como Categoría Sociológica.Sandra Caponi - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:48-56.
    Building on criticism directed against August Comte by Georges Canguilhem, I analyze Émile Durkheim's usage of the "normality-pathology" typology and show that these concepts do not support the organicist metaphor or the analogy between the social and the individual body. Rather, as suggested by Ian Hacking, these concepts are linked to the use of statistics and the Quetelian media, tools which allow us to understand social phenomena on populational terms. Thus, from the application of biological and statistical categories to sociological (...)
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  111. On Intolerance.Anna Drabarek - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:57-64.
    I assume that the feeling of evil is more widespread than the feeling of good. That is why intolerance as an attitude appears to be even more common than tolerance. This thesis is justified by psychological and sociological theories which, by analyzing the psyches of humans as individuals and of societies, explain why intolerance, destruction and aggressiveness control our actions so frequently. Therefore, in spite of positive intentions inherent in every person who dreams about being the best and living as (...)
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  112. Respect, Coercion and Religious Belief.Chris Eberle - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:65-70.
    In this paper, I articulate and evaluate an important argument in support of the claim that citizens of a liberal democracy should not support coercive policies on the basis of a rationale they know other citizens reasonably reject. I conclude that that argument is unsuccessful. In particular, I argue that religious believers who support coercive public policies on the basis of religious convictions do not disrespect citizens who reasonably regard such religious convictions as false.
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  113. Habermas on Social Labor and Communicative Action.Marie Fleming - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:71-76.
    In contemporary philosophy and social theory, Harbermas's theory of communicative action stands indisputably for a modernity enlightened about itself and its potential. Yet, however much he professes his commitment to universalist ideals of inclusiveness and equality, his influential theory is also marked by disquieting statements on matters of gender. I argue that the problem of gender in Habermas's theory can be traced to his attempt to rework the Marxian tradition of historical materialism. I do so by discussing Habermas's proposal for (...)
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  114. Ethnicity and Group Rights, Individual Liberties and Immoral Obligations.Heta Häyry - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:77-82.
    Recent developments in biology have made it possible to acquire more and more precise information concerning our genetic makeup. There are four groups of people who may want to know about our genes. First, we ourselves can have an interest in being aware of own health status. Second, there are people who are genetically linked with us, and who can have an interest in the knowledge. Third, individuals with whom we have contracts and economic arrangements may have an interest in (...)
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  115.  1
    Philosophy and the Dialectic of Modernity.Thelma Z. Lavine - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:83-88.
    Habermas' social philosophy can now be perceived in its oppositional structures and their symbolic meaning. His repetition of structural opposition finds its expression in the symbolism which pervades The Philosophic Discourse of Modernity in the opposition between the dreaded myth of the Dialectic of Enlightenment and the redemptive fantasy of the path yet to be taken. More significant for the intellectual culture of modernity is the neglect, by erasure on the part of this esteemed philosopher, of the great drama of (...)
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  116. Adorno: Semi-Formation as Cultural Reconstruction of Society.Wolfgang Leo Maar - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:89-94.
    The apprehension of the culture industry in its totality, as it is presented in Adorno's Dialectic of Enlightenment, makes it necessary to turn to his Theory of Self-Formation, where the cultural domain of the constellation of society has an explicit formative dimension. The cultural formation, the German Bildung, expresses such a prism. It is not a national peculiarity, but it translates in the experience of delay of the German bourgeois society as the formative dimension of culture, generally hidden in the (...)
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  117.  1
    Justification of Political Liberalism and the Catholic Paradox.Roger Magyar - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:95-104.
    Rawls' justification of political liberalism has been the subject of recent discussion in socio-political philosophy. In Political Liberalism, he has adjusted his original notion of ideal convergence, found in A Theory of Justice, to one of overlapping consensus. I argue that Catholics would find themselves excluded from being good citizens as Rawls defines proper citizenship. This follows from his statements concerning fairness in participating in the democratic process in that it would lead to, what I term, the Catholic paradox. This (...)
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  118.  2
    Towards a Postpatriarchal Family.Patricia S. Mann - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:105-112.
    Ours is a time of dramatic and confusing transformations in everyday life, many of them originating in the social enfranchisement of women that has occurred over the past twenty-five years. Sociologist Arlie Hochschild demonstrates a widespread phenomenon of work-family imbalance in our society, experienced by people in terms of a time bind, and a devaluation of familial relationships. As large numbers of women have moved into the workplace, familial relations of all sorts have been colonized by what Virginia Held critically (...)
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  119. The Journey of the Dialectic.Anthony Mansueto - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:113-122.
    This paper argues that: a) philosophy generally, and the dialectical tradition in particular, first emerged in Ancient Greece in response to the nihilism and relativism generated by the development of a market economy; b) despite differences between its 'idealist' and 'materialist' wings, it is possible to speak of a basically unified dialectical tradition extending from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle through the great medieval Aristotelians, up to Hegel, Marx and their interpreters, a tradition unified around the proposition that we can rise (...)
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  120. Social Time In The Life Of A Man And Society.Alexandr V. Maslikhin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:123-128.
    The subject of this paper is social time-the peculiarities of the Past-Present-Future in social processes, and their unbreakable connection. I also focus on the necessity of taking stock of time in human activities and in the societal development. The Past in progress of society signifies the Already-happened which has become the possession of history. This Past exerts an enormous influence on the Present, determining it both directionally and functionally. The Present includes the Present itself, a part of the Past, and (...)
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  121. Spacial-Temporal Continuum of Civilization and Man.Iouri M. Pavlov & Alexander I. Smirnov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:129-133.
    Space and time are considered as attributive features of matter's social form movement that allow to incorporate structure into the world political processes. The notions of wholismatic time and space are established to determine world's entering into planetary interconnected condition. Social space and time are considerate in unity being as coordinates of man and civilization's existence. Methodological approaches to East and West civilization cooperation are defined through varieties of spaces being specified in different types of human activity. Man and civilization (...)
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  122.  2
    Moral Implications of the Battered Woman Syndrome.Sally J. Scholz - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:134-139.
    The Battered Woman Syndrome, like the Cycle Theory of Violence, helps to illuminate the situation of the person victimized by domestic violence. However, it may also contribute to the violence of the battering situation. In this paper, I explore some of the implications of the Battered Woman Syndrome for domestic violence cases wherein an abused woman kills her abuser. I begin by delineating some of the circumstances of a domestic violence situation. I then discuss the particular moral issue of subjectivity (...)
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  123. Why Marxism Isn’T Dead.Bob Stone - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:140-146.
    I defend the continued viability of Marx's critique of capitalism against Ronald Aronson's recent claim that because Marxists are 'unable to point to a social class or movement' away from capitalism, Marxism is 'over' 'as a project of historical transformation.' First, Marx's account of the forced extraction of surplus labor remains true. It constitutes an indictment of the process of capital accumulation because defenses of capitalism's right to profit based on productive contribution are weak. If generalized, the current cooperative movement, (...)
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  124. Constructivist Moral Realism.J. K. Swindler - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:147-153.
    We are social animals in the sense that we spontaneously invent and continuously re-invent the social realm. But, not unlike other artifacts, once real, social relations, practices, institutions, etc., obey prior laws, some of which are moral laws. Hence, with regard to social reality, we ought to be ontological constructivists and moral realists. This is the view sketched here, taking as points of departure Searle's recent work on social ontology and May's on group morality. Moral and social selves are distinguished (...)
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  125. Terrorism, and Education.Michael R. Taylor - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:154-160.
    David Hume and James Madison believed that a republic can secure domestic tranquility by discouraging the development of factions. Modern computer technology shatters these hopes, which rest on the idea that factions will not grow because great distance makes it difficult for individuals to discover that others share their interests or grievances. Today, technology renders geographical distance increasingly irrelevant to communication with others. If Madison and Hume were right about the effects of distance prior to the current development of computer (...)
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  126.  4
    Integrity and Supererogation in Ethical Communities.Eugene V. Torisky - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:161-167.
    This paper explores the connection between supererogation and the integrity of ethical agents. It argues two theses: there is a generally unrecognized but crucial social dimension to the moral integrity of individuals which challenges individual ideals and encourages supererogation; the social dimension of integrity, however, must have limits that preserve the individuals's integrity. The concept of integrity is explored through recent works by Christine Korsgaard, Charles Taylor, and Susan Babbitt. A life of integrity is in part a life whereby one (...)
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  127. Sources and Implications in Paul Ricoeur’s Ideology Concept.Marcelo Felix Tura - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:168-173.
    This paper intends to shed light on the issue of ideology as found in the work of Ricoeur. According to Ricoeur, ideology is not only distortive of social reality; it is as well related to society's power and integration, which in fact changes our way of understanding the entire world. Ideology is an endless and unresolvable problem, since there is no non-ideological place from which to discuss ideology. The phenomenological hermeneutic is employed in an attempt to mediate ideological phenomena in (...)
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  128. Being and Race.Craig Vasey - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:174-180.
    In this paper I offer an application of the philosophical analysis of meanings of "being" derived from existential phenomenology to the issue of race, distinguishing a static meaning from a dynamic meaning by analogy to the sex/gender distinction. I then distinguish a substantialist meaning of race from an existential meaning. Finally I briefly explore the risk of this position on "race," how it is an invitation to bad faith, while being nonetheless essential to the struggle against racism.
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  129.  3
    Two Marxist Objections to Exploitation.Paul Warren - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:181-186.
    I argue that we can find in Marx two objections to exploitation: an entitlement objection according to which it is wrongful because of the unjust distribution of benefits and burdens it generates; and an expressivist objection according to which it is objectionable because of the kind of social relation it is. The expressivist objection is predicated on a communitarian strand in Marx's thought, whereas the entitlement objection is grounded in a more liberal account of the wrongfulness of capitalist exploitation. I (...)
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  130.  1
    Short Circuits and Market Failure.Lambert Zuidervaart - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 42:187-193.
    This paper reviews three social scientific accounts of the civic sector's role in society: the government failure, contract failure, and voluntary failure theories. All three explain the role of nonprofit organizations as compensating for the market's failure to provide certain collective goods. This approach involves a radical misinterpretation of the underlying principles of civic sector organizations. An account is needed that explains their economy in terms of their normative concerns, rather than explaining normative concerns in terms of their economy. I (...)
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  131.  2
    Hume on Revolution.Jeremy Gallegos - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:84-91.
    David Hume offers a well conceived plan for the formation of government and its political workings. Furthermore, he grants that in special circumstances the citizens of a particular government may revolt. However, with respect to obedience and disloyalty, Hume gives no formal rules for revolution. We would like something more from Hume regarding revolution and, more specifically, what he considers justified revolution. Some authors, such as Richard H. Dees, find the basis for Hume’s account of justified revolution in his historical (...)
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  132.  4
    Hypothetical Consent and Political Legitimacy.Cynthia Stark - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:232-238.
    A commonly accepted criticism of the social contract approach to justifying political authority targets the notion of hypothetical consent. Hypothetical contracts, it is argued, are not binding; therefore hypothetical consent cannot justify political authority. I argue that although hypothetical consent may not be capable of creating political obligation, it has the power to legitimate political arrangements.
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  133.  2
    La Institution Imaginaria del Leviathan.Omar Astorga - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:1-5.
    I discuss the basic conditions that allow us to grasp Hobbes's theory of the State from the standpoint of the imagination. I employ three interpretative points of view. First, I consider the role played by the concepts "person," "representation," and "theatre" in the institution of the social and political structure of the State. Second, I discuss the metaphorical value of the State, the persuasive function of which is derived from the biblical image of 'Leviathan.' Third, I consider the role taken (...)
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  134.  1
    Freedom and Equality in the Comparison of Political Systems.Wolfgang Balzer - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:6-9.
    The notions of freedom and equality in a group are precisely defined in terms of individual exertions of influence or power. Freedom is discussed in the version ‘freedom from’ influence rather than in the version ‘freedom to do’ what one wants. It is shown that at the ideal conceptual level complete freedom implies equality. Given the plausibility of the definitions this shows that political ‘folk rhetorics’ in which freedom and equality often are put in opposition are misled and misleading. Quantitative (...)
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  135. Legitimidad democrática: ¿consenso o votación?Patricia Britos - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:10-14.
    El propósito der este trabajo es abordar en tema bastante polémico, el de llegar a la resolución de cuestiones políticas con el mayor grado de legitimidad. La teoría de la democracia tiene dos vertientes marcadamente diferentes: la del discurso argumentativo y la de la teoría de la elección social. La primera estudia la forma de resolver los conflictos a través de la deliberación, del discurso argumentativo que apunta al consenso.Y la segunda es la que se ocupa de las formas en (...)
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  136.  1
    Constitutional Paideia.Andrew Buchwalter - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:15-23.
    Constitutional paideia designates a form of constitutionalism that construes a nation’s constitution essentially in terms of ongoing processes of collective self-formation. This paper explores the notion of constitutional paideia as formulated by Hegel, who explicitly defines constitutionalism with categories of Bildung. The paper’s strategy is to present Hegel’ position in light of questions that can be raised about it. The paper advances three central theses: in spite of his historico-culturist approach to law, Hegel is a theoretician of constitutional paideia; despite (...)
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  137. The Moral Aspect of Political Protest Under the Totalitarian System.Tadeusz Buksinski - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:24-31.
    The paper concerns the principles presupposed in political protest against the totalitarian regime. In contrast to the utilitarian view of participating in political protest the author tries to suggest the moral model of political protest. According to this model, the main reason and motif for challenging the regime is the transgression of the limits of concession, which jeopardizes the spiritual identity and essential qualities of the individuals and all groups. The participants of the protest do not calculate in terms of (...)
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  138. The Political Ethos of the Civil Society.Vjekoslav Butigan - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:32-36.
    Totalitarian political systems in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe destroyed and repressed the civil society that used to exist in them. The authoritarian and totalitarian ethos was formed under a powerful influence of ideologies of the communist parties and politocracy in these countries so that the political ethos of politicians dominated the political ethos of the citizen. The breakdown of the real socialism and its unsuccessful attempts to complete accelerated liberal modernization of these societies caused turbulence of social values (...)
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  139.  1
    Mission in Modern Life.Edmund F. Byrne - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:37-43.
    In this paper I discuss recent scholarly work on ideology, mostly by Europeans, that exposes a secularist bias in current political theory, invites a nonderogatory concept of religion, and justifies more flexible church/state relations. This work involves redefining ideology as any action-oriented ideas, whether destructive or ameliorative, including both secular theory and religion, then drawing on hermeneutical and critical studies of the power/ideology relationship to rediscover a role for ‘utopia’ as a social catalyst for amelioration. I then call attention to (...)
