Year:

  1.  7
    Science Is Just Another Opinion: Making Medical Stories Count Post–COVID-19.Neal Baer - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):480-493.
    How can we as health-care providers, along with those committed to advocating for health-care equity, draw on our work to tell stories that can make a difference in people’s lives? As a pediatrician and television writer, I’m in the unique position to promote public health through dramatic television stories that are grounded in data. By telling emotionally compelling stories that are informed by peer-reviewed research, we can improve public health, particularly in these COVID-19 times, when conspiracies and anecdotes swirl around (...)
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  2.  3
    The Congress "Yes to Life": A Hand Offered in Dialogue.Carlo V. Bellieni - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):506-508.
    You can’t build if you don’t dwell first. This sentence is counterintuitive. It is usually thought that first you build, and then you dwell where you have built. But if you don’t dwell where you want to build, you may not understand the landscape, and the building will be weak or crippled.In Latin, “to dwell” is habitare, which comes from the verb habere, “to own.” The phrase “You can’t build if you don’t dwell first” can be considered the leitmotif of (...)
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  3.  4
    Haunted Doctors.Catherine Belling - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):466-479.
    Saggar recalled a patient who … asked, “Doctor, do you really think I have COVID?” At that point, Saggar wasn’t sure. He told him they were being “extra cautious.” About 10 days later, the patient was dead. “That still haunts me,” Saggar said.Infectious disease specialist Dr. Suraj Saggar says he is “haunted”. We cannot tell precisely what haunts him: the death of his patient, or his in-ability, 10 days earlier, to say for certain whether the patient was infected with the (...)
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  4.  3
    Pope Francis and Perinatal Palliative Care: Advancing the Culture of Mercy.Thomas M. Bender - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):512-525.
    In May 2019, an international conference on perinatal palliative care entitled “Yes to Life! Taking Care of the Precious Gift of Life in Its Frailty” was held in Rome. It was organized by the Italian nonprofit foundation Il Cuore in Una Goccia and the Vatican’s Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life. Pope Francis greeted the participants personally and delivered an address describing the goals and practices of perinatal palliative care as being in keeping with the teachings of the Roman Catholic (...)
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  5.  2
    The Natal Journey and Perinatal Palliative Care.Brian S. Carter - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):549-552.
    Pope Francis beautifully describes how the perinatal journey starts in mystery. Doctors may forget this. We focus on the science that may partially explain how conception and implantation occur, how the placenta functions, and the gradual development of embryo and fetus. But science cannot address that meta-physical—or spiritual—reality. The question of “why?” is never too far away from the minds of expectant parents. Why now? Why me? Why did my baby develop these terrible problems? Why is my life being challenged (...)
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  6.  1
    Three Kinds of Humility in Bioethics Certification.Larry R. Churchill - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):420-428.
    Two decades ago, I wrote an essay expressing my skepticism about the nascent movement to certify bioethics consultants. My concerns were numerous. For example, I worried that the move toward certification would give too much weight to moral theory and neglect the importance of the less formal moral reasoning of patients and their families. I was also concerned that the effort to certify competence, complete with standardized testing, would be largely self-promotional and make unfounded claims about who has the capacity (...)
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  7.  1
    The Pope and the Possibilities of the Path Less Traveled.George E. Hardart - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):544-548.
    Pope Francis’s Address to the participants of the conference “Yes to Life! Taking Care of the Precious Gift of Life in its Frailty” that was held at the Vatican in May 2019 powerfully touches on multiple important aspects of the care of children experiencing “extreme frailty.” It is a deeply moral account of the challenges that health-care providers, families, and patients confront in the technologically sophisticated and confusing world of modern medicine, particularly when seen through the prism of what he (...)
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  8.  2
    Address to Participants in the Conference "Yes to Life".Pope Francis - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):502-505.
    Your Eminences,Dear Brother Bishops and Priests,Dear Brothers and Sisters,Good morning and welcome. I greet Cardinal Farrell and I thank him for his words of introduction. My greeting also goes to all taking part in this international Conference, “Yes to Life! Taking Care of the Precious Gift of Life in its Frailty,” organized by the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life, and by the Foundation Il Cuore in una Goccia, one of the groups that work daily in our world to welcome (...)
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  9.  1
    Covert Consciousness and Covert Ethics.Laura Guidry-Grimes - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):553-569.
