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  1. Demonstration and Necessity: A short note on Metaphysics 1015b6-9.Lucas Angioni - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33 (33):1-24.
    I discuss a short string of five sentences in Metaphysics V.5, 1015b6-9 relating demonstration to necessity. My proposal is that Aristotle focuses his attention on the demonstration as a demonstration. Other interpretations reduce the necessity in question to the modality of the component sentences of the demonstrations (the conclusion and the premises). My view does not deny that the modality of the component sentences is important, but takes seriously the idea that a demonstration itself should be understood as necessary—as not (...)
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  2. Aristóteles. Primeiros Analíticos 1.1-7. Apresentação, tradução e notas.Wellington D. Almeida & Mateus R. F. Ferreira - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:1-42.
  3.  27
    Wearing Virtue: Plato’s Republic V, 449a-457b and the Socratic Debate on Women’s Nature.Cinzia Arruzza - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03306-03306.
    In Plato’s _Republic_ V, 449a-457b, Socrates argues that the guardian class of Kallipolis will comprise both men and women and that women with the appropriate nature ought to receive the same education and fulfill the same tasks as their male counterparts. In this article I argue, against competing interpretations of this claim as dependent either on the necessity of abolishing the oikos or on eugenic principles, that Socrates’ argument ought to be understood as a genuine argument about women’s natural capabilities (...)
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  4.  12
    Electra Tyrannicide: Gender in the Reception of a Heroic Deliberation in Sophocles’ Tragedy.Agatha Pitombo Bacelar - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03308-03308.
    At the third episode of Sophocles’ Electra, the heroine, believing that her brother Orestes is dead, invites her sister Chrisothemis to a plan to kill Aegisthus, in a speech that recalls fifth century Athenian’s public honors to the tyrannicide couple, Harmodius and Aristogiton, and thus presents the two sisters as a kind of democratic champions (v. 947-989). This paper compares the treatment given by contemporary Commentaries to Sophocles’ Electrato this speech with recent gender-oriented studies of Athenian citizenship, in order to (...)
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  5.  9
    Gender and Antiquity Dossier: problems and methods.Agatha Pitombo Bacelar & Letticia Batista Rodrigues Leite - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03305-03305.
    Presentation of Dossier Gender and Antiquity: problems and methods.
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  6.  11
    Xenophon and the Cynegeticus: the construction of the ideal Greek hunter.Thiago Biazotto - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03321-03321.
    Starting from the hunting treatise Cynegeticus, assigned to Xenophon, this article seeks to reflect on the way in which the construction of the ideal hunter of the polis described by the Attic author. This aim will aboard both practical terms - equipment, prey, methods of hunting conducting etc - and moral terms, taking in account the numerous attacks made against the sophists throughout the booklet. To accomplish this aim, the present text includes a brief recapitulation of Xenophon's life, the most (...)
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  7.  42
    Slave Emotion. Anger, Reason and Moral Responsibility in Aristotelian Ethics.Esteban Bieda - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03322-03322.
    In the present work, I will review how Aristotle understood the connection between reason and emotion - particularly, angry actions - in order to demonstrate that it is due to the presence of intellectual factors that emotions become ethically relevant and not merely an uncontrolled reaction. Then, I will summarize Aristotle's repeated analogies between reason as the master and anger as the slave to explain their connection. My specific contribution to the topic will be to reverse this analogy and, instead (...)
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  8.  39
    Praecepta, decreta and happiness in Schopenhauer and Seneca: a short comparative study.George Felipe Bernardes Barbosa Borges - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03328-03328.
    There is an important part in Schopenhauer's bibliography dedicated to reflections on a good life. Between 1826 and 1829, the German philosopher started to think about a eudemonology, an unfinished project, which relied on the rescue of the thought of ancient philosophers. In his discussions there is a great appreciation for Stoic thinking in order to produce a life as little unhappy as possible. Therefore, it seems relevant to revisit Schopenhauer's ideas and compare them with Seneca, who focused on the (...)