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  140. Educación de un Príncipe Cristiano.Elena Cantarino - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:44-50.
    La literatura política española de los siglos XVI y XVII consideraba que el ars regendi o ars gubernandi podía enseñarse y aprenderse. Proliferaron los ensayos tratando de formar futuros gobernantes, intentando plasmar la personalidad del príncipe perfecto en una estructura, técnica común a estas obras de carácter formativo. Diversos fueron los precedentes medievales, entre ellos, las narraciones históricas moralizadas, las colecciones de dichos agudos y sentencias filosóficas, y cierto género didáctico donde a la Pedagogía le concernía el afán moralizador en (...)
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  141.  2
    Marx and the Two Enlightenments.James Daly - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:51-56.
    The claim to rationality is disputed by two rival enlightenments, which collided in the dispute between Plato, Socrates and the Sophists, and which Marx united critically. He criticizes the capitalist system immanently as restrictive of production, and its market as not a case of freedom or equality. However, Marx is most concerned with ontological injustice, coerced alienation of the human into being a commodity. He retains Promethean Enlightenment values however: technology, creativity, democracy, which should be economic, participatory and international. Marx (...)
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  142. Sustainable Development: New Political Philosophy for Russia?Artour L. Demtchouk - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:57-62.
    Both domestic and foreign policies of each state presuppose a certain ideology as a foundation. In a broad sense, an ideology may be regarded as a certain 'system of coordinates,' an interpretational model of the world including both empirico-theoretical and metatheoretical levels. Some of the main issues on the agenda in Russia are the clear understanding and definition of national goals and interests, the formulation of a strategy of development in economic, social, political, etc., arenas, and the establishment of both (...)
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  143. The Call for a World Constitutional Convention.David W. Felder - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:63-67.
    A movement led by an organization called "One World" is advocating the idea of "Direct Democracy," whereby individuals everywhere would have the opportunity to elect delegates to a world constitutional convention. In theory, any document drafted by this convention would be returned to individuals throughout the world for their approval. The assumption of the Direct Democracy movement is that individuals throughout the world have the right to bypass existing governments in order to establish the rule of law on a global (...)
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  144.  1
    Rethinking Gramsci’s Political Philosophy.Maurice A. Finocchiaro - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:68-73.
    This paper is a clarification and partial justification of a novel approach to the interpretation of Gramsci. My approach aims to avoid reductionism, intellectualism, and one-sidedness, as well as the traditional practice of conflating his political thought with his active political life. I focus on the political theory of the Prison Notebooks and compare it with that of Gaetano Mosca. I regard Mosca as a classic exponent of democratic elitism, according to which elitism and democracy are not opposed to each (...)
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  145.  1
    Does the Solution to Our Present Moral and Political Dilemmas Lie in the Theories of the German Idealists?Ken Foldes - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:74-83.
    In the wake of the postmodernist onslaught one thing is certain: morality is in crisis. Where are we to look for answers? Perhaps to the German idealists—that is, to their bold synthesis of right and freedom. This paper seeks to bring the timely issue of absolute freedom and the possibility of its total realization back into ethical-political discussion. Through a close comparison of the theories of Fichte and Hegel via a critique of the former by the latter, I show that (...)
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  146.  1
    The Ideal of Objectivity in Political Dialogue.Kevin M. Graham - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:92-97.
    If political dialogue is to identify and redress existing forms of injustice, participants in the dialogue must be able to appeal to the concept of objectivity in order to exchange claims, attitudes, and background beliefs which distort or conceal various forms of injustice. The conceptions of objectivity traditionally employed in liberal democratic political philosophy are not well-suited to play this role because they are insufficiently sensitive to the social and ideological pluralism of modern societies. Some liberal political philosophers have recently (...)
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  147.  1
    Tolerance, Liberalism, and Community.Kenneth Henley - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:98-103.
    The liberal principle of tolerance limits the use of coercion by a commitment to the broadest possible toleration of rival religious and moral conceptions of the worthy way of life. While accepting the communitarian insight that moral thought is necessarily rooted in a social self with conceptions of the good, I argue that this does not undermine liberal tolerance. There is no thickly detailed way of life so embedded in our self-conceptions that liberal neutrality is blocked at the level of (...)
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  148. Austin’s Ditch.James Hersh - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:104-109.
    This essay seeks to show that there are political implications in Jacques Derrida’s critique of J.L. Austin’s notion of performative speech. If, as Derrida claims and Austin denies, performative utterances are necessarily "contaminated" by that which Austin refuses to consider, then what are the implications for the speech acts of the state? Austin considers the speech acts of the poet and the actor to be "parasites" or "ordinary language," "nonserious," and would relegate such speech to a region beyond his consideration, (...)
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  149.  2
    Government, Justice, and Human Rights.R. A. Hill - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:110-115.
    This paper explores the relationship between justice and government, examining views on the subject expressed by traditional political philosophers such as Rousseau and Locke, as well as those expressed by contemporary political theorists such as John Rawls and Robert Nozick. According to Rawls, justice is one of the fundamental concerns of a governing body; Locke and Rousseau agree that government and justice are essentially connected. Nozick and Max Weber, however, claim that the essential characteristic of government is not justice, but (...)
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  150. Rawls’ Concept Of Justice As Political.Terry Hoy - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:116-119.
    Rawls' theory of justice as fairness involves a central contention that principles of justice essential to the structure of a constitutional democracy must be viewed as political in contrast to more comprehensive moral, philosophical or religious doctrines. The concept of justice is not its being true to an antecedent moral order and given to us, but its being congruent with our self-understanding within the history of justice as political is not a mere modus vivendi, for it embodies an overlapping consensus (...)
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  151. The Concept of ‘Metaphysical Liberalism’.Shuji Imamoto - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:120-125.
    There have been many discussions about ‘Liberalism’ in modern political philosophy. In this paper, I want to discuss the liberal principles of political philosophy on the metaphysical level. This includes the liberal mind, the liberal consciousness, and the liberal ethos, all of which are presupposed in our liberal behaviors, and in turn serve as fundamental principles in any multicultural society. I want to emphasize the liberal tendencies of self-criticism and of the critical way of thinking in European traditional metaphysics, such (...)
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  152.  2
    The Multivisions of Multiculturalism.Edward James - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:126-131.
    The questions suggested by the term "multiculturalism" range far and wide, embracing: questions of inclusion; questions of criteria; questions of self-identity; and questions of the meaning of multiculturalism. In this essay I provide a framework: that allows us to begin a discussion that might answer such questions; that illuminates why it is that such a modest aim is the most we can hope for at this time; and that provides an understanding of what we can do in a multicultural world (...)
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  153. A Property Owning Democracy or a Liberal (Democratic) Socialism?Wonsup Jung - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:132-139.
    This paper deals with the characteristic features of Rawls’ property-owning democracy, and whether a liberal democratic socialism can be compatible with Rawls’ political liberalism. I argue that a property-owning democracy can be compatible with Rawlsian justice while liberal socialism cannot. I understand the choice between property-owning democracy and liberal socialism as the problem of which kind of regime is more compatible with the pluralism of modern democracies. Property-owning democracy is more compatible with Rawls’ political liberalism since it permits a wider (...)
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  154. L’universel démocratique et ses adaptations socio-culturelles.Boniface Kaboré - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:140-145.
    Partant du principe que l’idéal démocratique est une norme universelle, la discussion au coeur de ce travail soulève une série de questions causuistiques liées à la mise en oeuvre concrète des démocratiques dans toute société humain, quels que soient ses particularismes socio-historiques et culturels. Cette démarche découle entièrement de l’hypothèse suivant laquelle le problème fondamental de la démocratisation, autrement dit de la domiciliation de l’idéal démocratique, se ramène à celui de son ap-propriation, d l’adaption du principle universal aux structures de (...)
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  155. Eduquer au paraître.Phillip Knee - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:146-151.
    The thought of Montaigne and Pascal on political order holds considerable interest for current debates over theories of justice and the deconstruction of justice. This particularly holds true when the focus shifts toward the experience of the political, toward a phenomenology of the political order in which appearance is the central category. The Essais and the Pensées offer two strategies for educating readers with respect to appearance qua essence of the political order. In both, political order is demystified through a (...)
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  156.  1
    Care and Justice: Re-Examined and Revised.Christine Koggel - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:152-158.
    Within the liberal framework, policies designed to rectify inequality generally take two forms: the formal equality option of equal treatment for everyone or the substantive equality option of "special" treatment for those whose difference continues to matter. Martha Minow argues that the framework creates a "dilemma of difference" because each option risks creating or perpetuating further disadvantages for members of oppressed groups. This paper examines the framework and the dilemma by highlighting the relational features of the language of equality and (...)
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  157.  1
    A Puzzle of Sovereignity.Steven Lee - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:159-164.
    National sovereignty presents a puzzle. On the one hand, this notion continues to figure importantly in our descriptions of global political change. On the other hand, factors such as the accelerating pace of international economic integration seem to have made the notion anachronistic. This paper is an attempt to resolve this puzzle. Distinguishing between internal sovereignty or supremacy and external sovereignty or independence, I investigate whether some insights from the discussion of the former can be applied to our puzzle concerning (...)
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  158. Le Legislateur et L’Ecrivain Politique Chez Rousseau.Mílton Meira do Nascimento - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:173-179.
    Chez Rousseau, la fonction du législateur qui crée les états se ressemble, parfois, á celle de l'écrivain politique. Les deux tâches se développent, toutefois, dans des niveaux différents. Le premier fonde les états particuliers, tandis que le deuxième élabore les principes du droit politique, condition de possibilité de la légitimité de tous les états empiriquement donnés. Ainsi, la tâche de l'érivain politique nous indique, chez Rousseau, la place destinée à la philosophie politique, qui ne peut être confondue avec un programme (...)
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  159. Hegel and The Libertarians.Paulo Roberto Monteiro De Araujo - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:165-172.
    This paper aims to show how the Hegelian philosophy can contribute to the conceptual discussions between the two strains of contemporary ethical-political philosophy. I argue that the Hegelian political theory is of central import to the discussion between communitarians and libertarians, both in the communitarian criticism of the libertarian — mainly in Michael Sandel's criticism of Rawls — and in the Rawlsian project of a society founded in justice as equality. For if the communitarians' theoretical basis is the living of (...)
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  160. Platonische Paideia in Deutschland um 1933.Teresa Orozco - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:180-185.
    Der folgenden Beitrag stellt eine historische Rekonstruktion der Debatte um die platonische Paideia in Deutschland dar, die ihren Höhepunkt mit dem Aufkommen des Nationalsozialismus erreicht. Der erste Teil ist ein Rückblick auf die Transformation des Platonbildes in der Weimarer Republik. Es folgt eine Skizze der Resonanzverhältnisse um das Thema ‘Platon’ 1933. Im schlußteil diskutiere ich einige Thesen zur hermeneutischen Leistung der Platodeutung und ihrere Wirksamkeit für den Nationalsozialismus.
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  161.  1
    What is to Be Distributed?Rodney G. Peffer - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:186-192.
    I take up the "What is equality?" controversy begun by Amartya Sen in 1979 by critically considering utility, primary goods, property rights and basic capabilities in terms of what is to be distributed according to principles and theories of social justice. I then consider the four most general principles designed to answer issues raised by the Equality of Welfare principle, Equality of Opportunity for Welfare principle, Equality of Resources principle and Equality of Opportunity for Resources principle. I consider each with (...)
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  162.  3
    Violence et exclusion une interprétation éthique.Marcelo Perine - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:193-198.
    Les communautés humaines se sont organisées à l’origine autour de règles morales envisageant leur propre survie. Les règles morales existent parce que les êtres humains sont violents, en tant qu’êtres naturels, et raisonnables, en tant qu’êtres capables de choisir la raison. Le choix de la raison, au moment de créer un domaine d’exclusion et de reconnaissance, est ce qui constitue le monde humain comme monde sensé. La violence, concrétisée sous les plus différentes formes d’exclusion, est la négation du sens. Ainsi, (...)
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  163.  1
    Knowledge, Power and Control.Patrick Quinn - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:199-206.
    This paper will examine some of the epistemological issues that emerge in the context of discussing the relationship between knowledge, control and power. These concerns raise questions about self-authenticating intuition and about who should control knowledge and how it should be disseminated. The importance of Plato as a key contributor to this debate will be discussed and it will be suggested that his writings provide a basic frame of reference for subsequent thinkers whose concerns also lie in this area. The (...)
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  164. Vernunft und Terror.Yvanka Raynova - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:207-213.
    Die kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Freudschen Psychoanalyse, die zuerst von Foucault und dann von Deleuze, Guattari, Lyotard und Baudrillard unternommen wurde, versucht den Mechanismus der ‘bürgerlichen Repressiontätigkeit,’ die die europäische Menschheit unter dem Joch der Familieninstitution hält, zu enthüllen und den Terror einer erdachten und simulativen Moral, in der Freud und seine Anhänger unwillkürlich einbezogen sind, blob zu stellen. Damit zeigt die postmoderne Lektüre von Freud, dab nur die Befreiung von diesem durch Terror-verderbten Bewubtsein im Stande wäre die wirkliche revolutionäre (...)
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  165. Accommodating Pluralism.David A. Reidy - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:214-219.
    This paper examines the general neutrality principle of Rawls’ liberalism and then tests that principle against accommodationist intuitions and sympathies in cases concerning the non-neutral effects of a system of compulsory education on particular social groups.
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  166.  1
    Liberalism, Civic Reformism and Democracy.José María Rosales - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:220-225.
    This paper argues that liberalism provides democracy with the experience of civic reformism. Without it, democracy loses any tie-argumentative or practical-to a coherent design of public policy endeavoring to provide the resources for the realization of democratic citizenship. The case for liberalism rests on an argumentative reconstruction of the function it performs before the rise of a world economic order and, more specifically, in the creation of the welfare state after the Second World War. Accordingly, liberalism defines a reformist political (...)
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  167.  1
    Habermas’ Between Facts and Norms.Abdollah Payrow Shabani - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:226-231.
    To overcome the gap between norms and facts, Habermas appeals to the medium of law which gives legitimacy to the political order and provides it with its binding force. Legitimate law-making itself is generated through a procedure of public opinion and will-formation that produces communicative power. Communicative power, in turn, influences the process of social institutionalization. I will argue that the revised notion of power as a positive influence that is produced in communicative space runs contrary to Habermas’ original concept (...)
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  168. Democracy and Political Obligation.Herman van Erp - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:239-245.
