Year:

  1. Hanlon’s Razor.Nathan Ballantyne & Peter H. Ditto - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:309-331.
    “Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity”—so says Hanlon’s Razor. This principle is designed to curb the human tendency toward explaining other people’s behavior by moralizing it. We ask whether Hanlon’s Razor is good or bad advice. After offering a nuanced interpretation of the principle, we critically evaluate two strategies purporting to show it is good advice. Our discussion highlights important, unsettled questions about an idea that has the potential to infuse greater humility and civility into (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  6
    Countering Servility Through Pride and Humility.Heather Battaly - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:333-370.
    This article argues that an interlocutor’s deference and open-mindedness can indicate servility rather than virtuous humility. Section 1 evaluates an influential philosophical analysis of the virtue of humility and two psychological measures, all of which emphasize the contrast between humility and arrogance. Section 2 develops a philosophical analysis of servility, building on the limitations-owning view. It argues that servility is an unwillingness or inability to be attentive to and own one’s strengths, and a disposition to be overly attentive to and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3.  10
    Doubt as a Political Virtue.Quassim Cassam - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:371-391.
    This article explicates the notion of doubt and the relationship of doubt to belief and conviction. It distinguishes three types of political virtue—leadership, systemic, and corrective—and considers whether doubt is a political virtue in any of these three senses. It is argued that while doubt is not a leadership virtue, it is a systemic and a corrective virtue. Specifically, it is potentially an antidote to methods, ideological, and psychological extremism. A distinction is drawn between extremism and forms of radicalism that (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Kantian Fallibilism: Knowledge, Certainty, Doubt.Andrew Chignell - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:99-128.
    For Kant, knowledge involves certainty. If “certainty” requires that the grounds for a given propositional attitude guarantee its truth, then this is an infallibilist view of epistemic justification. Such a view says you can’t have epistemic justification for an attitude unless the attitude is also true. Here I want to defend an alternative fallibilist interpretation. Even if a subject has grounds that would be sufficient for knowledge if the proposition were true, the proposition might not be true. And so there (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  12
    Doubting Perspectives and Creative Doubt.Julianne Chung - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:1-25.
    Doubt is often considered to be an enemy of creativity. But, might it be its friend, too? We see, in the Zhuangzi, a number of explorations that point toward an interesting affirmative answer to this question. To explain how the text can be interpreted as suggesting such an answer, this paper proceeds in two parts. First, in section one, I clarify what is meant by “doubt” for the purposes of this paper, as well as several ways in which it can (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  11
    Doubts, Philosophy, and Therapy.Annalisa Coliva - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:155-177.
    There is nowadays a tendency, to be dated back to Gordon Baker’s reading, to interpret the later Wittgenstein as proposing a thoroughly therapeutic view of philosophy. Accordingly, he was not dealing with philosophical problems to show how they originated in a misunderstanding of our language. For that would have presupposed his advancing theses about how language works. Rather, his therapeutic method was in the service of liberating philosophers from the kind of intellectual prejudices that would prompt them to ask philosophical (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Banal Skepticism and the Errors of Doubt: On Ephecticism About Rape Accusations.Georgi Gardiner - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:393-421.
    Ephecticism is the tendency towards suspension of belief. Epistemology often focuses on the error of believing when one ought to doubt. The converse error—doubting when one ought to believe—is relatively underexplored. This essay examines the errors of undue doubt. I draw on the relevant alternatives framework to diagnose and remedy undue doubts about rape accusations. Doubters tend to invoke standards for belief that are too demanding, for example, and underestimate how farfetched uneliminated error possibilities are. They mistake seeing how incriminating (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  16
    Doubt and the Revolutionary.Alexander Guerrero - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:423-456.
    So, you want to start a revolution. There is something significant in the world around you that is wrong: unjust, oppressive, unfair, unequal. Half measures won’t suffice. Something dramatic, revolutionary, is required. You have ideas. You might have a plan. But although you are certain of the wrong around you, you are not certain of the path forward. You have some doubt about the plan, whether it will work, its moral costs, and whether there are problems you cannot yet see. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  23
    Kant on Doubt and Error.Andrea Kern - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:129-154.
    Kant’s conception of the relation between knowledge and doubt stands opposed to much of contemporary epistemology. For Kant denies that it is possible for one to have knowledge of how things are without having a ground for one’s judgment that guarantees its truth. Knowledge, according to him, is judgment that is based on a ground that the judger recognizes to guarantee the truth of her judgment. A judgment that is based on such a ground, trivially, excludes any doubt the judger (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  25
    Is Pyrrhonian Suspension Incompatible with Doubt?Diego E. Machuca - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:27-55.
    The Pyrrhonian skeptic’s stance, as described by Sextus Empiricus, is in good part defined by his suspending judgment or belief about all the matters he has so far investigated. Most interpreters of Pyrrhonism maintain that it is a mistake to understand this form of skepticism in terms of doubt because suspension as conceived of by the Pyrrhonist is markedly different from the state of doubt. In this article, I expound the reasons that have been offered in support of that prevailing (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  2
    Evidence Sensitivity as a Heuristic for Doubt.N. Ángel Pinillos - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:223-239.
    Sensitivity-type principles are prominent in epistemology. They have the promise to explain our intuitive and considered reactions to a wide range of important cases in everyday life, science and philosophy. Despite this promise, philosophers have raised a number of very serious objections to the principles. Accordingly, I propose a different type of sensitivity account which, I believe, gets around these serious objections. An important feature of the new approach is that the principle I propose need not be true. Rather, it (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  18
    Truth, Inquiry, Doubt.Duncan Pritchard - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:505-524.