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  9.  14
    Diagoras of Melo and Theodore of Cyrene: two atheists?Giovanni Casertano - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03303-03303.
    Diagoras and Theodorus are two of the atheists remembered in several catalogues of atheists in Antiquity, the first of which dates back to the 2nd century BC, and from then on invariably referredto by the ancients and to the present day as atheists. In fact, the atheism condemned in Athens had its roots in the pre-Socratic philosophical and scientific culture, whose fundamentally "materialistic" imprint is authoritatively testified to by Aristotle (MetaphysicsI 983b5-10). The philosophies of Anaximander, Anaximenes, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, Diogenes (...)
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  10.  14
    La botte piena o la moglie ubriaca? Vinho e gênero na Roma antiga.Marina Régis Cavicchioli - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:e03309.
    Os modos como cada sociedade ou grupo pondera sobre o consumo do álcool e seus efeitos nos múltiplos contextos culturais é bastante distinto, em especial quando os discursos se referem a este consumo com as atenções voltadas aos gêneros. Assim, as associações entre o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e as alterações dos comportamentos sexuais de cada gênero, embora estejam presentes desde a antiguidade, devem ser entendidas nos contextos culturais em que foram produzidas, de modo a compreender como cada grupo social (...)
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  11.  16
    Review of Flores-Júnior, O. La vie facile. Une lecture du cynisme ancien, Paris, Librairie philosophique J. Vrin. (2021). [REVIEW]Maxime Chapuis & Olimar Flores-Júnior - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03304-03304.
    Review of Flores-Júnior, O. La vie facile. Une lecture du cynisme ancien, Paris, Librairie philosophique J. Vrin. (2021).
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  12.  22
    The gap between Parmenides’ argument on Being and his cosmology in the Aristotelian account.Bruno Loureiro Conte - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03325-03325.
    In some of the Aristotelian accounts, Parmenides’ thesis is construed in opposition to the philosophy of nature; on the other hand, he is also depicted, in a different context, as a cosmologist, to whom the Stagirite (and a long tradition afterwards, ending with Simplicius) ascribes a theory of becoming and its principles. In this paper, I exhibit and analyse the relevant passages from Physics I 1-3, Metaphysics I 3 and 5 and On generation and corruption I 3, providing an interpretation (...)
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  13.  21
    The reality of the not-true in Plato’s Sophist.Nestor-Luis Cordero - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03316-03316.
    The definition of the sophist as "image-maker" allows Plato to add to the novelties he presents in the _Sophist_ two topics he hadn't deepened in his previous dialogues: (a) a "definition" of being (247e) and (b) the influence this position will have on the relationship between image and truth. From a first definition of the image proposed by Theaetetus in 240a we deduce that, even if it is not true, it is "really" (_óntos_) an image, which does not coincide with (...)
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  14.  23
    Aristotle. Prior Analytics 1.1-7. Introduction and translation.Wellington Damasceno de Almeida & Mateus R. F. Ferreira - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03331-03331.
    Translation of the initial chapters of Aristotle’s Prior Analytics into Portuguese and introduction, which addresses interpretative disagreements and translation choices.
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  15.  13
    Epimenides' midday sleep.Rogerio G. de Campos - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03315-03315.
    From the scene of the singing cicadas in the _Phaedrus_, we will show the affinities between the mention of the dangerous sleep at noon (_Phdr_. 258e6-259d8) and a mythical episode in the life of Epimenides. Next, we will look at the possible affinities between the description of Dionysian madness (_Phdr_. 244d5-245a1) and the type of divination practiced by Epimenides of Crete (DK 3 B 1-25). From these approaches, we intend to describe and elucidate the common imaginary with which Plato elaborates (...)
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  16.  20
    Review & Reply. Review of Gonçalves, R.T. (tr.) Lucrécio. Sobre a Natureza das Coisas(2021).Renata Cazarini de Freitas & Rodrigo Tadeu Gonçalves - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03302-03302.