    The public life of political servants is characterized by other duties and obligations than private life. Conflicts can even arise between a person's public and private duties. The central point of this paper is to examine whether this difference of duties can be regarded as an effect of different forms of obligation. Can we speak of a particular form of political obligation in the same way in which Kant distinguishes between ethical and legal obligation, the former pertaining to intentions and (...)
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  169.  1
    Rousseau and Kant on Envy.Ronald L. Weed - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:246-265.
    One can learn a great deal about the relative priorities in any moral theory by understanding how these priorities are conveyed in the perpetually vexing challenge of moral education. Rousseau and Kant are two thinkers whose distinctly modern retrieval of classical virtue was animated by overlapping yet diverging grievances with classical philosophy. One common enemy of Rousseauian and Kantian virtue found in classical thought is the moral vice of envy. This essay argues that whereas Rousseau chastises the vice of envy, (...)
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  170. John Dewey’s Critique of Socioeconomic Individualism.S. Scott Zeman - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:273-279.
    My paper attempts to exhibit the consistency of John Dewey’s non-individualistic individualism. It details Dewey’s claim that the traditional dualism opposing the individual to the social is politically debilitating. We find Dewey in the 20’s and 30’s, for example, arguing that the creation of a genuine public arena, one capable of precluding the rise of an artificial chasm between sociality and individuality—or, rather, one capable of precluding the rise of an artificial chasm between notions of sociality and individuality—had itself been (...)
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  171. Sobre la imposibilidad de un liberal paretiano.Hugo R. Zuleta - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 41:280-287.
    I criticize Amartya K. Sen’s solution to his well-known paradox and advance a new one, also consisting of a conditional version of the Pareto principle, to which a weakness of the liberal condition is added. Unlike Sen’s solution, the principle presented here is not based on metapreferences but on first level individual preferences themselves. To that purpose, I define criteria based exclusively on the internal structure of the individual preferences to identify motivation and to compare preference intensities. I distinguish between (...)
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  172.  26
    Preference-Utilitarianism and Past Preferences.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:106-116.
    A well-known problem for preference-utilitarianism is to what extent it should exclude from consideration certain preferences. In this paper I focus on past preferences. I outline three general and some particular positions that a preference-utilitarian reasonably would want to take with regard to past preferences and why I think that endorsing each of these positions create new problems for the preference-utilitarian. At the end I sketch on a possible solution to the axiological problems here presented. However, although the pluralistic approach (...)
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  173. The Axiological Dimension of Tolerance.Marin Aiftinca - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:1-6.
    I contend that tolerance is not the expression of a simple attitude, but constitutes a moral value which penetrates all spheres of social life. My argument assumes that globalization is a fundamental tendency of the contemporary world and that the ideal of such a world cannot be enacted without tolerance. After identifying the constituent elements of this value and its conditions of functioning, we conclude that any reconstruction of human society from the globalization point of view presumes tolerance as a (...)
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  174. Democracia y Valores Sociales.Sonia Arribas - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:7-14.
    La teoría democrática de Michael Walzer ocupa un lugar ambiguo en las corrientes actuales de filosofía política. Walzer ha sido precipitadamente clasificado dentro del grupo de los "comunitaristas" en virtud de su empleo abundante del lenguaje integracionista de los "significados compartidos." Asimismo, su énfais en la participación política de los ciudadanos le ha proporcionado la etiqueta de "republicano." En cambio, para otros-los más marxistas-Walzer sigue siendo demasidado "liberal." Este trabajo deja a un lado esos calificativos y pretende acercarse a su (...)
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  175.  1
    Valores y Normas Eticas.Jorge M. Ayala - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:15-17.
    En esta comunicación abordamos un aspecto de la filosofía de los valores: el valor moral. Este participa de la naturaleza y de las características del valor en general, pero también presenta notas específicas. Dos cuestiones se plantean aquí: cómo llegamos al conocimiento del valores moral, y la distinción entre valors y normas éticas. Se concluye haciendo referencia a la educación moral o adquisición de los hábitos morales. Se analiza el concepto de ley. Entre el romanticismo o primacía del amor, y (...)
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  176.  1
    What is Virtue Epistemology?Heather Battal - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:18-26.
    This paper functions as a brief introduction to virtue epistemology, a topic that has enjoyed a recent gain in popularity among analytic philosophers. Here I maintain that the defining feature of virtue epistemology is its focus on the intellectual virtues and vices rather than the evaluation of belief. What constitutes such a focus? And, what are the intellectual virtues? In the first section, I enumerate five different ways in which virtue epistemologists might focus on the virtues. In the second, I (...)
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  177.  1
    The Contemporary Conflict of Values.Jiang Chang & Feng Jun - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:27-32.
    The conflict between values is the source of many conflicts and problems today. In contrast to the traditional conflict of values, the contemporary conflict is distinguished by these features: extensiveness; complicatedness; profoundness; and continuousness. The plurality and relativity of values is the primary cause of contemporary conflicts. The origin of pluralism lies in an interrelated trio of aspects: commodity economy, democratic politics, and individualism. The contemporary conflict of values is a historical process. Such conflict does not necessarily result in confusion; (...)
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  178. Human Values.Alexander Chumakov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:33-35.
    At the dawn of global civil society, the test for humanity is to achieve unity while preserving cultural differences as well as the distinctiveness of nations and peoples. Such unity can be reached only by recognizing human values, especially human rights. However, these rights must be strictly determined and more than mere obligations. Hence, the most important task for philosophy is to develop foundations and principles for a world society and to formulate a global consciousness and a humanistic worldview that (...)
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  179. Los Valores ¿Existen?Hortensia Cuéllar - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:36-45.
    El problema de los valores es un problema moderno que ha sido abordado por filósofos como Scheler, Nietzsche, Windelband, Rickert, Wojtila, Weber, etc., pero que por la evanenscencia de su específica naturaleza, resulta campo abierto y prácticamente inédito, para el discurso radical. El ángulo de análisis que presento es desde la metafísica del ser, en donde encuentro una relación de fundamentación vinculatoria entre ser, bien y valor, teniendo los valores como fundamento próximo al bien trascendental y como fundamento último al (...)
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  180. Values and Their Collisions.Agnes-Katalin Koos - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:46-55.
    Several years ago, I outlined a project to delineate ideological and scientific elements of our knowledge about values. I began by studying the typical configurations of values, their typical collisions, and some typical world-view-related standpoints as theoretical background. I now present the theoretical premises of my inquiry, the applied methods, and some of the results. I have tried to support the choice of variables used, make sensible the reliable limits of the findings, and underline some interconnections as well as some (...)
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  181. The Evidence of Waves of Creation.Frederick Kraenzel - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:56-60.
    Values provide evidence of spirit in human life. Spirit is a creative mental force for realizing values, a force which shows signs of a superindividual growth and decline, a life of its own. This paper documents the historic rise and decline of several waves of human creativity. I also consider possible factors that would account for the rise and fall: the presence of new material, social encouragement and/or patronage, temperamental egotism on the part of creators, the attraction of pioneering talent, (...)
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  182. On the Possibility of Transcendental Materialism.Ferenc L. Lendvai - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:61-66.
    The purpose of this address is to argue for the following theses: the concept of transcendentality can be associated not only with idealism but also with materialism; such a connection was made possible by Karl Marx's theory; and in the development of Marxism up to now, theory has been tied to a political movement, which is an error of principle, for what survives of it is a kind of social ethics which should more appropriately be called Marxism. Transcendence and immanence (...)
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  183.  7
    A Study on the Hierarchy of Values.Tong-Keun Min - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:67-75.
    I attempt to look into the issue of the ranks of values comprehensively and progressively. Anti-values can be classified into the following six categories by ascending order: the act of destroying the earth-of annihilating humankind and all other living organisms; the act of mass killing of people by initiating a war or committing treason; the act of murdering or causing death to a human being; the act of damaging the body of a human being; the act of greatly harming society; (...)
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  184. Justifying Philosophy and Paideia in the Modern World.Mark Painter - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:76-80.
    If Paideia means education in the classical sense, that is, education of the whole person, then authentically justifying such education in the modern world is extremely problematic. We are first drawn to practical defenses of a liberal education, that it is in itself of service and useful, both to society and to the individual. However, a practical defense of Paideia in the classical sense simply comes across as feeble and even a bit desperate and every savvy student knows it. Far (...)
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  185.  1
    On Emotion and Value in David Hume and Max Scheler.Marek Pyka - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:81-85.
    While some philosophers tend to exclude any significance of emotion for the moral life, others place them in the center of both the moral life and the theory of value judgment. This paper presents a confrontation of two classic positions of the second type, namely the position of Hume and Scheler. The ultimate goal of this confrontation is metatheoretical — particularly as it concerns the analysis of the relations between the idea of emotion and the idea of value in this (...)
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  186. Moral Philosophy of Global Peace.Chhaya Rai - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:86-92.
    Global Peace is the summum bonum, so we must know its negative as well as positive meanings. Simultaneously peace must be understood in all its interrelated but theoretically differentiated dimensions as personal, social, national, international and global. Today, humankind is suffering from multidimensional crises such as terrorism, population-explosion, denial of human rights, economic inequality, racial discrimination, ideological extremism, religious intolerance, social injustice, ecological imbalance, consumerism, oppression of weak, etc. These peace-related issues compel us to lay down the fundamental principles of (...)
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  187. Inherent and Instrumental Values in Ethics.Stanley Riukas - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:93-99.
    The distinction between inherent and instrumental values in ethics could, in my view, be said to represent a contemporary version of both the eudaimonistic distinction between virtues as instruments and forms of happiness as the goals or ends to be achieved through these instruments, and of the deontological distinction between duties and the summum bonum to be, at least ultimately or in an afterlife, achieved through them. The paper identifies and explores what appears to be a threefold relationship between inherent (...)
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  188.  9
    What Does Nozick’s Experience Machine Argument Really Prove?Eduardo Rivera-López - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:100-105.
    Nozick's well-known Experience Machine argument can be considered a typically successful argument: as far as I know, it has not been discussed much and has been widely seen as conclusive, or at least convincing enough to refute the mental-state versions of utilitarianism. I believe that if his argument were conclusive, its destructive effect would be even stronger. It would not only refute mental-state utilitarianism, but all theories considering a certain subjective mental state as the only valuable state. I shall call (...)
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  189. An Interpretation of Liberty in Terms of Value.C. L. Sheng - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:117-126.
    This paper discusses the nature of liberty from the point of view of value. Liberty is the highest value for liberals. The root of this liberal view is their particular conception of self. Rawls says 'the self is prior to the ends which are affirmed by it.' This is also the Kantian view of the self: the self is prior to its socially given roles and relationships. Therefore, no end is exempt from possible revision by the self. There is nothing (...)
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  190. Valeur et Culture.Vera Rudge Werneck - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 40:127-135.
    Il est certain que, de plus en plus, on se rend compte du besoin de délimiter, de préciser l'idée de culture afin de rendre possible la différence entre le bon et le mauvais. En conséquence, l'humanité pourra surpasser la perplexité où elle se trouve à présent. Il est inadmissible d'accepter le nuisible et l'erreur comme manifestations de culture. S'agit-il d'un simple problème de sémantique? Ou bien, par ignorance ou confort, l'homme est-il en train d'assister passivement à l'essor des contre-valeurs en (...)
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  191.  1
    The Cautionary Ontological Approach To Technology of Gabriel Marcel.Bernard A. Gendreau - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:1-12.
    I present the arguments of Gabriel Marcel which are intended to overcome the potentially negative impact of technology on the human. Marcel is concerned with forgetting or rejecting human nature. His perspective is metaphysical. He is concerned with the attitude of the "mere technician" who is so immersed in technology that the values which promote him as an authentic person with human dignity are discredited, omitted, denied, minimized, overshadowed, or displaced. He reviews the various losses in ontological values which curtail (...)
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  192. Coping with the Uncertainty Beyond Epistemic-Moral Inability.Hideyuki Hirakawa - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:13-22.
    Today we live in a society in which hazards can no longer be regarded as mere side-effects of progress. How much more serious the problems we face today are is understood not only by seeing the magnitude of material or biological crises, but also by discerning what we may call our 'epistemic and moral inability' — a crisis in our ability to cope with uncertainty both in science and morality. The purpose of this paper is to trace the origin of (...)
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  193. The Enlightenment and the Electric Battery.Giuliano Pancaldi - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:23-28.
    This paper is a discussion of the role played by the ideals of the Enlightenment in the invention and assessment of artifacts like the electric battery. The first electric battery was built in 1799 by Alessandro Volta, who was both a natural philosopher and an artisan-like inventor of intriguing machines. I will show that the story of Volta and the battery contains three plots, each characterized by its own pace and logic. One is the story of natural philosophy, a second (...)
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  194. Philosophy and Technology.Liana Pop - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:29-34.
    This paper deals the place of technology in contemporary culture, and the relationship between science and morality. A definition of technique as a social process has to emphasize the fact that technique means developing and enabling different fabricated material systems; it is also the action of environment transformation according to human necessities. The area of culture is not limited to classical values, conceived with traditional meanings, arts and human sciences, but also covers the values of the natural and technical sciences (...)
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  195. Media Temporalities in the Internet.Mike Sandbothe - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:35-45.
    This paper is divided into four sections. The first provides a survey of some significant developments which today determine philosophical dealings with the subject of 'time.' In the second part it is shown how the question of time and the question of media are linked with one another in the views of two contemporary philosophers: Jacques Derrida and Richard Rorty. In section three, the temporal implications of cultural practices which are developing in the new medium of the Internet are analyzed, (...)
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  196.  1
    Synthetic Biology.John Sullins - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:46-53.
    This paper uses the theory of technoscience to shed light on the current criticisms against the emerging science of Artificial Life. We see that the science of Artificial Life is criticized for the synthetic nature of its research and its over reliance on computer simulations which is seen to be contrary to the traditional goals and methods of science. However, if we break down the traditional distinctions between science and technology using the theory of technoscience, then we can begin to (...)
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  197. The Humanities and Telecommunication.George Teschner - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:54-60.
    Contemporary technology in the form of electronically managed interactive telecommunications is compatible with the goals and values of the humanities. For Marx, machine-work tended toward being mechanically routine, repetitive, deskilled, and trivialized. In the case of discourse, the same criticism has been made of computerized communication. Immediacy is not authorial presence, but the experience of textuality that is maximized by participation in interactive communication. Bulletin board technology inverts the relationship between the degree of communicative interaction and the number of communicants. (...)
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  198. The Win of the Sign Over the Signed.Jörg Wurzer - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 39:61-64.
    Virtual reality is more than only high tech. We encounter this phenomenon in everyday media worlds and economy. The sign dominates the signed. Philosophy can describe this phenomenon by means of a different ontological analysis following Poppers theory of the three worlds and can prepare new ontological categories for knowledge of acting.
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  199.  2
    Sport, Education, and the Meaning of Victory.Heather L. Reid - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 38:26-31.
    Sport was included in ancient educational systems because it was thought to promote aretê or human excellence which could be applied to almost any endeavor in life. The goal of most modern scholastic athletic programs might be better summed up in a word: winning. Is this a sign that we have lost touch with the age-old rationale for including sport in education? I argue that it need not be by showing that we value winning precisely for the virtues associated with (...)
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  200. Païdeia et Sport.Leo-Paul Bordeleau - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 38:1-9.
    Can sport claim to be an educative means, and what becomes of Greek paideia in the world of sport? The author intends to answer these questions through the use of a semantic and historical clarification of the notions of sport and education. Indeed, on the one hand, sport appears like a social practice not much propitious to education; on the other hand, modern education seems to have deviated from the Greek paideia’s trajectory. Therefore, to take into account this deviation and, (...)
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  201. Limits to Growth in Elite Sport - Some Ethical Considerations.Gunnar Breivik - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 38:10-16.
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the ethical implications and problems in elite sport as it gets closer to the human performance limit. Modern elite sport must be viewed on the background of the idea of systematic progress. The Olympic motto, 'citius, altius, fortius'- faster, higher, stronger-gives a precise concentration of this idea. Modern sport is also influenced by the liberal idea of a free market where actors can perform, compete and be rewarded according to performance. (...)
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  202.  1
    The Record Dilemma.Sigmund Loland - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 38:17-25.
    This paper takes a critical look at the origins and characteristics of the concept of sporting records and examines the challenges to sport posed by the continuous quest for new records. First, sport records are defined. Second, the logic of the record is critically examined. It is argued that the continuous quest for new records represents the impossible quest for unlimited growth in limited systems. In this way, the quest for records is seen to threaten the very core idea in (...)
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  203. John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Sport.David T. Schwartz - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 38:32-37.
    While his own preference may have been for an engaging book over an exciting ballgame, John Stuart Mill’s distinction in Utilitarianism between higher and lower pleasures offers a useful framework for thinking about contemporary sport. This first became apparent while teaching Utilitarianism to undergraduates, whose interest is often piqued by using Mill’s distinction to rank popular sports such as baseball, football and basketball. This paper explores more seriously the relevance of Mill’s distinction for thinking about sport, focusing specifically on his (...)
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  204. Abduction and Hypothesis Withdrawal in Science.Lorenzo Magnani - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:180-187.
    This paper introduces an epistemological model of scientific reasoning which can be described in terms of abduction, deduction and induction. The aim is to emphasize the significance of abduction in order to illustrate the problem-solving process and to propose a unified epistemological model of scientific discovery. The model first describes the different meanings of the word abduction in order to clarify their significance for epistemology and artificial intelligence. In different theoretical changes in theoretical systems we witness different kinds of discovery (...)
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  205. Inductivism, Naturalism, and Metascientific Theories.David Boersema - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:1-8.
    In this paper I will argue that, while inductivism as a view concerning scientific theories has been discredited, the criteria for evaluating metascientific theories is in fact primarily inductivist. The very philosophical community that has condemned and eschewed inductivism for scientific theories in fact applies inductivism for its own metascientific theories. While somewhat troubling, matters are compounded for those advocating a naturalist stance toward metascientific theories, since those advocates suggest that there is not a sharp division between scientific theories and (...)
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  206. The Relational Nature of Species Concepts.José E. Burgos - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:9-16.
    Édouard Le Roy as early as 1901 observed the existence of an intellectual movement seeking to break from traditional positivism and set for himself the task of drawing up the program of this new positivism. Noting that this program precedes the Vienna Circle, I endeavor to determine its nature and to evaluate its impact on logical positivism. Viewed in this light, the discussions between Le Roy, Poincaré and Duhem appear more prolonged and substantial than is usually thought. What we have (...)
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  207. Historical Types of Rationality.Vaclav Cernik, Jozef Vicenik & Emil Visnovsky - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:356-362.
    In this paper we suggest that the contemporary global intellectual crisis of our civilization consists in the fundamental transformation of the classical types of rationality towards the nonclassical one. We give a brief account of those classical types of rationality and focus on the more detailed description of the contemporary process of the formation of the new HTR which we label as nonclassical. We consider it to be one of the historical possibilities that might radically transform the fundamentals of our (...)
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  208.  1
    Critical Comments on Laudan’s Theory of Scientific Aims.Armando Cíntora - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:17-24.
    I criticize Laudan's constraints on cognitive aims as presented in Science and Values. These constraints are axiological consistency and non-utopianism. I argue that Laudan's prescription for non utopian aims is too restrictive because it excludes ideals and characterizes as irrational or non-rational numerous human contingencies. We aim to ideals because there is no cogent way to specify in advance what degree of deviation from an ideal is acceptable. Thus, one cannot dispense with ideals. Laudan does not distinguish difficult from impossible (...)
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  209. ¿Tiene Derecho a Existir la Filosofía de la Ciencia?Manuel Comesaña - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:25-29.
    En este trabajo se suscribe la tesis de que la filosofía de la ciencia-al igual que las demás ramas de la filosofía-consiste en discusiones interminables sobre problemas que no se pueden resolver, pero se sostiene también que, a pesar de eso, tiene derecho a existir debido a que cumple funciones importantes, entre ellas precisamente la de dar lugar a discusiones interminables sobre problemas que no se pueden resolver, actividad que a las personas con genuina vocación filosófica les produce una satisfacción (...)
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  210. Is Popularization of Science Possible?Gustaaf C. Cornelis - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:30-33.
    If the philosophy of science wants to pass along its views adequately to the public, it is important that the latter have a basic general understanding of science. Only in this way can "popularization of science" be meaningful from a philosophical and educational point of view. Is "good" popularization a possibility or merely a utopian phantasm. I conclude that popularization of science is possible if certain conditions are met. Scientists have to take responsibility and be honest in their efforts, both (...)
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  211. Ontological Levels and Symmetry Breaking.Gyorgy Darvas - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:34-43.
    I discuss the role of symmetry breaking in a philosophical context, and formulate laws of symmetry breaking. I deal with their conceptual and ontological background, limits of validity, their relation to the theories of evolution and reductionism and to level theories. Level theories are used to make a sequential arrangement of the forms of appearance of moving matter. Aspects of symmetry or symmetry breaking have never been involved in the treatment of these theories. Here, I first attempt to bring knowledges (...)
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  212.  1
    Thoughts on a Possible Rational Reconstruction of the Method of “Rational Reconstruction”.Gregg Alan Davia - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:44-50.
    Rational reconstructions standardly operate so as to transform a given problematic philosophical scientific account-particularly of a terminological, methodological or theoretical entity-into a similar, but more precise, consistent interpretation. This method occupies a central position in the practice of analytic philosophy. Nevertheless, we encounter-even if only in a very few specific publications-a vague image of it. This is due on the one hand to the problem of the intentions of application, i.e., of the normativity of rational reconstruction. It is also due (...)
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  213. Do Attractors Exist in Physical Space.Assen I. Dimitrov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:58-60.
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  214.  7
    Top-Down” or “Bottom-Up.Francisco Flores - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:61-68.
    Wesley Salmon has suggested that the two leading views of scientific explanation, the “bottom-up” view and the “top-down” view, describe distinct types of explanation. In this paper, I focus on theoretical explanations in physics, i.e., explanations of physical laws. Using explanations of E=mc2, I argue that the distinction between bottom-up explanations and top-down explanations is best understood as a manifestation of a deeper distinction, found originally in Newton’s work, between two levels of theory. I use Einstein’s distinction between ‘principle’ and (...)
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  215.  5
    The Not-so-Trivial Truth of Methodological Individualism.Maarten Franssen - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:69-76.
    I defend the truth of the principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences. I do so by criticizing mistaken ideas about the relation between individual people and social entities held by earlier defenders of the principle. I argue, first, that social science is committed to the intentional stance; the domain of social science, therefore, coincides with the domain of intentionally described human action. Second, I argue that social entitites are theoretical terms, but quite different from the entities used in (...)
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  216. The Relation-Functional Concept Of The Information.Vladimir G. Gamaonov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:77-79.
    There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features of the definite syntactics.
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  217. The Limits of Science.Serghey Stoilov Gherdjikov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:80-87.
    Does science have any limits? Scientists say no. Philosophers are divided in their response. The humanities say that science is not "humanitarian," and thus not metaphysically deep. In response, scientists and some philosophers contend that science is the best knowledge we have about the world. I argue that science is limited by its form. Science has no object that derives from the human form. Everything that is incomparable to the dimension of the human body is reducible to notions that are (...)
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  218. Order Versus Chaos or the Ghost of Indeterminacy.Alexandru Giuculescu - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:88-93.
    Indeterminacy, uncertainty, disorder, randomness, vagueness, fuzziness, ambiguity, crisis, undecideability, chaos, are all different terms. Yet, they are also semantically related to the idea of something opposed to order or structure and organization. Such terms denote prima facie insuperable obstacles to the attainment of true, certain, or precise knowledge about things and events. After analysing the ontological, logical, and axiological status of indeterminary, I outline the aoristic logic which allows adequate descriptions of phenomena pertaining to an area of indeterminary. Aoristic logic (...)
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  219. Bootstrapping and the Problem of Testing Quantitative Theoretical Hypotheses.David Gruenberg - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:94-100.
    I consider two alternative solutions to the problem of computing the values of theoretical quantities, and, thus, of testing theoretical hypotheses, viz., Sneed's structuralist eliminationism and Glymour's bootstrapping. The former attempts to solve the problem by eliminating theoretical quantities by means of the so-called Ramsey-Sneed sentence that represents the global empirical claim of the given theory. The latter proposes to solve the problem by deducing the values of the theoretical quantities from, among others, the very hypothesis to be tested. I (...)
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  220. On Explanation.David Gruender - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:101-105.
    Given the great historical distance between scientific explanation as Aristotle and Hempel saw it, I examine and appraise important similarities and differences between the two approaches, especially the inclination to take deduction itself as the very model of scientific knowledge. I argue that we have good reasons to reject this inclination.
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  221. Algebra As Thought Experiment.Jagdish Hattiangadi - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:106-111.
    This paper addresses the problem of understanding what mathematics contributes to the exceptional success of modern mathematical physics. I urge that we give up the Kantian construal of the division between mathematics and physics, and that we ask instead how algebra helps synthetic a posteriori mathematics improve our ability to study the world. The theses suggested are: 1) Mathematical theories are about the empirical world, and are true or false just like other theories of empirical science. 2) The air of (...)
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  222. Something More on What Explanation Explains.Norma Silvia Horenstein - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:112-118.
    Es propósito de esta comunicación revisar la teoría pragmática de la explicación sostenida por van Fraassen en The Scientific Image y otros escritos. Se cuestiona la necesidad de responder objeciones como las de Kitcher y Salmon en términos de la identificación de una relación de relevancia objetiva en las explicaciones concebidas como respuestas a preguntas por qué. En consecuencia, se examina la alternativa de considerer positivamente la existencia de haces de relaciones de relevancia especialmente como determinantes de la producción de (...)
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  223. Technological “Paradigms”.Imre Hronszky - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:119-124.
    Many efforts have been made to discover some paradigm-like changes in mathematics, the social sciences, arts, history, etc. Gary Gutting forcefully criticizes the tendency of over-constraining the original conception that mostly led to insignificant analogies. But some applications may fall between correct isomorphic utilization and insignificant analogizing. The paradigm conception of technological change emerged in the early 1980's. This paper shows how fruitful the analogy has been for developing the idea of technological 'paradigms.' But a technological paradigm shows decisive differences (...)
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  224.  2
    Yin and Yang: The Nature of Scientific Explanation in a Culture.Heisook Kim - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:125-130.
    I explore the nature of scientific explanation in a culture centering on the doctrine of yin and yang combined with that of five phrases, wu-hsing. I note how YYFP functions as an alternative to the causal way of thinking, as well as the meaning of scientific explanation in a culture. I also consider whether a scientific concept becomes metaphorical when it is superseded by an alternative organizing concept.
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  225.  1
    Philosophy of Contents.Leonid G. Kreidik & George P. Shpenkov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:299-308.
    In this paper I conduct a philosophical-physical analysis leading to the development of a philosophically justified form of Coulomb's law on the basis of contents-form philosophy.. From this it follows that dimensionality of "electric charge" at the subatomic level of matter is g/s, i.e., the charge in fact represents the mass speed of exchange at the field level. Thus, the philosophiclogical solution to Coulomb's law on the basis of contents-form philosophy radically changes our conventional concepts about the microworld, the consequences (...)
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  226.  1
    Epistemological Positions in the Light of Truth Approximation.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:131-138.
    I discuss in a systematic order the most important epistemological positions in the instrumentalism-realism debate, viz., instrumentalism, constructive empiricism, referential realism, and theory realism. My conclusions are as follows. There are good reasons for the instrumentalist to become a constructive empiricist. In turn, the constructive empiricist is forced to become a referential realist in order to give deeper explanations of success differences. Consequently, there are further good reasons for the referential realist to become a theory realist.
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  227.  1
    The Search for Scientific Truth Leads to God.Yury I. Kulakov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:139-147.
    At the dawn of the twenty-first century, many now realize that the opposition of science and religion has been exhausted. Today, unification of the two is imperative. The first step in this direction is recognizing that science is not the only source of knowledge; experience, spiritual discernment and spiritual experience constitute the unified process of cognizing the world.
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  228.  2
    Les “Théories de L’image” De Helmholtz et de Hertz et les Motifs de Carnap Dans L’aufbau.Jean Leroux - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:148-154.
    I propose to sketch and compare the "picture theories" of Hermann von Helmholtz and Heinrich Hertz. These semiotic conceptions of scientific knowledge are forerunners of the now prevailing semantic views of scientific theories in philosophy of science, and my intent is to bring out the respective main features that either proved to be influential or, as such, retained in contemporary formal approaches to the semantics of physical theories. For our purposes, "picture theories" can be characterized as conceptions that take as (...)
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  229.  3
    New Physical Properties.Manuel Liz - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:155-164.
    Discussions about physicalism, reduction, special sciences, the layered image of reality, multiple realizability, emergence, downward causation, etc., typically make the ontological presupposition that there is no room for new properties in the physical world. The domain of physical properties would thus have been established once and for all. It is my purpose in this paper to explore the alternative hypothesis that there can be, and that in fact there are, new physical properties. In the first section, I propose a brief (...)
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  230. Philosophy of Science and the Theory of Natural Selection.John Losee - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:203-212.
    Toulmin, Hull, Campbell, and Popper have defended an "Evolutionary-Analogy" view of scientific evaluative practice. In this view, competing concepts, theories and methods of inquiry engage in a competitive struggle from which the "best adapted" emerge victorious. Whether applications of this analogy contribute to our understanding of science depends on the importance accorded the disanalogies between natural selection theory and scientific inquiry. Michael Ruse has suggested instead an "Evolutionary-Origins" view of scientific evaluative practices in which scientific inquiry is directed by application (...)
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  231.  2
    Naturalized Philosophy of Science and Economic Method.Christoph Luetge - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:165-179.
    This paper draws a connection between recent developments in naturalized philosophy of science and in economics. Social epistemology is one part of the naturalistic enterprise that has become especially important. Some approaches in this field use methods borrowed from economics, a fact that has often been overlooked. But there are also genuinely economic approaches to the problems of science and knowledge. Some of these approaches can be seen as contributions to an "economic epistemology." While these contributions are certainly fruitful, they (...)
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  232. Cosmic Teleology and the Crisis of the Sciences.Anthony Mansueto - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:188-197.
    This paper analyzes recent work from within the physical sciences which argue for the emergence of a new paradigm capable of unifying the sciences and demonstrating the ultimate meaningfulness of the universe. I argue that while there is powerful evidence for cosmic teleology, the works in question do not represent a new paradigm and neither unify science nor adequately accommodate the evidence in question, but rather attempt to "put new wine in old skins." As Aristotle demonstrated, only teleological argumentation offers (...)
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  233. Science, Development and Humanity.V. Mantatov & I. Lambaeva - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:198-202.
    The formation of a new scientific picture of the world is connected with the necessity of subjectivity. This subjectivity posits no limits for the scientific aspects of cognitive processes, but embraces a comprehensive world of spiritual activity. To choose the most effective model of social behavior, it is important to have an adequate knowledge of reality. Modern science reflects the vagueness of reality and, in consequence, the impossibility of using classical approaches. Increasingly, the negative phenomena of the surrounding world reflects (...)
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  234. First Revelation: When Theoretical Becomes Visible.Hernán Miguel - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:213-219.
    En las teorías científicas se postulan entidades teóricas que de alguna manera se relacionan con lo observable. Sin embargo con el avance científico y tecnológico, los científicos a menudo sostienen poder observar, co ayuda de algún artefacto, las entidades que tiempo atrás habían sido postuladas por la teoría. Esta transición de algunas entidades del reino de lo teórico al de lo observable con carga teórica presenta características interesantes para un análisis sobre la articulación de las teorías. En este trabajo se (...)
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  235.  1
    Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-Change.Robert Miner - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:220-226.
    Imre Lakatos' "methodology of scientific research programs" and Alasdair MacIntyre's "tradition-constituted enquiry" are two sustained attempts to overcome the assumptions of logical empiricism, while saving the appearance that theory-change is rational. The key difference between them is their antithetical stand on the issue of incommensurability between large-scale theories. This divergence generates other areas of disagreement; the most important are the relevance of the historical record and the presence of decision criteria that are common to rival programs. I show that Lakatos' (...)
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  236. A DNA Account of Propositions as Events.Khristos Nizamis - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:227-242.
    Michael Dummett has argued that antirealism requires a rejection of bivalence. However, his version of antirealism is not the only available one. In fact, it is arguable that his antirealism is not sufficiently antirealist and falls short of his intentions. On the basis of a study of the Indian Buddhist philosopher, Nāgārjuna, I think that a more complete and coherent kind of antirealism is possible, one that respects the phenomena of conventional ontology and retains the principles of classical logic, but (...)
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  237. L’erreur: pédagogue de l’humanité.Pierre Nzinzi - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:243-250.
    De Parménide, distinguant ontologiquement le chemin de la vérití de celui de la fausseté, à Descartes, garantissant l'infaillibilité de la raison par la méthode, en passant par Spinoza, insistant sur l'infaillibilité de l'esprit qui se porte sur l'idée vraie ou adéquate, la tradition épistémique a toujours marginalisé l'erreur, qu'elle situait alors aux antipodes de la vérité. Or, la tradition doxologique ou conjecturale dont relève l'eépistémologie historique en particulier va la réévaluer, dans le sillage de Kant, critique du paternalisme despotique, mais (...)
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  238. Polemica imaginaria entre Popper y Kuhn sobre el progreso de la ciencia según un punto de vista evolucionista.Héctor A. Palma - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:251-256.
    Habida cuenta de los intensos debates de los años '60 y '70, al interior de la tradición anglosajona en filosofía de la ciencia, y que minaron los postulados más básicos de la Concepción Heredada, apareció la necesidad de explicar el desarrollo de la ciencia en la historia, es decir el despliegue mismo de la racionalidad científica. Las epistemologías evolucionistas constituyen uno de esos intentos, aunque de su analogía con la teoría de la evolución biológica surge como problema el desajuste de (...)
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  239. Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality.Andrew N. Pavlenko - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:257-262.
    If the 17th century could be considered the century of the reformation of science, the present century is one of counterreformation in every sense of the word. The ideology of this century can be seen in the titanic efforts to complete the development of science which foundation was laid in the 17th and 18th centuries, in the outright failures, and in attempts at reconstructing the foundation. Our task is to reveal the essence of the turning points in 20th century science (...)
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  240.  4
    The Heuristic Function of the Axiomatic Method.Volker Peckhaus - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:263-265.
    This lecture will deal with the heuristic power of the deductive method and its contributions to the scientific task of finding new knowledge. I will argue for a new reading of the term 'deductive method.' It will be presented as an architectural scheme for the reconstruction of the processes of gaining reliable scientific knowledge. This scheme combines the activities of doing science with the activities of presenting scientific results. It combines the heuristic and the deductive side of science. The heuristic (...)
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  241. The Two Cultures Problem.Sheldon Richmond - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:266-274.
    Many post World War II thinkers have been perplexed by the problem of how or even whether people from different cultures can understand each other. The problem arose when we started to think of culture as formative of language and thought. The common assumptions of most theorists of language are that language is fundamental to thinking and culture; and language, thought, culture or humanity is a natural product of biological evolution. Karl Popper and Michael Polanyi-seen as diametrically opposed-both independently criticize (...)
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  242.  5
    La Complejidad: Consideraciones Epistemológicas y Filosóficas.Elba del Carmen Riera - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:51-57.
    La ciencia no puede escapar al condicionamiento cultural. Desde hace unos treinta años ha surgido un interés particular por una nueva línea de investigación que privilegia un objeto de estudio interdisciplinar: los sistemas complejos. Se trata de una respuesta al cambio cultural frente a conceptos como los de desorden y caos que estaban desplazados del ámbito de la ciencia clásica, por ser considerarlos informes y vacíos de significación. Hoy hay toda una revalorización de los mismos. Los sistemas complejos se ubican (...)
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  243. La Vida en sus Origenes.Walter Riofrio Rios - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:275-280.
    De acuerdo al título la presentaciòn se refiere a un analísis del origen de las funciones consideradas como propiedades insertas en la realidad. Para ello me dedico al estudio de ciertas propiedades biológicas que considera se encuentran en los organismos vivos desde el principio, esta es la razón que incido en la visión molecular de la biología por considerarla como las mas apta para estudiar esta problemática. Cuando abordamos los procesos de regulación y expresión de la información genética, vemos que (...)
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  244.  1
    The Bayesian Theory of Confirmation, Idealizations and Approximations in Science.Erdinç Sayan - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:281-289.
    My focus in this paper is on how the basic Bayesian model can be amended to reflect the role of idealizations and approximations in the confirmation or disconfirmation of any hypothesis. I suggest the following as a plausible way of incorporating idealizations and approximations into the Bayesian condition for incremental confirmation: Theory T is confirmed by observation P relative to background knowledge B iff Pr&B) > PrandB), where I is the conjunction of idealizations and approximations used in deriving the prediction (...)
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  245. Ohne Telos und Substanz.Gregor Schiemann - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:290-298.
    Die Zeiten, in denen Kausalität das Charakteristikum von Wissenschaftlichkeit war, scheinen sich ihrem Ende zu nähern. Seit dem Beginn unseres Jahrhunderts ist eine seit langem schwelende Krise des herkömmlichen Kausalitätsverständnisses in den Naturwissenschafteen unübersehbar zum Ausdruck gekommen. Dessen ungeachtet halten jedoch viele Wissenschaftstheoretiker an Kausalitätsvorstellungen als vermeintlich unverzichtbarem Analyseinstrument fest. In Kritik dieser Tendenz zur Verkennung eines grundlegenden Bedeutungsverlustes wird der historische Verdrängungsprozess von Kausalitätsvorstellungen unter den Stichworten der Entfinalisierung und Entsubstantialisierung nachgezeichnet. Aus der Perspektive geschichtlicher Rekonstruktion handelt es sich (...)
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  246.  1
    Biological Teleology in Contemporary Science.Spas Spassov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:309-316.
    Continuous controversies about how Aristotle's teleological biology relates to modern biological science address some widely debated questions in contemporary philosophy of science. Three main groups of objections made by contemporary science against Aristotle's biology can be identified: 1) Aristotle's biological teleology is too anthropomorphic; 2) the idea is tied too substance based; 3) Aristotle's final ends contradict the mechanistic spirit of modern science, which is looking for physical causes. There are two ways of dealing with these objections. The first consists (...)
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  247. Werner Heisenberg.Ana Elisa Spielberg - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:317-322.
    La incidencia de la educación humanista, en su vertiente filosófica, sobre algunos de los físicos que formaron parte de la creción de la teoría de los quanta-reconocida unánimemente como la más fértil de la historia de la física-es un dato innegable. En este trabajo no pretendemos argumentar a favor o en contra de las dos posturas en pugna, que se observan desde los inicios de esta teoría, sino denunciar algunos de los malentendidos que prácticamente han sepultado el pensamiento de uno (...)
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  248. Particle and Astro-Physics Challenge Kant’s Phenomenolism.Lawrence H. Starkey - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:323-333.
    For two centuries Kant's first Critique has nourished various turns against transcendent metaphysics and realism. Kant was scandalized by reason's impotence in confronting infinity as seen in the divisibility of particles and in spatial extension and time. Therefore, he had to regard the latter as subjective and reality as imponderable. In what follows, I review various efforts to rationalize Kant's antinomies-efforts that could only flounder before the rise of Einstein's general relativity and Hawking's blackhole cosmology. Both have undercut the entire (...)
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  249.  2
    The Monoamine Hypothesis, Placebos and Problems of Theory Construction in Psychology, Medicine, and Psychiatry.Paul C. L. Tang - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:334-341.
    Can there be scientific theories in psychology, medicine or psychiatry? I approach this question through an in-depth analysis of a typical experiment for clinical depression involving the monoamine hypothesis, drug action, and placebos. I begin my discussion with a reconstruction of Adolph Grünbaum's conceptual analysis of 'placebo,' and then use his notion of "intentional placebo" to discuss a typical experiment using the monoamine hypothesis, two drugs and a placebo. I focus on the theoretical aspects of the experiment, especially on the (...)
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  250. Quantum Holism as Consequence of the Relativistic Approach to the Problem of Quantum Theory Interpretation.I. Z. Tsekhmistro - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:342-347.
    In modern physics the common relational approach should be extended to the concepts of element and set. The relationalization of the concepts of element and set means that in the final analysis the World exists as an indivisible whole, not as a set. Therefore, we have to describe quantum systems in terms of potentialities and probabilities: since quantum systems cannot be analyzed completely into sets of elements, we can speak only of the potentialities of isolating elements and sets within their (...)
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  251.  1
    The Problem of Science in Heidegger’s Thought.Daniel Videla - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:348-355.
    In this paper I deal with the status of science in Heidegger's thought. Particularly, I pose to Heidegger the question whether science can constitute a problem for philosophy, once one has cast doubt on philosophy's rank as first science whose prerogative is to establish the truth-criteria of the particular sciences. To express it with the convenience cliches always afford, this is the question of knowledge in the postmodern epoch. The paper traces the transition from the early "fundamental ontology" to the (...)
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  252. A New Vision of Science.Fritz Wallner - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:363-367.
    Traditional convictions regarding science are currently in doubt. Relativism seems to destroy scientific claims to rationality. This paper shows a way to keep the traditional convictions of scientific knowledge while acknowledging relativism. With reference to the practicing scientist, we replace descriptivism with constructivism; we modify relative validity with the claim to understanding; and, we offer methodological strategies for acquiring understanding. These strategies we call strangification, which means taking a scientific proposition system out of its context and putting it in another (...)
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  253.  1
    When the Scientist Turns Philosopher.Friedel Weinert - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:368-373.
    This paper examines how such fundamental notions as causality and determinism have undergone changes as a direct result of empirical discoveries. Although such notions are often regarded as metaphysical or a priori concepts, experimental discoveries at the beginning of this century—radioactive decay, blackbody radiation and spontaneous emission—led to a direct questioning of the notions of causality and determinism. Experimental evidence suggests that these two notions must be separated. Causality and indeterminism are compatible with the behavior of quantum-mechanical systems. The argument (...)
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  254. The Rationality of Scientific Discovery.Yang Yaokun & Cheng Liangdao - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37:374-379.
    In order to understand the rationality of scientific creation, we must first clarify the following: the historical structure of scientific creation from starting point to breakthrough, and then to establishment; the process from the primary through the productive aspects of the scientific problem, the idea of creation, the primary conjecture, the scientific hypothesis, and finally the emergence of the genetic structure establishing the theory; and the problem threshold of rationality in scientific creation. Given that the theory of scientific creation adopts (...)
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  255.  3
    Is Kierkegaard’s Absolute Paradox Hume’s Miracle?Jyrki Kivelä - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:119-125.
    I clarify Hume's concept of miracle with Kierkegaard's concept of absolute paradox. I argue that absolute paradox is like that miracle which, according to Hume, allows a human being to believe Christianity against the principles of his understanding. I draw such a conclusion on the basis that Kierkegaard does not think Christianity is a doctrine with a truth value and, furthermore, he holds that all historical events are doubtful. Kierkegaard emphasizes the absolute paradox as the condition of faith in such (...)
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  256. Principles for Cognizing the Sacred.Evgeniy Arinin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:1-8.
    Today we need a scientific analysis of basic world views which expresses genuine understanding of the sacred. Such world views hold the main principles for cognizing reality. A ‘substratum’ understanding of the Sacred is characteristic of mythology and magic, wherein all spiritual phenomena are closely connected with a material or corporeal bearer. Functional understanding of the Sacred is developed by the earliest civilizations in which the spiritual is separated from the material. For example, Plato, Aristotle, and Neoplatonism created European functional (...)
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  257. Sinn und Bedeutung der philosophischen Gottesbeweise.Christophe Berchem - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:9-13.
    Der Sinn der philosophischen Gottesbeweise besteht in der Hauptsache in der Widerlegung pseudowissenschaftlicher Argumente des Atheismus und in der reflexen Unterstützung des religiösen Glaubens. Zwischen der philosophischen Theologie und der Religion kommt eine wesentliche Dialektik zur Geltung. Wird die philosophische Theologie, die eben im philosophischen Gottesbeweis kulminiert, abgelehnt, so tritt an ihre Stelle die Gefahr des Abgleitens in einen irrationalen Dezisionismus. Die Grundgedanken der metaphysischen Gottesbeweise sind unwiderlegbar und damit jederzeit gültig und tragfähig. Ihre für das moderne Bewußtsein erforderliche methodische (...)
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  258. Vom Opfergeist: Hegel mit Bataille.Artur R. Boelderl - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:14-24.
    In this paper, I shall argue as follows: Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit deserves to be called a phenomenology of sacrificial spirit: it sacrifices the world with its unsolvable contradictions on the alter of dialectics by depriving it of its materiality and corporeality in favor of the appearance of the one spirit-world to which nothing seems strange anymore, with one exception-the Sacred. The idealistic sacrifice of the world goes hand-in-hand with an unholy sacrifice of the Sacred through the thorough profanization of (...)
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  259. Truth and Religion Reconsidered.Andrzej Bronk - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:25-35.
    I discuss some of the problems of the application of the notion of truth to religion. After introductory remarks on the problem called truth and religion to show the peculiarity and the actuality of the problem discussed, I examine the different meanings of the notions of truth and religion, in order to formulate some comments on the different concepts of the truth of religion. I name the main types of religious truth, and consider the competencies of the diverse types of (...)
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  260.  1
    God and the Caducity of Being.Antonio Calcagno - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:36-41.
    Jean-Luc Marion claims that God must no longer be thought of in terms of the traditional metaphysical category of Being, for that reduces God to an all too human concept which he calls "Dieu." God must be conceived outside of the ontological difference and outside of the question of Being itself. Marion urges us to think of God as love. We wish to challenge Marion’s claim of the necessity to move au-delà de l’être by arguing that Marion presents a very (...)
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  261. Le Désenchantement du Monde et l’Avenir du Christianisme selon Fernand Dumont.Serge Cantin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:42-48.
    Dans cette communication, je voudrais donner un aperçu de la pertinence de la pensée de Fernand Dumont en regard des débats contemporains en philosophie de la religion. La première partie fait ressortir les principaux points de désaccord entre Dumont et Marcel Gauchet quant à la place et au rôle du christianisme dans une société sécularisée. Alors que, selon Gauchet, la religion chrétienne est destinée à ne subsister que sous le mode d’une expérience personnelle et subjective du sacré, Dumont s’efforce de (...)
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  262. The Concept of Transcendence in Heidegger.Philippe Capelle - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:49-52.
    The history of Heideggerian commentaries confront us with a string of parallel concepts: metaphysics and theology, onto-theology and Christian theology, thought and faith, Being and God, and so on. It should also be noted that these different dual concepts have served, in various ways, several strategies for the interpretation of Heidegger. These various strategies are summarized as follows: the relation between philosophy and theology in the thought of Heidegger is threefold and should be read to the rhythm of his thinking (...)
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  263. European Philosophy and Religion in Millenniums Lasting Dispute.Brigitte Dehmelt Cooper - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:53-58.
    The disputes between philosophy and religion can be avoided and solved not by the contemporary separation of their conclusions but because Socrates-Plato taught us how valid judgments are established. Plato is the founder of "scientific logic", because he discerned the instantaneous relations of similar, different, equal through the intelligibility between ultimate distinctions. This relation, not very accurately called "like" by Socrates, holds too for the intelligence in its relation to the intelligibility of the distinctions of "can" and "must", of which (...)
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  264.  4
    Nonbelief as Support for Atheism.Theodore M. Drange - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:59-64.
    The Canadian philosopher J.L. Schellenberg has recently put forward an argument for atheism based on the idea that God is supposed to be perfectly loving and so would not permit people to be deprived of awareness of his existence. If such a deity were to exist, then, he would do something to reveal his existence clearly to people, thereby causing them to become theists. Thus, the fact that there are so many non-theists in the world becomes good reason to deny (...)
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  265. The Meaning of the Present Age.Ken Foldes - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:65-74.
    I give reasons to believe that our present situation is not as bleak as some would have it. I show how the historical process can be understood in terms of a Premodernity, Modernity, and Postmodernity division of human history. I argue that both Hegel and Nietzsche were fully aware that Modernity was over and that a negative Postmodern condition was to necessarily precede a consummatory positive one. Also since history may be taken to have reached its goal at the end (...)
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  266.  1
    The Active Future as Divine.Lewis S. Ford - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:75-79.
    Normally, activity is regarded as discernible, but according to relativity theory whatever is discernible lies in the past of the discernible. Only the present subjective immediacy is properly active. Subjectivity is properly understood as present becoming; objectivity as past being. I propose that we extend the domain of subjective immediacy to include the future as well as the present. This future universal activity is pluralized in the present in terms of the many actualities coming into being. Subjectivity is the individualization (...)
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  267. Re-Identifying God in Experience.Jerome I. Gellman - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:80-85.
    If an alleged experience of God can constitute evidence for God’s existence, then it must be possible for God to be a perceptual particular, that is, a substantive, enduring object of perception. Furthermore, if several such experiences are to be cumulative evidence for God’s existence, then it must be possible to reidentify God from experience to experience. I examine both a "conceptual" and an "epistemological" argument against these possibilities that is derived from the work of Richard Gale. I argue that (...)
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  268. Philosophy Redivivus?Oskar Gruenwald - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:86-92.
    Curiously, in the late twentieth century, even agnostic cosmologists like Stephen Hawking—who is often compared with Einstein—pose metascientific questions concerning a Creator and the cosmos, which science per se is unable to answer. Modern science of the brain, e.g. Roger Penrose's Shadows of the Mind, is only beginning to explore the relationship between the brain and the mind-the physiological and the epistemic. Galileo thought that God's two books-Nature and the Word-cannot be in conflict, since both have a common author: God. (...)
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  269. Philosophy’s Prejudice Towards Religion.Hendrik Hart - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:93-99.
    Religion acquired a bad press in philosophical modernity after a rivalry developed between philosophy and theology, originating in philosophy’s adopting the role of our culture’s superjudge in all of morality and knowledge, and in faith’s coming to be seen as belief, that is, as assent to propositional content. Religion, no longer trust in the face of mystery, became a belief system. Reason as judge of propositional belief set up religion’s decline. But spirituality is on the rise, and favors trust over (...)
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  270.  2
    The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians.Marian Hillar - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:100-105.
    The doctrines of the Socinians represent a rational reaction to a medieval theology based on submission to the Church’s authority. Though they retained Scripture as something supra rationem, the Socinians analyzed it rationally and believed that nothing should be accepted contra rationem. Their social and political thought underwent a significant evolutionary process from a very utopian pacifistic trend condemning participation in war and holding public and judicial office to a moderate and realistic stance based on mutual love, support of the (...)
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  271.  1
    The Statute of the Man in the Modern Catholic Anthropology.Ivan Kaltchev - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:106-109.
    In what follows, I examine the renaissance of the idea of freedom as a fundamental measure of humanity in the work of Karol Voitila. I examine as well Karol Voitila's concept of the human person as found in his work "Love and Responsibility" as well as the encyclical Evangelium vitae, which affirms the incomparable value of the human person. I also consider the celestial predestination of the human person as discussed in the documents of the Second Vatican Council.
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  272.  3
    A Neglected Argument.Gary E. Kessler - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:110-118.
    Charles S. Peirce sketches "a nest of three arguments for the Reality of God" in his article "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God." I provide careful analysis and explication of Peirce's argument, along with consideration of some objections. I argue that there are significant differences between Peirce's neglected argument and the traditional arguments for God's existence; Peirce's analysis of the neglected argument into three arguments is misleading; there are two distinct levels of argument that Peirce does not recognize; (...)
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  273. Toward a Peaceable Mosaic of Worldviews and Religions.Ronald A. Kuipers - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:126-133.
    I defend the uniqueness and irreducibility of religious forms of life from rationalistic criticisms. I argue that such a defense of religion affirms the fact of incommensurability between differing forms of life. Put differently, such a defense tacitly affirms ineradicable pluralism as well as cultural diversity. I contend that the defender of religion who argues from the incommensurability of this form of life must also give up all traces of "worldview exclusivism," the dogmatic claim to possess the one truth about (...)
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  274.  1
    Notions of Selflessness in Sartrean Existentialism and Theravadin Buddhism.Sander H. Lee - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:134-141.
    In this essay I examine the relationship between Sartre's phenomenological description of the "self" as expressed in his early work and elements to be found in some approaches to Buddhism. The vast enormity of this task will be obvious to anyone who is aware of the numerous schools and traditions through which the religion of Buddhism has manifested itself. In order to be brief, I have decided to select specific aspects of what is commonly called the Theravadin tradition as being (...)
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  275. Contextualism, Decontextualism, and Perennialism.Timothy A. Mahoney - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:142-146.
    This paper addresses religious epistemology in that it concerns the assessment of the credibility of certain claims arising out of religious experience. Developments this century have made the world’s rich religious heritage accessible to more people than ever. But the conflicting religious claims tend to undermine each religion’s central claim to be a vehicle for opening persons to ultimate reality. One attempt to overcome this problem is provided by "perennial philosophy," which claims that there is a kind of mystical experience (...)
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  276.  12
    Aquinas’ Third Way Modalized.Robert E. Maydole - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:147-155.
    The Third Way is the most interesting and insightful of Aquinas' five arguments for the existence of God, even though it is invalid and has some false premises. With the help of a somewhat weak modal logic, however, the Third Way can be transformed into a argument which is certainly valid and plausibly sound. Much of what Aquinas asserted in the Third Way is possibly true even if it is not actually true. Instead of assuming, for example, that things which (...)
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  277. The Integral Humanism of Mahatma.Geeta S. Mehta - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:156-160.
    Humanism as a theistic, pragmatic theory was first conceived around 2000 BCE in India. It is a this-worldly, human-centered, secular philosophical outlook. Gandhi understands religion as connoting the individual’s integrity and society’s solidarity. Free-will for him is freedom of the "rational self." Morality is not a matter of outward conformity, but of inward fulfillment. His integral humanism is indicated by his enumerated seven social sins: politics without principles; wealth without work; commerce without morality; knowledge without character; pleasure without conscience; science (...)
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  278.  1
    Kuona, An African Perspective on Religions.Isaac M. T. Mwase - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:161-165.
    Kuona is a Shona verb meaning "to see." In poetic constructions, it is often used as an ocular metaphor meaning insight or understanding. This ocular metaphor can be used to describe Mugambi’s assessment of the exclusivistic claims one often encounters in the Abrahamic religions. Such claims often arise from a strongly held belief that the adherent is one of God’s chosen. Mugambi has emerged as one of the most articulate philosophical theologians in the African continent. His reflections, ubiquitous in classrooms (...)
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  279. Religion and Science in the Parable of the Unjust Steward.Eugene S. Poliakov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:166-170.
    The Parable of the Unjust Steward should be interpreted allegorically, its literal interpretation shown to be impossible. Certain facts make this parable unique: a lord as the Lord; divine possessions; the symbolism of the house interpreted as a human being; the material principles of the world understood as the governor of a human being; the Lord’s debtors as spiritual teachers of various kinds; theological doctrines with their own theogonic and cosmogonic views, all claiming to know the truth in its wholeness. (...)
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  280. La Virtud en los Paganos Segun San Agustin.Josefa Rojo - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:171-177.
    This paper attempts to demonstrate that the reason why Augustine rejected the idea that pagans have virtues is not because he conceived of true virtue only in a supernatural way—that is to say, that pagans do not have the grace of God-but because they lack the right intentions in their acting. In fact, it is not that they are not capable of virtues because they do not have faith, but rather it is because they are not loyal to the natural (...)
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  281.  5
    Author! Author! Some Reflections on Design in and Beyond Hume’s Dialogues.William Lad Sessions - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:178-186.
    Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion may be read in the way Cleanthes reads Nature, as analogous to human artifice and contrivance. The Dialogues and Nature then are both texts, with an intelligent author or Author, and analogies may be started from these five facts of Hume's text: the independence of Hume's characters; the non-straightforwardness of the characters' discourse; the way the characters interact and live; the entanglements of Pamphilus as an internal author; and the ways in which a reader is (...)
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  282. Jewish Philosophers on Reason and Revelation.Aharon Shear-Yashuv - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:187-192.
    Are reason and revelation different sources of truth? Do they contradict or complement each other? The present article tries to give an answer to these ancient questions from a Jewish pluralistic point of view. I describe the essential views of the most important representatives of the two main schools of Jewish thought: the rationalists Maimonides, Moses Mendelssohn, and Hermann Cohen, and the antirationalists Judah Halevi and Solomon Levi Steinheim. I show that even the antirationalists use the tools of rationalism, by (...)
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  283. Inclusive Infinity and Radical Particularity.Henry Simoni-Wastila - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:193-198.
    God, or in Nishida’s case Buddha-nature, is frequently conceptualized as relating to the world by including it within the Infinite. Particular elements within the world are not seen as existing in absolute differentiation or total negation from Spirit, God, or Absolute Non-Being. The Many are not excluded but are, on the contrary, included within the One. The logic by which the One includes the Many is a logic of manifold unity, or, as Hegel quite confidently puts it, true infinity as (...)
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  284. Hearing the Word.Frederick Sontag - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:199-202.
    That is the crucial question: Did God intend direct and final communication with us? There is little evidence that Jesus' appearance cleared anything up or gave us God directly. Wittgenstein, who wanted language to be clear, knew well enough that neither the Hebrew nor the Christian God's words could fall within his constructed linguistic net.
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  285.  4
    Classical Theism and Global Supervenience Physicalism.William F. Vallicella - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:203-208.
    Could a classical theist be a physicalist? Although a negative answer to this question may seem obvious, it turns out that a case can be made for the consistency of a variant of classical theism and global supervenience physicalism. Although intriguing, the case ultimately fails due to the weakness of global supervenience as an account of the dependence of mental on physical properties.
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  286. The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Religion.Walter Van Herck - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:209-218.
    Clarity concerning what kind of knowledge a religious person possesses is of the utmost importance. For one thing, J. Whittaker remarks that believers must have some knowledge that enables them to make the distinction between literal and non-literal descriptions of God. In the believer's perception 'God is a rock', but not really a rock. God however really is love. Whittaker suggests that making this distinction requires knowledge that cannot be metaphysical or experiential, but a more basic form which he terms (...)
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  287.  1
    The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard.Daryl J. Wennemann - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:219-224.
    Following Ronald Green's suggestion concerning Kierkegaard's dependence upon Kant, I show how Kierkegaard drew upon Kant's The Metaphysics of Morals in order to develop his own doctrine of divine love. Where Kant saw only a peripheral role for love in the moral life, we will see how Kierkegaard places love at the center of human life in Works of Love. The leap of faith requires that every aspect of life be informed by love in response to God's love for us.
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  288. The Elimination of Natural Theology.David E. White - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:225-230.
    The dispute between fideists and rationalists seems intractable since those who argue for faith alone claim that they are offended by the use of reason in religion. The advocates of reason claim that they are equally offended by the appeal to faith. This dispute may be resolved by showing that those who rely on faith may be seen as engaging in an experiment of living, so they can become part of a rational experiment without having to alter their practice; in (...)
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  289.  1
    Philosophical Theantropy as the Principle of Religious Ecumenism.Andrew Woznicki - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 36:231-236.
    One universal constituent element of human consciousness is belief in the existence of a divine reality that is experienced by persons as the most intimate and essential part of human life. Belief in transcendent reality, which is an immanent part of human nature, constitutes an awe-inspiring mystery — that is, a theantropy. Strictly speaking, ‘theantropy’ is a theological term which is used to express the "union of the divine and human natures in Christ". The novum of my understanding of theantropy (...)
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  290.  3
    On Predicting Behavior.Kristin Andrews - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:8-14.
    I argue that the behavior of other agents is insufficiently described in current debates as a dichotomy between tacit theory and simulation theory. I introduce two questions about the foundation and development of our ability both to attribute belief and to simulate it. I then propose that there is one additional method used to predict behavior, namely, an inductive strategy.
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  291. The Concept of Intelligence.Ira Altman - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:1-7.
    Gilbert Ryle’s dispositional analysis of the concept of intelligence makes the error of assimilating intelligence to the category of dispositional or semi-dispositional concepts. Far from being a dispositional concept, intelligence is an episodic concept that refers neither to dispositions nor to ‘knowing how,’ but to a fashion or style of proceeding whose significance is adverbial. Being derivative from the function of the adverb ‘intelligently,’ the concept of intelligence does not have essential reference to specific verbs but rather to the manner (...)
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  292.  2
    On the Temporal Boundaries of Simple Experiences.Michael V. Antony - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:15-19.
    I argue that the temporal boundaries of certain experiences — those I call ‘simple experiential events’ — have a different character than the temporal boundaries of the events most frequently associated with experience: neural events. In particular, I argue that the temporal boundaries of SEEs are more sharply defined than those of neural events. Indeed, they are sharper than the boundaries of all physical events at levels of complexity higher than that of elementary particle physics. If correct, it follows that (...)
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  293.  3
    Simulation, Folk Psychological Explanation, and Causal Laws.Angela J. Arkway - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:27-33.
    The assumption that commonsense psychological explanations of behavior are causal underlies current debate between simulation theory and theory theory regarding the nature of cognitive mechanism responsible for our folk psychological practices. Theory theorists claim that these explanations are subsumed by the covering law model of causal explanation. Simulationists are not explicit about the nature of the explanations produced by simulation. In what follows, I propose a set of plausible conditions that a correct causal simulation-produced folk psychological explanation will satisfy and (...)
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  294.  1
    The Simulation Theory and Explanations That ‘Make Sense of Behavior’.Angela J. Arkway - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:20-26.
    Underlying the current debate between simulation theory and theory theory is the assumption that folk psychological explanations of behavior are causal. Simulationists Martin Davies, Tony Stone, and Jane Heal claim that folk psychological explanations are explanations that make sense of another person by citing the thoughts important to the determination of his behavior on a given occasion. I argue that it is unlikely these explanations will be causal. Davis et al. base their claim on the assumption that a certain isomorphism (...)
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  295.  2
    Conceivability Arguments or the Revenge of the Zombies.Katalin Balog - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:34-45.
    There is a tradition, going back at least to Descartes, of arguing against physicalism on the basis of claims about conceivability. Philosophers in this tradition claim that we can conceive of any physical facts obtaining without there being any phenomenal experience. From this conceptual claim it is further argued that it is metaphysically possible for any physical fact to obtain without the occurrence of any phenomenal experience. If this is correct, then physicalism as it is usually construed is false. In (...)
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  296.  2
    Reflexive Transparency, Mental Content, and Externalism.Paul Bernier - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:46-53.
    It has been disputed whether an externalist conception of the individuation of intentional states, such as beliefs and desires, is compatible with self-knowledge, that is, the claim that one's judgments about one's intentional states are non-evidential, non-inferential, and authoritative. I want to argue that these theses are indeed incompatible, notwithstanding an important objection to this incompatibility claim. The worry has been raised that if externalism is true, then for a subject to know, say, that he or she believes that p, (...)
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  297. Qualia, Robots and Complementarity of Subject and Object.Piotr Boltuc - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:54-62.
    Jackson claims that a person who sees colors for the first time by this very fact acquires a certain knowledge which she or he could not have learned in a black and white world. This argument can be generalized to other secondary qualities. I argue that this claim is indefensible without implicit recourse to the first-person experience; also Nagel’s "what it is like" argument is polemically weak. Hence, we have no argument able to dismiss physicalism by consideration of first-person qualia (...)
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  298. Reviving Psychophysical Supervenience.Neil Campbel - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:63-67.
    Many philosophers has lost their enthusiasm for the concept of supervenience in the philosophy of mind. This is largely due to the fact that, as Jaegwon Kim has shown, familiar versions of supervenience describe relations of mere property covariation without capturing the idea of dependence. Since the dependence of the mental on the physical is a necessary requirement for even the weakest version of physicalism, it would seem that existing forms of supervenience cannot achieve that for which they were designed. (...)
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  299. On Images.James Dallett - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:68-72.
    Concrete images are like pictures in the mind's imagination which have been transferred from real objects through the eyes.images also exist in the imagination, but are not easily described or communicated. Both images interplay in various ways as a person experiences emotional, dream and pure thought states of consciousness. Despite the interplay, the two kinds of images do not merge or meld into a third image type as a graduation between the two. Concrete images change, sometimes drastically. They never become (...)
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  300. Problems of Mind as Action.Nikolaj Demjançuk - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:73-83.
    A large body of current literature details significant recent advances in our understanding of the mind. This boom has partly been stimulated by the explosive growth of cognitive science dedicated to advancing scientific understanding. This paper focuses on the nature of philosophical theory of mind, and seeks to find ways of talking about mind. Central to my argument is developing a description of mind as action. Concessive behaviorism depicts the mind as presented in complexes of actions and tendencies to act. (...)
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  301.  1
    Why Isn’T Consciousness Empirically Observable?Ralph Ellis - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:84-90.
    Most versions of the knowledge argument say that if a scientist observing my brain does not know what my consciousness 'is like,' then consciousness is not identical with physical brain processes. This unwarrantedly equates 'physical' with 'empirically observable.' However, we can conclude only that consciousness is not identical with anything empirically observable. Still, given the intimate connection between each conscious event and a corresponding empirically observable physiological event, what P-C relation could render C empirically unobservable? Some suggest that C is (...)
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  302.  1
    Animal Belief.Roger Fellows - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:91-97.
    If Mary believes a bone is on the lawn, then she literally believes that, though her belief may be mistaken. But, if her pet Fido rushes up to what is in fact a bit of bone-shaped plastic, then Fido does not believe that there is a bone on the lawn. However, the best explanation for Fido’s behavior may be that he initially believed there was a bone on the lawn. Unless we are methodological or analytical behaviorists, the claim that we (...)
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  303. Mankind Cannot Bear Too Much Reality.Andries Gouws - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:98-103.
    This paper sketches a reconstruction of the Freudian unconscious, as well as an argument for its existence. The strategy followed sidesteps the extended debates about the validity of Freud's methods and conclusions. People are argued to have, as ideal types, two fundamental modes of fulfilling their desires: engagement with reality and wishful thinking. The first mode acknowledges the constraints reality imposes on the satisfaction of desires, while the second mode ignores or denies these constraints, inasmuch as they threaten to make (...)
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  304.  1
    Nonconceptuality and the Emotions.York H. Gunther - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:104-111.
    I present an argument for the existence of nonconceptual states. A nonconceptual state is an intentional state which does not require the bearer to possess all requisite concepts in order to represent the state. I frame the debate by outlining two constraints that an argument for nonconceptuality should meet. First, successful argument must present a platitude of concepts and illustrate that there are intentional states which both actually violate this platitude and explain behavior independently of conceptual states. This ensures that (...)
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  305. The Self-Knowledge That Externalists Leave Out.Lisa L. Hall - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:112-118.
    This paper addresses the relationship between self-knowledge, practical reason and Externalist theories of mind. Specifically, I argue that the kind of self-knowledge defended by Externalists is insufficient for intentional action. I claim that we know how to act only if we have access to beliefs about how our circumstances are related to our intended actions. I then go on to argue that the kind of mental content we need to characterize these beliefs is incompatible with the Externalist’s assumptions.
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  306. In Defense of Direct Perception.Robert Hudson - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:119-123.
    My goal in this paper is to defend the claim that one can directly perceive an object without possessing any descriptive beliefs about this object. My strategy in defending this claim is to rebut three arguments that attack my view of direct perception. According to these arguments, the notion of direct perception as I construe it is objectionable since: it is epistemically worthless since it leaves perceived objects uninterpreted; it cannot explain how perceived objects are identified; and it is ill-prepared (...)
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  307.  1
    Belief, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws.Henry Jackman - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:124-129.
    Davidson argues that the connection between belief and the "constitutive ideal of rationality" precludes the possibility of their being any type-type identities between mental and physical events. However, there are radically different ways to understand both the nature and content of this "constitutive ideal," and the plausibility of Davidson’s argument depends on blurring the distinction between two of these ways. Indeed, it will be argued here that no consistent understanding of the constitutive ideal will allow it to play the dialectical (...)
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  308. From “Mind” to “Supermind”.Kamaladevi R. Kunkolienker - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:130-135.
    In contrast to Western theories of mind, Aurobindo’s theory is comprehensive and holistic. This theory derives from his ontology. With respect to mind, Aurobindo contends that evolution will not stop with homo sapien. Rather, he posits higher levels of consciousness: Higher Mind, Illumined Mind, Intuitive Mind, Overmind, and Supermind. Higher Mind is an intermediary between the Truth-light above and the human mind. Illumined Mind is Spiritual light. Intuitive Mind possesses swift revelatory vision and luminous insight. Overmind acts as an intermediary (...)
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  309.  2
    Restoring Mind-Brain Supervenience: A Proposal.Robert G. Lantin - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:136-142.
    In this paper I examine the claim that mental causation — at least for cases involving the production of purposive behavior — is possible only if ‘mind/brain supervenience’ obtains, and suggest that in spite of all the bad press it has received in recent years, mind/brain supervenience is still the best way for a physicalist to solve the ‘exclusion problem’ that plagues many accounts of mental causation. In section 3, I introduce a form of mind/brain supervenience that depends crucially on (...)
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  310.  1
    Identity Conditions for Indicator State Types Within Dretske’s Theory of Psychological Content Naturalization.Mary Litch - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:143-148.
    Within the context of Dretske’s theory of psychological content naturalization, as laid out in Explaining Behavior, the concept of an indicator state type plays a pivotal role. Providing a general description of the identity conditions for being a token of an indicator state type is a prerequisite for the ultimate success of Dretske’s theory. However, Dretske fails to address this topic. Thus, his theory is incomplete. Several different approaches for specifying these identity conditions are possible; however, each is inadequate.
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  311. La cuestión de la Sistematicidad en el Análisis Computacional de la Mente.Vincenzo P. Lo Monaco - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:149-155.
    Fodor, Pylyshyn and McLaughlin reject connectionism and argue that connectionists are unable to explain systematicity without implementing a classical architecture. In this paper, I contend that the traditionalist conclusion only seems to follow if they are able to sketch a neutral account of systematicity. But in absence of such an explanation, connectionists bear no special burden in this matter. In support of this view, I set out three specific weaknesses: circularity, epistemological insufficiency, and atomism/reductionism, which affect the classical argument of (...)
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  312.  6
    Double Disjunctivitis.Luciano B. Mariano - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:156-163.
    Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property. This kind of robustness bifurcates the so-called disjunction problem into a Represented-Disjunction (...)
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  313.  4
    Mind, Intelligence and Spirit.Pascual F. Martínez-Freire - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:164-169.
    The mind is a collection of various classes of processes that can be studied empirically. To limit the field of mental processes we must follow the criteria of folk psychology. There are three kinds of mind: human, animal and mechanical. But the human mind is the paradigm or model of mind. The existence of mechanical minds is a serious challenge to the materialism or the mind-brain identity theory. Based on this existence we can put forward the antimaterialist argument of machines. (...)
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  314. Getting Rid of the Mind Body Problem.Lydia Mechtenberg - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:170-174.
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  315.  2
    Computational Complexity and the Origin of Universals.Leonid I. Perlovsky - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:175-185.
    This paper establishes close relationships between fundamental problems in the philosophical and mathematical theories of mind. It reviews the mathematical concepts of intelligence, including pattern recognition algorithms, neural networks and rule systems. Mathematical difficulties manifest as combinatorial complexity of algorithms are related to the roles of a priori knowledge and adaptive learning, the same issues that have shaped the two-thousand year old debate on the origins of the universal concepts of mind. Combining philosophical and mathematical analyses enables tracing current mathematical (...)
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  316. To Resurrect a Ghost.Donald V. Poochigian - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:186-191.
    Cartesian dualism has largely been replaced by empirical theories of the mind. Central to this development is Gilbert Ryle’s criticism of an immaterial ‘ghost’ inhabiting the material ‘machine’ of the body. A metaphysical self is incredible, and even if it is credible, both it and its manifestation in phenomenal experience are unknowable by others. Failure of this approach occurs when it is realized that existence of the physical is just as incredible as existence of the metaphysical. Free will is also (...)
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  317. Ontomorph: Mind Meets The World.Matja Potr - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:192-197.