    Clinical and ethical reasoning often follows the grooves, the forks, the paths of decision trees. Health-care professionals and clinical ethicists can come to rely on them, especially in intricate cases with complex problems that need to be broken down into analyzable steps. Despite their usefulness, decision trees can lead everyone astray if they are rooted in outdated medicine. In his 2015 book, Rights Come to Mind: Brain Injury, Ethics, and the Struggle for Consciousness, Joseph Fins illuminates the errors of common (...)
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  10.  2
    Birth Narratives, Babies, and the Catholic Moral Imagination: Informing Influences on the Pope’s Address.John Hardt - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):539-543.
    In Pope Francis’s address entitled “Yes to Life! Taking Care of the Precious Gift of Life in Its Frailty,” he offers a characteristically colloquial and sometimes blunt argument for the protection and care of infants born with either life-limiting or life-ending diagnoses. His argument is framed in light of the Roman Catholic Church’s teaching on the sanctity of life from conception to natural death and its prohibition against abortion. It speaks to the need to support both fetal therapies aimed at (...)
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  11.  4
    Varieties of Experiences of Care.Arthur Kleinman - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):458-465.
    Thomas Ogden, writing as a practicing psychoanalyst for other practicing analysts, distinguishes between epistemological psychoanalysis and ontological psychoanalysis, while recognizing that the two approaches often overlap. Epistemological psychoanalysis has to do with assisting patients with the interpretation of significant meanings in their psyches, which in turn has an effect on their symptoms, other problems they may be facing, and their understanding of their own lives. Ontological psychoanalysis is about helping individuals transform themselves so that they are, whatever meanings they may (...)
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  12.  4
    When Physicians Don’T Know.Julia Knopes - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):444-457.
    Physicians are trained to an expert degree in the scientific knowledge and skills of biomedicine. Despite this training, however, physicians’ professional lives are rife with instances in which they do not know. They must operate adeptly in the face of numerous uncertainties, as the extensiveness of the scientific literature, unknown mechanisms of pharmaceuticals or biological processes, and variations in patients’ etiologies and anatomies render it impossible to know everything. Similarly, physicians study vast swaths of scientific concepts and clinical skills throughout (...)
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  13.  1
    “Yes to Life” and the Expansion of Perinatal Hospice.Amy Kuebelbeck - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):526-531.
    For those of us gathered expectantly in the frescoed 16th-century Clementine Hall in Vatican City on a brilliant spring morning in May 2019, it was a profound moment when Pope Francis spoke the words “perinatal hospice”. I wish all the medical professionals who have pioneered and developed this care over the last 25 years could have been in that majestic hall with us. Their cumulative work—along with the poignant stories of many families—is inspiring people around the globe and helping more (...)
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  14.  3
    Yes to Life: An Opportunity for Partnership Between Medicine and Religion.John D. Lantos - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):509-511.
    In May 2019, the Vatican held a conference in Rome that focused on perinatal palliative care. In these troubled times, that would seem to be an arcane topic for the church to address. The speeches at the conference made it clear why the topic was timely and relevant. Speakers included scientists, clinicians, theologians, and advocates for a humane approach to clinical decisions in situations of prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The Roman Catholic Church, like the rest of us who work (...)
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  15.  5
    Human Flourishing and Population Health: Meaning, Measurement, and Implications.Jeff Levin - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):401-419.
    In recent decades, social and behavioral scientists have begun to explore how and why human beings thrive or flourish and to consider whether traits indicative of thriving or flourishing may themselves influence physical well-being. This stands in contrast to the historical tendency in these fields to focus on pathology: mental illness, psychological dysfunction, deviant behavior, social problems, and so on. In epidemiology, too, the influence of pathology is seen in a tacit emphasis on risk factors for disease outcomes and for (...)
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  16.  1
    Pregnancy Accompanied by Palliative Care.Jennifer S. Linebarger - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):535-538.
    A woman, perhaps a couple, learn they are pregnant. Perhaps she is elated for this desired news. Perhaps she is also overwhelmed or scared by the daunting task of parenthood ahead. Then, a prenatal screening reveals something worrisome about the fetus. A tumbling series of appointments and exams confirm the concerning findings. As Pope Francis notes, this news “changes the experience of pregnancy.” In place of optimistic wonderment for the future, parents now have new worries about whether their baby will (...)
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  17.  2
    Bioethics as a Vocation.Franklin G. Miller - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):429-443.
    In this essay I offer practical guidance aimed at promoting competence and success in the activity of bioethics scholarship. I present a set of maxims or rules of thumb, which I exemplify and explicate by drawing on my own work, encompassing 30 years of practicing bioethics scholarship, formal and informal mentoring, extensive peer reviewing for bioethics, biomedical, and philosophy journals, and several years as Deputy Editor of Perspectives in Biology and Medicine—an interdisciplinary journal that frequently publishes bioethics articles. The title (...)
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  18.  7
    Life After the Storm: Surviving COVID-19.Cheryl Misak - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):494-501.
    Critical care medicine is suddenly, and unfortunately, in the news, with staggering numbers of COVID-19 patients requiring treatment in intensive care units around the world. Talk on the street, in those countries in which talk on the street is allowed, is of ventilators, ARDS, and cytokine storms—the overcharged immune response that itself is a killer. These technical terms are now in everyday use, and questions that have been restricted largely to critical care, infectious diseases, and public health specialists are being (...)
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  19. Considering the Fetus as Messenger.Neil A. Ward - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):532-534.
    I reviewed Pope Francis’s Address as one acutely aware of the extremely murky psycho-political cloud surrounding womb-determinism in the United States, and coming to it without any religion-based predisposition on the issue.I made note that Pope Francis’s main point is not proscriptive. He gives a low profile to any dogmatic definition of the sanctity of life. His tone is humane, not doctrinal.The Pope proposes that the fetus, like the child who follows, is basically a messenger, communicating from the womb and (...)
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  20.  1
    The Advent of the Professional Ethicist: Moral Expertise and Health-Care Ethics Certification.Jamie Carlin Watson - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):570-588.
    With the development of the Healthcare Ethics Consultant Certification offered through the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, the practice of clinical ethics has taken a decisive step into professionalization. Like other clinical consulting services that have trod this path—chaplaincy, genetic counseling, social work, case management, and so on1—clinical ethics started with academic and fellowship training programs and has identified a set of standards of practice....
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  21.  15
    The Origins and Drafting of the Belmont Report.Tom L. Beauchamp - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):240-250.
    The Belmont Report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was essentially mandated in a public law on July 12, 1974. The publications of this Commission have turned out to be the most influential of all US ethics and bioethics commissions on US public policy and federal regulation. The reason for its influence is that this Commission was allowed—indeed required—to draft federal regulations governing research with vulnerable subjects and to produce a general (...)
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  22.  3
    The Belmont Report and Innovative Practice.Jake Earl - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):313-326.
    The National Research Act of 1974 tasked the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research with identifying ethical principles and guidelines for research with human subjects. As part of this task, the Commission was ordered to consider “[t]he boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and the accepted and routine practice of medicine” ). Section A of the Commission’s famous Belmont Report addresses this charge by distinguishing between two kinds of activity—“research” and (...)
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  23.  2
    Belmont in Europe: A Mostly Indirect Influence.Søren Holm - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):262-276.
    When the Belmont Report was published in 1979, the European research ethics community was very small, even if we take this community to include everyone who was working in research ethics academically or professionally, and the report itself made very little impact in European medical journals.1 If we try to trace Belmont’s later reception history in Europe and in much of the bioethics literature worldwide, we find that it is most often quoted either as a landmark in the history of (...)
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  24.  3
    Informed Consent, Therapeutic Misconception, and Unrealistic Optimism.Lynn A. Jansen - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):359-373.
    Ethical research on human subjects requires that subjects, if they have the capacity to do so, give free and informed consent to participate in the trials in which they are enrolled. This requirement, which is commonly referred to as the principle of informed consent, was prominently endorsed by the authors of the Belmont Report in 1978, and it remains widely accepted today. Yet while the principle of informed consent is by now almost universally accepted, the responsibilities that it imposes on (...)
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  25.  3
    What Is Human Research For? Reflections on the Omission of Scientific Integrity From the Belmont Report.Jonathan Kimmelman - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):251-261.