    Review & Reply. Review of Gonçalves, R.T. (tr.) Lucrécio. Sobre a Natureza das Coisas(2021).
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  17.  15
    “My dear Phaedrus, where is it you are going, and where have you come from?”: An Interpretation of the Opening Line of the Phaedrus.Pedro Mauricio Garcia Dotto - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03319-03319.
    I argue that the opening line of the _Phaedrus_ proleptically encapsulates the major themes of the dialogue and that paying attention to the opening line enables us to strengthen the identification of psychagogy as the key unifying thread of the whole dialogue. In particular, I argue that the opening line foreshadows the quarrel between Lysias and Socrates over the practical guidance of Phaedrus’ soul; the prominence of friendship in the philosophical form of life; the pertinence of Socrates’ one-on-one, custom-built speeches, (...)
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  18.  11
    Women, Economics and Finance in Ancient Rome: Old Challenges and Current Issues.Deivid Valério Gaia - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03310-03310.
    The image of the Roman woman, which has survived to this day and imposed itself almost as the only possibility for the ancient scholarship, is the domiseda: the housewife, mother, and spinner. In addition to the investigations of this traditional depiction, which steered the research on Roman women, the issues of our time and the advances in scientific research constantly bring us new perspectives, approaches, and problems around this object of study. This inevitably motivates us to question the role of (...)
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  19.  12
    The labyrinth technique in Aethiopica of Heliodorus.Geruza de Souza Graebin - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03327-03327.
    Heliodorus is known for his elaborate narrative technique. This effect is due to ekphrasis, a resource widely used by sophists and recommended in textbooks of rhetoric (Progymnasmata). In the first block of the work, Heliodorus uses this resource, but not randomly. There is an image, literally or metaphorically repeating itself: the labyrinth. Our intention is to demonstrate that the repetitions have a commonality, in addition to a strong hermeneutical appeal. Moreover, the labyrinths are introduced in the part where the narrative (...)
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  20.  24
    The plane tree and the singing cicadas in Plato’s Phaedrus: the environment of dialogue.Henrique Guimarães - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03317-03317.
    This article aims to rethink the meaning of “nature” and the human in Plato, more specifically through some examples contained in the _Phaedrus_, a rare dialogue further away from the city. Phaedrus and Socrates leave Athens on a path outside the walls, past the Ilisus stream and the breeze of the woods, and end up sitting in the shadows of trees full of singing cicadas. What is the meaning of this scenario in the construction o the text? Is it possible (...)
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  21.  10
    Embryon and kyema on Aristotle’s Biological Works.Francisco Iversen - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03318-03318.
    Although there are those who understand that the debates about the morality of the interruption of pregnancy are newly born, when analyzing some passages of the classical sources, the antiquity of such discussions is revealed. Likewise, as the legal, political and moral conclusions in such respects are often based on a metaphysical, anthropological, theological or biological position, it is necessary to enter these fields in order to fully explore the different edges of such a complicated object. In this way, this (...)
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  22.  10
    Review of SEBILLOTTE CUCHET, V. (2022). Artémise : une femme capitaine de vaisseaux dans l`Antiquité grecque. Paris, Fayard. [REVIEW]Letticia Batista Rodrigues Leite - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03312-03312.
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  23.  13
    Novas abordagens para o estudo da História das Mulheres: entre os gêneros, a igualdade e a liberdade; Resenha de Ancona, R.; Tsouvala, G. (eds.) New Directions in the Study of Women in the Greco-Roman World (2021). [REVIEW]Priscilla Gontijo Leite & Marina Pelluci Duarte Mortoza - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:e03301.
    Resenha de Ancona, R.; Tsouvala, G. (eds.) New Directions in the Study of Women in the Greco-Roman World (2021).
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  24.  16
    What is Socrates’ hypothesis? A proposal for reading Men. 97e2-98b5.Emanuele Maffi - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03313-03313.
    Recently, some scholars have authoritatively claimed the idea that _Men. _97e2-98b5 is a strong criticism of any epistemological perspective based on an additive model of knowledge, in which knowledge is conceived as a form of opinion with the addition of something else. In this article I try to show that Plato's aim is not to criticize this model of knowledge but to pose, in the form of a hypothesis which has to be verified in other texts, the main problem of (...)
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  25.  13
    Non casas, sed etiam domos fundatas: the origins of architecture from Vitruvius.Leandro Manenti - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03326-03326.
    This work discusses the origin of the architect and the architecture presented in the treatise _De Architectura_ by Vitruvius and its association with imitation. It is discussed the Vitruvian notion of the progression of humanity and its connections with the architect and the establishment of Architecture as the science of the architect. The proposal of training for professionals from various areas is analyzed, which would guarantee, according to Vitruvius, a generalist training and at the same time specialized in their field. (...)
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  26. The Dialectical Syllogism in Aristotle’s Topics.Fernando Martins Mendonça - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:1-34.
    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to delimitate what the dialectical syllogism looks like in Aristotle’s Topics. Aristotle never gave an example of a dialectical syllogism, but we have some clues spread over books I and VIII of the Topics which make it possible to understand at least what within a dialectical debate is a dialectical syllogism. The interpretation advanced here distinguishes the logical order of the dialectical argumentation from the order of the debate. This distinction enables us (...)
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  27.  29
    Aristotle “Unsung Hero” of Emergency? Psychological Hylomorphism and Supervenience Thesis.Giulia Mingucci - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03314-03314.
    This paper addresses the contemporary thesis of psychophysical supervenience and its application to the interpretation of Aristotle’s psychological hylomorphism. It will be shown that the supervenience thesis, in its different versions, fails to explain the essential unity of the soul and of the psychophysical compound. Arguments will be provided on the basis of Aristotle’s discussion of the harmony theory of the soul (_de An_. I 4) and more generally on his methodological claims on the definition of the soul and of (...)
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  28.  20
    Thought, Memory, and Being in Plato’s Sophist.Anthony Pasqualoni - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03323-03323.
    Thinking as described in Plato’s Sophist undergoes two basic changes: it progresses by shifting from one to many and it regresses by shifting from many to one. The change from one to many is generative; the change from many to one is reductive. These opposing changes provide a tension for thinking, and like Heraclitus’ bow string, this tension gives thinking its efficacy. Thinking would wander and accumulate endlessly unless it regresses from many to one. Yet, thinking would stagnate if it (...)
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  29.  18
    The Distinction between Philosophy and the kata philosophian logos in Stoicism.José Luis Ponce Pérez - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03329-03329.
    This article answer what could be the distinction that the Stoics established between philosophy and the kata philosophian logos, according to the report by D.L., VII, 39-41. In this place I distance from the scholars who consider that the distinction is ontological, this is, that the kata philosophian logos refers to the discursive presentation of Stoic dogmas, whose nature is incorporeal, while the philosophy refers to a disposition of the soul, whose nature is corporeal. I rather propose that both are (...)
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  30.  12
    On the platonic concept of to metaxy: theory of perception and cultual experience.Rodolfo José Rocha Rachid - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:03324-03324.
    In this paper I intend to examine the notion of intermediate in Plato´s dialogues, especially Theaetetus and Symposium. In the first section, I investigate previously in Theaetetus the notion of to metaxy as the result of mixture between percipient and perceived, by which the realm of phenomenon can be explained by the third genre, identified as to metaxy, born from a certain kind of dynamis. In the second section, I examine the mentioned notion s Symposium, expressed by Diotima of Mantineia (...)
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  31.  8
    ¿Nacemos de mujer? El tópico literario del genos gynaikon y su repercusión en Platón y Aristóteles.Valeria Sonna - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 33:e03307.