    Chunking of the world as done by the mind depends on how the world is. The world is one object, but not a simple one. Morphological content is just right to allow organisms which move in the world to perform the appropriate dynamical chunking, which from the perspective of the higher cognition may appear to consist of several separate objects. Embracing nonreductionism is desirable because organisms are part of the world. At bottom, there is nothing else other than physical stuff. (...)
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  318.  1
    David Hume’s Treatment of Mind.Aaron Preston - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:198-204.
    This paper critically examines Hume’s argument against the knowledge/existence of substantival mind. This denial is rooted in his epistemology which includes a theory of how complex ideas which lack corresponding impressions are manufactured by the imagination, in conjunction with the memory, on the basis of three relations among impressions: resemblance, continuity and constant conjunction. The crux of my critique consists in pointing out that these relations are such that only an enduring, unified agent could interact with them in the way (...)
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  319.  3
    Blindsight and the Role of the Phenomenal Qualities of Visual Perceptions.Ralph Schumacher - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:205-209.
    The aim of this paper is to defend a broad concept of visual perception, according to which it is a sufficient condition for visual perception that subjects receive visual information in a way which enables them to give reliably correct answers about the objects presented to them. According to this view, blindsight, non-epistemic seeing, and conscious visual experience count as proper types of visual perception. This leads to two consequences concerning the role of the phenomenal qualities of visual experiences. First, (...)
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  320. About Specific Processing of Mind at the Period of Revaluation.Sergei Shevstov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:210-214.
    A new situation is always a discovery. It allows us to see old problems in a new light. The philosopher’s main task is to find new situations. The consciousness of the millions of people living in the countries of the former Soviet Union can be considered new in all senses, except one. Nevertheless the exception gives rise to serious difficulties. Essentially, a situation is always new since none of Aristotle’s kinds of identity can be used for it. At the same (...)
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  321.  1
    Consciousness and Intentionality of Action.Pär Sundström - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:215-220.
    One much discussed issue in contemporary philosophy is the relation between consciousness and intentionality. Philosophers debate whether consciousness and intentionality are somehow ‘connected’; whether we have reason to be more optimistic about an ‘objective,’ ‘scientific’ or ‘third person’ ‘account’ of intentionality than about an analogous account of consciousness. This paper is intended as a limited contribution to that debate. I shall be concerned only with the intentionality of action. Not everything which is true of intentionality of action is true of (...)
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  322.  7
    The Depictive Nature of Visual Mental Imagery.Norman Yujen Teng - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:221-227.
    Tye argues that visual mental images have their contents encoded in topographically organized regions of the visual cortex, which support depictive representations; therefore, visual mental images rely at least in part on depictive representations. This argument, I contend, does not support its conclusion. I propose that we divide the problem about the depictive nature of mental imagery into two parts: one concerns the format of image representation and the other the conditions by virtue of which a representation becomes a depictive (...)
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  323. Functional Irrationality.Mary Tjiattas - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:228-233.
    The view that some forms of irrationality may serve a useful purpose is being increasingly entertained despite the disquiet it elicits. The reason for the disquiet is not difficult to discern, for if the view were made good it might threaten the unqualified normative primacy that rationality enjoys in the evaluation of thoughts, beliefs, intentions, decisions, and actions. In terms of the predominant ‘rational explanation’ model, reasons both generate and justify actions, and carrying out the dictates of reason is held (...)
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  324. Why Granny Should Have Read French Philosophers.David F. Wolf - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:234-239.
    In 1983, Fodor’s Modularity of Mind popularized faculty psychology. His theory employs a trichotomous functional architecture to explain cognitive processes, which is very similar to Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of perception. Each theory postulates that perception is a mid-level procedure that operates on transduced information and that perception is independent of our cognitive experience. The two theories differ on whether perception is informationally impenetrable. This difference is essentially an empirical matter. However, I suggest that Merleau-Ponty’s allowance of cross-modal communication within perception explains (...)
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  325. Mathematical Models of Spacetime in Contemporary Physics and Essential Issues of the Ontology of Spacetime.Maciej Gos - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:1-5.
    The general theory of relativity and field theory of matter generate an interesting ontology of space-time and, generally, of nature. It is a monistic, anti-atomistic and geometrized ontology — in which the substance is the metric field — to which all physical events are reducible. Such ontology refers to the Cartesian definition of corporeality and to Plato's ontology of nature presented in the Timaeus. This ontology provides a solution to the dispute between Clark and Leibniz on the issue of the (...)
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  326.  3
    Semantic Realism.Elaine Landry - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:6-12.
    I argue that if we distinguish between ontological realism and semantic realism, then we no longer have to choose between platonism and formalism. If we take category theory as the language of mathematics, then a linguistic analysis of the content and structure of what we say in and about mathematical theories allows us to justify the inclusion of mathematical concepts and theories as legitimate objects of philosophical study. Insofar as this analysis relies on a distinction between ontological and semantic realism, (...)
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  327. The Issue of Experiment in Mathematics.Anna Lemanska - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:13-16.
    The issue of the status of mathematical knowledge a priori or a posteriori has been repeatedly considered by the philosophy of mathematics. At present, the development of computer technology and their enhancement of the everyday work of mathematicians have set a new light on the problem. It seems that a computer performs two main functions in mathematics: it carries out numerical calculations and it presents new areas of research. Thanks to cooperation with the computer, a mathematician can gather different data (...)
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  328. The Problems of Understanding Mathematics.Jarosław Mrozek - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:17-23.
    This paper is an attempt to explain the structure of the process of understanding mathematical objects such as notions, definitions, theorems, or mathematical theories. Understanding is an indirect process of cognition which consists in grasping the sense of what is to be understood, showing itself in the ability to apply what is understood in other circumstances and situations. Thus understanding should be treated functionally: as acquiring sense. We can distinguish three basic planes on which the process of understanding mathematics takes (...)
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  329.  1
    The Neo-Kantians and the ‘Logicist’ Definition of Number.Jarmo Pulkkinen - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:24-29.
    The publication of Russell's The Principles of Mathematics and Couturat's Les principes des mathematiques incited several prominent neo-Kantians to make up their mind about the logicist program. In this paper, I shall discuss the critiques presented by the following neo-Kantians: Paul Natorp, Ernst Cassirer and Jonas Cohn. They argued that Russell's attempt to deduce the number concept from the class concept is a petitio principii. Russell replied that the sense in which every object is 'one' must be distinguished from the (...)
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  330. Reflexive Substantion of an One-Way Ascendancy of Mathematics Over Ethics.Krassimir D. Tarkalanov - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:30-34.
    Russell and Popper are concordant with Plato with respect to the independence of mathematics upon the sensations. Beth shares the opinion of the complete independence between the world of science and mathematics and that of psychology. Essenin-Vol'pin's opinion is of an ascendance of ethics and jurisprudence over mathematics. For the first time, the position of Plato, Russell, and Popper are substantiated in this paper through Hegel's reflexive natural scientific method. The external activation of numbers into interaction through arithmetical operations, adopted (...)
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  331.  1
    The Cartesian Doubt Experiment and Mathematics.Halil Turan - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:35-40.
    The view that Descartes called mathematical propositions into doubt as he impugned all beliefs concerning common-sense ontology by assuming that all beliefs derive from perception seems to rest on the presupposition that the Cartesian problem of doubt concerning mathematics is an instance of the problem of doubt concerning existence of substances. I argue that the problem is not 'whether I am counting actual objects or empty images,' but 'whether I am counting what I count correctly.' Considering Descartes's early works, it (...)
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  332.  2
    A Neo-Formalist Approach to Mathematical Truth.Alan Weir - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 34:41-47.
    I outline a variant on the formalist approach to mathematics which rejects textbook formalism's highly counterintuitive denial that mathematical theorems express truths while still avoiding ontological commitment to a realm of abstract objects. The key idea is to distinguish the sense of a sentence from its explanatory truth conditions. I then look at various problems with the neo-formalist approach, in particular at the status of the notion of proof in a formal calculus and at problems which Gödelian results seem to (...)
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  333. Justification by Reflective Equilibrium in Rawls’s More Recent Work.Michael Anderheiden - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:1-6.
    Famously, John Rawls is regarded as using reflective equilibrium to justify his principles of justice. But the point of justification by RE in Rawls's more recent work is not easily established since he regards his own work as still contractarian. In order to clarify matters, I distinguish between wide and narrow RE, as well as show that wide RE consists of several kinds of narrow RE: RE as a plea for consideration, RE as a constructive procedure of choice, and safe (...)
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  334. Toward a Postmodern Theory of Law.Ana Julia Bozo de Carmona - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:7-12.
    Law at the end of the twentieth century is a practice based on legal-philosophical concepts such as the representational theory of truth, neutrality, universality, and legitimacy. The content of such concepts responds to the tradition of the western cultural paradigm. We share the experience of fragmentation in this cultural unanimity: we live in a world of heterogeneousness and multiplicity that upholds the claims of different concepts of the world and of life shared by dwellers in microspaces. The theory of law (...)
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  335. Judge Posner’s Challenge to the Philosophy of Law.Willard F. Entemann - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:13-17.
    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of Richard Posner's empirical theory of judicial behavior. His theory opposes the conventional view which holds that judges are insulated from external pressures so their judicial decisions will be based upon a disinterested understanding of the law. Since economics holds that all people — including judges — attempt to maximize their utilities, Posner thinks that the conventional view is an embarrassment which presumes judges are not rational. His theory holds that the judicial insulation has (...)
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  336. Universalizability and Philippine Jurisprudence.Emmanuel Q. Fernando - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:18-26.
    The requirement that legal reasoning be universalizable is so unquestioned as a legal doctrine that it is practically axiomatic. Recently, two Philippine Supreme Court cases have been decided in a manner that apparently dispenses with this requirement. I discuss these two cases in the light of the requirement. I conclude that the requirement, rather than being diminished by the two cases, has actually maintained its axiomatic status on the basis that the reasoning in the two cases is deficient: the first (...)
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  337. Hegel and the Russian Constitutional Tradition.Alexander S. Fesenko - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:27-32.
    This paper advances the idea that Russian constitutionalism developed through a reinterpretation of Russian history in terms of Hegel's concept of the World Spirit. Russians implicitly viewed their nation as the embodiment of Hegel's World Spirit, which would have a unique messianic mission for humanity. However, the specifics of Russia's historical development diverged from Hegel's critical stage of ethical development, in which individuals would be mutually recognized as free beings. For this reason, the rights of the individual in Russia were (...)
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  338. The Moral Core of U.S. Constitutional Bans on Hate Speech Codes.Norman Fischer - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:33-37.
    The striking down of the Stanford University Hate Speech Code on February 27, 1995 demonstrated the strong animus in U.S. First Amendment decisions against such codes. Judge Peter Stone, applying the U.S. Supreme Court decision in R.A.V. ruled, first, that the Stanford Code was too broad, and second, that the state cannot censor content by picking out some "fighting words" to prohibit. I argue that the moral basis for banning overbroad codes combines a nonconsequential emphasis on the value of liberty (...)
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  339. The Relation of Rights to the Real.Frederic R. Kellogg - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:38-45.
    This paper approaches Bentham's ontology of rights from a viewpoint influenced by American philosophical pragmatism. I examine how rights are conceived and discussed in relation to the real. Jeremy Bentham maintained that all rights are "fictitious entities." But, in privileging "political" over moral and natural rights, Bentham implies that legal rights stand in a privileged position over natural rights with regard to the relation of mind to the actual. By reason of its enforceability through sanctions, a legal right for Bentham (...)
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  340. Pluralism and the Universality of Rights.Hans Jörg Sandkühler - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:46-56.
    The problem of the coexistence of cultures arises inside modern societies that have a constitutional set-up expressed by 'pluralism.' Their central problem lies in the relationship between individuality and sociality, freedom and order. The function of law is to transform absolute pluralism into a relative pluralism limited by fundamental common interests, thus overcoming the problems that arise from the variety of different views of the world and from different values. In the context of H. Kelsen's Reine Rechtlehre, we ask: 1. (...)
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  341. Logic and Law in Russian and Western Culture.Galina Sorina - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:57-63.
    The purpose of my paper is to compare those texts of Russian and Western thinkers where the relations between logic and law are discussed, and especially to show both the differences and the agreements of their understanding of this connection. Second, I would also like to show and contrast the place of logic and law in Russian and Western systems of education. Third, I propose to clarify some conclusions from my analysis of these relations for understanding the social life of (...)
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  342. How Ontology Saved Free Speech in Cyberspace.Julie Van Camp - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:64-69.
    Reno v. ACLU, the 1997 landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court providing sweeping protection to speech on the Internet, is usually discussed in terms of familiar First Amendment issues. Little noticed in the decision is the significance of the ontological assumptions of the justices in their first visit to cyberspace. I analyze the apparent awareness of the Supreme Court of ontological issues and problems with their approaches. I also argue that their current ontological assumptions have left open the (...)
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  343. A Philosophical Perspective on the Regulation of Business.Barbara Wendling - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:70-75.
    The paper compares the Anglo-American and continental legal systems in parallel with a comparison of the philosophical foundations for each. The defining philosophical distinction between the two legal traditions is shown to influence the way in which criminal justice is handled by the two systems as applied to citizens, and how this influence is carried across to the regulation of business as applied to corporations. The idealistic worldview inherent in the Anglo-American legal system explains its moral presumptions regarding human freedom, (...)
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  344. Dworkin’s Wishful-Thinkers Constitution.Peter S. Wenz - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 33:76-81.
    Developing ideas first put forth in my Abortion Rights as Religious Freedom, I argue against Ronald Dworkin's liberal view of constitutional interpretation while rejecting the originalism of Justices Scalia and Bork. I champion the view that Justice Black presents in his dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut.
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  345.  3
    Davidson and Indeterminacy of Meaning.Maria Baghramian - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 32:1-7.
    According to Quine's thesis of the indeterminacy of translation there are no facts of matter which could determine the choice between two or more incompatible translation schemes which are in accordance with all behavioral evidence. Donald Davidson agrees with Quine that an important degree of indeterminacy will remain after all the behavioral evidence is in, but he believes that this indeterminacy of meaning should not be seen as either mysterious or threatening. In this paper I argue that IM is not (...)
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  346. Information as the Basis for Representation.Janina Buczkowska - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 32:8-13.
    The article presents a proposal to use the notion of information and a model of its transmission for analysis of the structure and basic functions of a sign. This is to point to the relation between information and the basic function of a sign, that is, a 'representation.' A sign is understood, in accordance with Peirce's theory, as a triadic relation of representation. One of the consequences of this theory is limitation of representation to the area of internal objects of (...)
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