    The Belmont Report is a totem of human research ethics. Its principles have provided a sustained and organizing vision for human protections and have been endorsed by various subsequent human protections policies. Besides its influence, the Belmont Report rewards multiple reads and abounds in insights, many of which have been under-attended in research ethics. Above all, the principles articulated in Belmont have proven adaptable to the many novel research strategies, approaches, settings, and challenges that have emerged in the 40 years (...)
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  26.  4
    The Belmont Report and Innovative Clinical Research.John D. Lantos - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):389-400.
    The ethical principles articulated in the Belmont Report and the regulatory oversight of research based on those principles seem to have served society well. Before Belmont, there were numerous egregious violations of research ethics. Since Belmont, there seem to be fewer—though good data are lacking.A central pillar of the Belmont framework is that a bright line must be drawn between medical practice and biomedical research. The Report stated that to qualify as practice, the following conditions must be satisfied: the purpose (...)
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  27.  4
    Revisiting the Distinction and the Connection Between Research and Practice.Franklin G. Miller - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):277-292.
    The Belmont Report begins with the sentence, “It is important to distinguish between biomedical and behavioral research, on the one hand, and the practice of accepted therapy on the other”. Writing an essay in a journal issue devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Belmont Report offers an opportunity not only to examine critically a theme addressed in this remarkable document—the distinction between research and practice—but also to reflect on the role of this theme as a major dimension of my (...)
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  28.  7
    Introduction to the Special Issue on the Belmont Report.Franklin G. Miller & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):219-219.
    The Belmont Report, issued in 1979 by the US National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, is a landmark document providing guidance on the ethics of research involving human subjects. It is divided into three sections: “Boundaries between practice and research; “Basic ethical principles” ; and “Applications of these principles with respect to informed consent, assessment of risks and benefits, and selection of subjects.”While the Belmont Report has enduring significance, the landscape of biomedical research (...)
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  29.  6
    International Clinical Research and Justice in the Belmont Report.Joseph Millum - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):374-388.
    There is a long history of Western scientists conducting medical research in other countries. Indeed, one of the first recorded cases of the use of a consent form for research volunteers comes from Walter Reed’s studies of the transmission of yellow fever in American-occupied Cuba at the turn of the 20th century. But in the 1960s and ’70s, the volume of international clinical research was low relative to the present. The scandals that prompted the creation of the National Commission for (...)
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  30.  7
    Towards Identifying an Upper Limit of Risk: A Persistent Area of Controversy in Research Ethics.Erin T. Paquette & Seema K. Shah - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):327-345.
    A core tenet of research ethics is that risks assumed by research participants are reasonable, balanced, and minimized in relation to benefit to the individual and to society. It is also generally accepted that people who cannot give their own informed consent ought only to be exposed to low risks in research, unless there is a compensating potential for direct benefit.However, there is no consensus on whether individuals should be able to voluntarily consent to high net risk in research—or, in (...)
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  31.  3
    Judging the Social Value of Health-Related Research: Current Debate and Open Questions.Annette Rid - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):293-312.
    Several influential ethical guidelines and frameworks endorse the view that research with human participants is ethically acceptable only when it has “social value,” meaning that it generates knowledge which can be used to benefit society. For example, the Nuremberg Code requires that medical experiments on human beings “yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study”. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences guidelines hold that “health-related research with humans... must have social (...)
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  32.  5
    Belmont in Context.Will Schupmann & Jonathan D. Moreno - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):220-239.
    The Belmont Report has had an enormous influence on the ethics of biomedical research over the last several decades. It has served as a philosophical foundation for federal regulations governing human subjects research, and its principles are well known to individuals across the research enterprise. Given the outsized influence Belmont has enjoyed as a core document in bioethics, it is worth reminding ourselves of the historical context in which it came to be. In this article, we examine the societal forces (...)
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  33.  3
    Minimizing Risks Is Not Enough: The Relevance of Benefits to Protecting Research Participants.David Wendler - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):346-358.
    Martin Luther King, Jr., quoting the 19th-century clergyman Theodore Parker, claimed that the arc of the moral universe “bends toward justice.” One hopes he is right, perhaps especially at times when history appears to have taken something of a detour. The 40th anniversary of the Belmont Report offers the opportunity to evaluate the arc of research ethics, to assess where it is going and whether it too is bending toward justice.The Belmont Report is the work of the National Commission, which (...)
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  34.  3
    Commentary: Code Dread?Neal Baer - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):14-27.
    CRISPR keeps me up at night. I marvel at its potential to cure insidious genetic diseases and scourges like malaria. I shudder at the ways it might be misused to create biological weapons. What frightens me most, though, is what I can't predict: how will we use CRISPR? How will it change evolution? How will it redefine the very nature of our existence?CRISPR is an ingenious cut-and-paste system that homes in on a particular DNA gene sequence and then, using Cas9 (...)
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  35.  5
    Playing It Safe? Precaution, Risk, and Responsibility in Human Genome Editing.Sarah Chan - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):111-125.
    On November 26, 2018, the world awoke to the news that genome editing had for the first time been used to create genetically modified human beings. He Jiankui, a scientist then employed by Southern University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, announced via social media and the popular press that he had performed genome editing on embryos with the aim of disrupting the CCR5 gene in order to induce immunity to HIV, implanted the embryos, and that twin girls had (...)
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  36.  6
    Who's Afraid of the Big Bad (Germline Editing) Wolf?R. Alta Charo - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):93-100.
    The surprise announcement in November 2018 that a Chinese researcher had implanted and brought to term two gene-edited embryos, resulting in the birth of twin girls, had the effect of galvanizing a debate that goes back decades. Should we make heritable changes in our children's DNA? Until recently, this was hypothetical only, and the easy response was to say it is too uncertain and too unnecessary to be tolerated. Suddenly, however, the possibility that there might be real uses for mitochondrial (...)
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  37.  6
    Introduction to the Special Issue on CRISPR.George Q. Daley - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):1-13.
    As i was finalizing this introduction to the Special Issue on CRISPR genome editing for Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, news broke that the Chinese scientist He Jiankui had been sentenced in Chinese court to three years in prison for "illegal medical practice" for his role in the creation of the world's first genome-edited babies. This official reprimand reinforced the worldwide condemnation and censure that followed He's announcement in November 2018 that his team at the Southern University of Science and (...)
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  38.  9
    CRISPR's Twisted Tales: Clarifying Misconceptions About Heritable Genome Editing.Marcy Darnovsky & Katie Hasson - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):155-176.
    In the year since He Jiankui announced the birth of twin girls whose genes were edited as embryos, reactions and revelations have continued, including the recent announcement that He and two colleagues have been sentenced to jail time and hefty fines. But what of Nana and Lulu, now infants, whose lives and futures are often missing in discussions of He's ethical violations? Their status remains a mystery. Other than learning that they were born prematurely by emergency C-section, we know nothing (...)
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  39.  13
    Focusing on Human Rights: A Framework for CRISPR Germline Genome Editing Ethics and Regulation.Kevin Doxzen & Jodi Halpern - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):44-53.
    the recent announcement of the claimed births of CRISPR-edited babies has prompted both widespread condemnation and calls by leading scientists for a moratorium on any further germline genome editing for reproductive purposes. Concurrently, national and international bodies are calling for the development of robust guidelines and requirements that will identify permissible conditions under which such GGE efforts may proceed. As detailed recommendations to navigate this unique terrain are under development, we suggest an approach that begins with identifying serious concerns about (...)
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  40.  8
    How We Got to CRISPR: The Dilemma of Being Human.Rosemarie Garland-Thomson - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):28-43.
    we always get to this difficult conversation one way or another when I'm talking to friends who have kids with disabilities. It goes like this: "If there had been a test for autism when my wife was pregnant with our son," my close friend tells me, "she would definitely have had an abortion." He tells me this with candor because he knows I know that this does not mean that he regrets having the son, grown up now, that they do (...)
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  41.  5
    Imperatives of Governance: Human Genome Editing and the Problem of Progress.J. Benjamin Hurlbut - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):177-194.
    The ability to make direct genetic changes to the DNA of future children poses profound challenges for governance: should it be done? For what purposes and subject to what limitations? And, no less importantly, who should decide? As a resolution pending in the US Senate rightly states, the prospect of editing the germline "touches on all of humanity". Given this, how should we as a human community guide and govern this emerging technology?The question of how human genome editing should be (...)
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  42.  7
    Shaping the CRISPR Gene-Editing Debate: Questions About Enhancement and Germline Modification.Josephine Johnston - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):141-154.
    When the use of CRIsPR-Cas9 to edit DNA was first reported in 2012, it was quickly heralded by scientists, policymakers, and journalists as a transformative technology. CRISPR-Cas9 provides the means to change DNA in ways that either were not generally possible using previous genetic technologies or that were orders of magnitude more laborious or inefficient to undertake. CRISPR's possible applications were readily apparent and seemingly endless, from supercharging laboratory research to modifying insects that transmit disease to eliminating genetic conditions. By (...)
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  43.  8
    Genome Editing and Human Reproduction: The Therapeutic Fallacy and the "Most Unusual Case".Peter F. R. Mills - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):126-140.
    Among the objections to the implementation of what I will call "genome editing in human reproduction" is that it does not address any unmet medical need, and therefore fails to meet an important criterion for introducing an unproven procedure with potentially adverse consequences. To be clear: what I mean by GEHR is the use of any one of a number of related biological techniques, such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system, deliberately to modify a functional sequence of DNA in a cell of (...)
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  44.  4
    The Existential Dimension to Aging.Tim Morris - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):195-206.
    Idiscovered Martha C. Nussbaum and Saul Levmore's Aging Thoughtfully: Conversations about Retirement, Romance, Wrinkles, and Regret at the same time I was rereading the ancient Roman philosopher Cicero on living and dying well, a text I often used in teaching prior to my retirement. Nussbaum and Levmore's book addresses a series of concerns about aging, and these concerns are presented by the two authors as alternative personal and professional perspectives. The authors acknowledge at the outset that their focus is not (...)
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  45.  8
    Clinical Germline Genome Editing: When Will Good Be Good Enough?Helen C. O'Neill - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):101-110.
    The year 2018 was the 40th anniversary of the birth of Louise Joy Brown, marking four decades of clinical in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Though this milestone, reached first by Steptoe and Edwards in the United Kingdom, is well acknowledged through Nobel accolade, the achievement was not entirely celebrated at the time. Global contention was not just moral, but political and legislative. In the United States, the achievement led in 1978 to the freezing of federal funds by the National (...)
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  46.  6
    Who Goes First? Deaf People and CRISPR Germline Editing.Carol Padden & Jacqueline Humphries - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):54-65.
    Two years ago, the US National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine released a report drafted by an international committee regarding the use of gene editing in humans. Once a tedious and expensive process, gene editing has now become more accessible and cheaper using the new CRISPR technology, making the issue of its use more urgent and pressing. The committee cites general support for somatic nonheritable gene editing to correct for a serious disease already present in a (...)
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  47.  4
    "Lost Your Superpower"? Graphic Medicine, Voicelessness, and Georgia Webber's Dumb.Sathyaraj Venkatesan & Diptarup Ghosh Dastidar - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):207-217.
    In a revealing TEDxKC talk entitled "How My Mind Came Back to Life—And No One Knew", Martin Pistorius, author of Ghost Boy, shares his harrowing experience of living in a vegetative state with a locked-in syndrome for two long years. When his consciousness returned, Pistorius reflects on how he was unable to communicate the news of his recovery. Using his augmented and alternative communication device, Pistorius observes, "Your personality appears to vanish into a heavy fog and all of your emotions (...)
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    Billy Idol.Ethan J. Weiss - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):66-72.
    Billy Idol was the name we gave Ruthie in the hospital in the days immediately after she was born. She had fluorescent white hair, and had she been born to different parents, they might have thought more of it. But both of Ruthie's parents had bleached blond hair as young children. So in the late summer and into the fall of 2006, we happily celebrated the arrival of our second child, little blond baby Ruthie "Billie Idol" Weiss.Like many second-time parents, (...)
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    CRISPR Cautions: Biosecurity Implications of Gene Editing.Rachel M. West & Gigi Kwik Gronvall - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):73-92.
    CRISPR, a recently developed gene-editing tool, has become synonymous with rapid biological advancement. While gene editing had been performed in life sciences research for decades, genetic engineering with CRISPR is much more straightforward, faster, and less expensive—and thus, the technology has been rapidly democratized. CRISPR was built on a natural mechanism, the method by which bacteria resist infections from viruses called bacteriophage. Once infected, bacteria may recognize specific genetic sequences of the invading bacteriophage virus and chop its genetic material into (...)
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