    El decir que todos y todas hemos nacido de mujer parece una perogrullada. Esta es, como lo expresa Rich, la única experiencia unificadora, innegable, compartida por mujeres y hombres: aquellos meses que pasamos dentro del cuerpo de una mujer, desarrollándonos. Sin embargo, es usual encontrar en el discurso cívico de las ciudades griegas, la idea de que la mujer no tiene relación alguna con el origen de la especie. Las mujeres son con frecuencia representadas como un grupo separado y cerrado (...)
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  32.  13
    “Cutting Them Down to Size”: Humbling and Protreptic in Plato’s Lysis.Trevor Anderson & Reid Comstock - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-03238.
    This article examines the role that humbling plays in Socratic practice. Specifically, we consider how Socrates humbles his interlocutors in order to turn them towards the pursuit of philosophical friendship. We argue against a standard interpretation of humbling in the Lysis, which holds that Socrates humbles Lysis by exposing his own ignorance to him at 210d. Instead, we argue that the humbling occurs not when Lysis is (allegedly) made aware of his own ignorance, but at 222d near the end of (...)
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  33.  27
    Egoism, Utility, and Friendship in Plato’s Lysis.Irina Deretić - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-032341.
    Many scholars consider that Socrates in the Lysis holds that friendship and love are egoistic and utility-based. In this paper, I will argue against those readings of Plato’s Lysis. I will analyze how Socrates treats utility and egoism in the many different kinds of friendship he discusses in the dialogue, from parental love, like-to-like, and unlike-to-unlike relationships, to the accounts of friendship rooted in the human relation to the good and the ways in which we can belong with some other (...)
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  34.  13
    The akin vs. the good in Plato’s Lysis.David Jennings - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-03239.
    The two most compelling accounts of the friend in Plato’s Lysis are that the neither good nor bad is friend of the good and that the akin is friend of the akin. In this paper I challenge a common interpretation that these accounts are the same, similar to, or compatible with one another. I argue instead that the two accounts are incompatible because they rely on opposing assumptions about the nature of desire and its relationship to need and about friendship (...)
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  35.  8
    Philia as Fellowship in Plato’s Lysis.Andrew Payne - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-03240.
    Socrates in the Lysis discusses philia and the conditions under which two or more people can be said to engage in this relationship. Many commentators take Socrates to be attempting to discover how human beings enter into the relationship of friendship, a relationship characterized by reciprocal affection, altruistic concern and personal intimacy. Other readers of the Lysis see in the dialogue’s investigation of philia a discussion of desire and attraction at the most general level. On this view, philia is one (...)
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  36.  14
    Plato’s Lysis and the Erotics of Philia.David Roochnik - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-03242.
    This paper argues that the account of friendship (philia) present in Plato's dialogue the Lysis is rife with the disruptive and maddening force of eros. By its end it is no longer clear whether the familiar sorts of personal relationships that we typically count as friendships, and which Aristotle discusses with great sensitivity and appreciation in the Nicomachean Ethics, can be meaningfully sustained. To support this thesis, the paper analyzes each of the seven, relatively self-contained arguments Socrates offers. In addition, (...)
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  37.  11
    Aporetic Discourse and Protreptic in Plato’s Lysis.Jan Szaif - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-03237.
    In the Lysis, Socrates claims to be looking for an account of what kind of quality in another person or object stimulates friendship or love (philia). He goes through a series of proposals, refuting each in turn. In the end, he throws us back to the point from where the arguments started, declaring an aporetic outcome. What is the purpose of this apparently futile and circular inquiry? Most interpreters try to reconstruct a theory of friendship or love from the arguments (...)
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  38.  19
    Introduction to Studies on Plato’s Lysis.Jan Szaif & David Jennings - 2023 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 32:e-03236.
    Plato’s Lysis shows Socrates in conversation with two boys he has met at a wrestling school, Lysis and Menexenus. Their debate revolves around the notion of philia, seeking to pin down the nature of this relation, who or what takes part in it, and what causes it. The word philiahas usually been translated as “friendship” but has a wider application in this dialogue, as it encompasses a variety of friendly and loving attitudes toward both people and things. The kinds of (...)
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