    What is the relationship between inquiry and doubt? Understanding this relationship involves confronting a range of questions. These include: what is required to motivate inquiry, what does it take to legitimately settle inquiry, and what is the goal of inquiry? These questions will be approached via the consideration of an influential proposal regarding the relationship between belief, doubt and inquiry offered in recent work by Jane Friedman. In critiquing this proposal we will be able to better understand what motivates a (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13.  3
    Primordial Realism.J. L. Schellenberg - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:483-504.
    Here I show how thinking of inquiry as immature can illuminate problems about metaphysical and scientific realism. I begin with the question whether human beings at the very beginning of systematic inquiry who held themselves to be thus situated, temporally speaking, and came to recognize their inability to prove or probabilify the truth of metaphysical realism would have been justified in believing or accepting metaphysical realism even so. Drawing on broadly Wittgensteinian ideas I defend an affirmative answer. Then I extrapolate (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  3
    Introspective Distinguishability.Genia Schönbaumsfeld - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:241-256.
    It is generally thought that if introspective distinguishability were available, it would provide an answer to scepticism about perceptual knowledge by enabling us to tell the difference between a good case perceptual experience and a bad kind. This paper challenges this common assumption by showing that even if ID were available, it would not advance our case against scepticism. The conclusion to draw from this result is not to concede to scepticism, however, but rather to give up on the idea (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  8
    Self-Deceptive Inquiry.Dion Scott-Kakures - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:457-482.
    I develop the claim that paradigmatic cases of self-deceptive inquiry and belief-formation result from cognitive disorientation. In cognitive disorientation, the data, experiences, and practices we make use of in typical inquiry lead us awry in systematic fashion. The self-deceiver encounters a puzzle or a threat to her picture of the world; this doubt or uncertainty gives rise to questions she struggles to settle. Drawing on the theory of cognitive dissonance, I show that while taking herself to be engaged in the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  8
    Skepticism, Revisionary Metaphysics, and Why Epistemic Akrasia May Be Good for You.David Shatz - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:257-290.
    One of the most salient features of epistemology in the past two decades—in fact, perhaps the most salient—is the explosion of literature on how higher-order evidence impacts the rationality of one’s first-order beliefs. Higher-order evidence is, primarily, evidence about what one’s evidence supports. An important concept in the debate is epistemic akrasia. Roughly, the akrates believes: “p, but my evidence does not support p.” Criticisms of epistemic akrasia have focused on certain sorts of mundane examples. They have generally scanted the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  17
    Skepticism and Default Assumptions.Ernest Sosa - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:291-307.
    A telic virtue-theoretic approach to gnoseology is developed. Two new concepts are introduced: the concept of default assumptions, and the concept of secure knowledge full well. A default assumption for a given domain of human performance is an assumption that agents in that domain can make with no negligence or recklessness as they perform in the domain. Knowledge full well is judgment or representation that attains success aptly, and whose aptness is also attained aptly. However, secure knowledge full well requires (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  6
    Perceptual, Reflective, and Speculative Doubt.Anand Jayprakash Vaidya - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:77-98.
    In this paper I present the distinction between perceptual, reflective, and speculative doubt by engaging with the work of early naiyāyikas. I argue that the definition of the causes of doubt offered by Gautama Akṣapāda in the Nyāya-Sūtra, and commented upon by later naiyāyikas leads to a distinction between perceptual and reflective doubt, but not to a notion of speculative doubt. I then move on to critically assess J.N. Mohanty’s comparison of Descartes’s method of doubt with the Nyāya theory of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  2
    Success.J. J. Valberg - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:525-539.
    The main thesis of this paper is that we have an irrational tendency to be over-impressed by success. The thesis is discussed mainly with reference to examples drawn from sport, where the role played by luck is crucial; but a brief attempt is made to generalize the thesis to other areas of life.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  11
    No More This Than That.Katja Maria Vogt - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:57-76.
    In the terms of ancient epistemology, Pyrrho is a dogmatist, not a skeptic, simply on account of putting forward a metaphysical theory. His most contested claim is that things are indifferent, unmeasured, and indeterminate—or, on a competing reconstruction, that things are indifferentiable, unmeasurable, and indeterminable. This paper argues that Pyrrho’s position, which I call Pyrrhonian Indeterminacy, belongs to a rich tradition of revisionist metaphysics that includes ancient atomism, flux metaphysics, Plato’s analysis of becoming, and today’s discussions of indeterminacy and vagueness. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  12
    No Shadow of a Doubt.Michael Williams - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:179-208.
    On the standard reading of On Certainty, Wittgenstein’s fundamental idea is that primitive certainty is categorially distinct from knowledge. Since primitive certainties shape our understanding of doubt or justification, our relation to such certainties is necessarily non-epistemic: they cannot be things we know. This ‘Wittgensteinian’ perspective on knowledge and certainty has come to be known as “hinge epistemology, after one of Wittgenstein’s striking metaphors: “The questions that we raise and our doubts depend on the fact that some propositions are not (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  4
    Metasemantic Relationism.Seth Yalcin - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:541-560.
    Consider a language incorporating a mirror-image form of assertion, where the norm is to express what you take to be false rather than what you take to be true. Why aren’t ordinary languages like that? Why do we generally assert what we take to be true rather than what we take to be false? If Lewis and Massey are right, there is a sense in which the question is based on a mistake, and in which English could be described either (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Perplexity and Philosophical Progress.Helen De Cruz - 2021 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 45:209-221.
    Perplexity is an epistemic emotion with deep philosophical significance. In ancient Greek philosophy, it is identified as a catalyst for philosophical progress and personal philosophical transformation. In psychological terms, perplexity is the phenomenological sense of lacking immersion in the world, a state of puzzlement and alienation from one’s everyday surroundings. What could make such an emotion philosophically useful? To answer this question, I examine the role of perplexity in Jane Addams’s political theory and ethics. Addams, a social reformer and American (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues