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  1.  5
    The Politics of Carnap's Non-Cognitivism and the Scientific World-Conception of Left-Wing Logical Empiricism.Christian Damböck - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):493-524.
  2.  2
    On the Philosophical Significance of the Reform of the International System of Units (SI): A Double-Adjustment Account of Scientific Enquiry.Nadine de Courtenay - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):549-620.
    The philosophical significance attached to the construction of systems of units has traditionally been confined to the notion of convention, while their adoption was considered to be the exclusive province of the history and sociology of science. Against this tradition, a close articulation between history, philosophy, and sociology of science is needed in order to analyse the recent reform of the International system of units. In the new SI, units are redefined on the basis of certain fundamental constants of nature, (...)
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  3.  5
    Science as Experience: A Deweyan Model of Science Communication.Megan K. Halpern & Kevin C. Elliott - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):621-656.
    The field of science communication is plagued by challenges. Communicators face the difficulty of responding to unjustified public skepticism over issues like climate change and COVID-19 while also acknowledging the fallibility and limitations of scientific knowledge. Our goal in this paper is to suggest a new model for science communication that can help foster more productive, respectful relationships among all those involved in science communication. Inspired by the pragmatist philosophy of John Dewey, we develop an experience model, according to which (...)
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  4.  2
    Models and Numbers: Representing the World or Imposing Order?Matthias Kaiser, Tatjana Buklijas & Peter Gluckman - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):525-548.
    We argue for a foundational epistemic claim and a hypothesis about the production and uses of mathematical epidemiological models, exploring the consequences for our political and socio-economic lives. First, in order to make the best use of scientific models, we need to understand why models are not truly representational of our world, but are already pitched towards various uses. Second, we need to understand the implicit power relations in numbers and models in public policy, and, thus, the implications for good (...)
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  5.  16
    Ingold’s Animism and European Science.Jeff Kochan - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):783-817.
    Anthropologist Tim Ingold promotes Indigenous animism as a salve for perceived failures in modern science, failures he claims also hobbled his own early work. In fact, both Ingold’s early and later work rely on modern scientific ideas and images. His turn to animism marks not an exit from the history of European science, but an entrance into, and imaginative elaboration of, distinctly Neoplatonic themes within that history. This turn marks, too, a clear but unacknowledged departure from systematic social analysis. By (...)
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  6.  4
    Data and Model Operations in Computational Sciences: The Examples of Computational Embryology and Epidemiology.Fabrizio Li Vigni - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):696-731.
    Computer models and simulations have become, since the 1960s, an essential instrument for scientific inquiry and political decision making in several fields, from climate to life and social sciences. Philosophical reflection has mainly focused on the ontological status of the computational modeling, on its epistemological validity and on the research practices it entails. But in computational sciences, the work on models and simulations are only two steps of a longer and richer process where operations on data are as important as, (...)
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  7.  2
    Of Chimeras, Harmony, and Kintsugi: Towards a Historicist Epistemology of Paleontological Reconstruction, Theory-Change, and Exploring Heuristics.Ali Mirza - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):657-695.
    I analyze the epistemic strategies used by paleontologists to reconstruct features of ancient organisms from fossilized bodies and footprints by presenting two heuristics: a “claim of harmony” which posits the harmonious interaction of natural objects in order for complex systems to be simplified and the “kintsugi heuristic” which is used inter-theoretically to explore new claims of harmony. I apply these to three successive historical cases: Georges Cuvier’s laws of correlation, the panpsychist paleontology of Edward Drinker Cope, and the single-character approach (...)
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  8.  2
    ‘For the Sciences Migrate, Just Like People’: The Case of Botanical Knowledge in the Early Modern Iberian Empires.Ran Segev - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):732-756.
    In his writings, Francis Bacon emphasized the interrelatedness between the migration of people and knowledge, arguing that Europeans of his time had surpassed the greatest civilizations because of their ability to traverse the world freely. Concentrating on Spanish observers who investigated New Spain’s flora, this article bridges theory and practice by examining the Iberian roots of Bacon’s views. The article examines scientific approaches for acquiring bioknowledge by Iberians who specialized in European medicine, including Francisco Hernández, Juan de Cárdenas and Francisco (...)
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  9.  2
    History as Engagement: The Historical Epistemology of Raymond Aron.Massimiliano Simons - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (4):757-782.
    Raymond Aron was a student of Léon Brunschvicg, a representative of French historical epistemology. This article explores Aron’s relation to this tradition through three claims. First of all, it contests that Raymond Aron’s philosophy of history constituted a complete break with this tradition. Secondly, resituating Aron in this tradition is valuable, because it highlights how Aron’s own philosophy of history is to be understood as a normative project, seen as an alternative to that of Brunschvicg. Finally, Aron’s philosophy can still (...)
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  10.  2
    Replicating Mathematical Inventions: Galileo’s Compass, Its Instructions, Its Students.Mario Biagioli - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (3):437-462.
    Questions about how closure is achieved in disputes involving new observational or experimental claims have highlighted the role of bodily knowledge possibly irreducible to written experimental protocols and instructions how to build and operate instruments. This essay asks similar questions about a scenario that is both related and significantly different: the replication of an invention, not of an observation or the instrument through which it produced. Furthermore, the machine considered here—Galileo’s compass or sector—was not a typical industrial invention, but a (...)
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  11.  12
    Geometry and the Gods: Theurgy in Proclus’s Commentary on the First Book of Euclid’s Elements.Robert Goulding - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (3):358-406.
    The gods that guard the poles have been assigned the function of assembling the separate and unifying the manifold members of the whole, while those appointed to the axes keep the circuits in everlasting revolution around and around. And if I may add my own conceit, the centers and poles of all the spheres symbolize the wry-necked gods by imitating the mysterious union and synthesis which they effect; the axes represent the connectors of all the cosmic orders … and the (...)
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  12.  2
    Milliet Dechales as Historian of Mathematics.Antoni Malet - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (3):463-492.
    The Jesuit C.F. Milliet Dechales, author of one of the most famous early modern mathematical encyclopedias, Cursus seu mundus mathematicus, wrote a hundred-folio-page long treatise devoted to the “progress of mathematics,” which was published in the second, enlarged edition of his encyclopedia. His historical treatise covers the gamut of mixed mathematics—including astronomy, mechanics, optics, music, geography and navigation, ars tignaria, and architecture. The early modern historical narratives about the mathematical sciences, from Regiomontanus’s Oratio onwards, have been aptly characterized by their (...)
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  13.  4
    Introduction: The Idiosyncratic Nature of Renaissance Mathematics.Paolo Rossini - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (3):353-357.
    Ever since its foundation in 1540, the Society of Jesus had had one mission—to restore order where Luther, Calvin and the other instigators of the Reformation had brought chaos. To stop the hemorrhage of believers, the Jesuits needed to form a united front. No signs of internal disagreement could to be shown to the outside world, lest the congregation lose its credibility. But in 1570s two prominent Jesuits, Cristophorus Clavius and Benito Perera, had engaged in a bitter controversy. The issue (...)
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  14.  1
    The Hidden Praeceptor: How Georg Rheticus Taught Geocentric Cosmology to Europe.Matteo Valleriani, Beate Federau & Olya Nicolaeva - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (3):407-436.
    A corpus of 360 distinct early modern printed editions containing Johannes de Sacrobosco’s Tractatus de sphaera is “dissected” into a corpus of 540 text-parts, 241 of them re-occurring at least once. Through the exploration of the data, we recognized a relevant position for four anonymous authors in their social network. We demonstrate that the text-parts originally assigned to the anonymous authors were authored or edited by Georg Rheticus. By means of data analysis, we conclusively establish that Rheticus profoundly impacted the (...)
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  15.  8
    Introduction: Severe Uncertainty in Science, Medicine, and Technology.Mattia Andreoletti, Daniele Chiffi & Behnam Taebi - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):201-209.
    This Special Issue titled "Severe Uncertainty in Science, Medicine and Technology" aims to shed new light on the understanding of severe uncertainty and its multifaceted implications. The main idea of the papers of this collection is that, despite possible sophisticated statistical judgments towards future risks in science, medicine, and technology, severe forms of uncertainty still exist.While ignorance is usually assumed to be a total absence of knowledge, uncertainty often refers to the incompleteness of knowledge or information. In its extreme form, (...)
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  16.  19
    Can Uncertainty Be Quantified?Sven Ove Hansson - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):210-236.
    In order to explore the quantifiability and formalizability of uncertainty a wide range of uncertainties are investigated. They are summarized under eight main categories: factual, possibilistic, metadoxastic, agential, interactive, value, structural, and linguistic uncertainty. This includes both classical uncertainty and the uncertainties commonly called great, deep, or radical. For five of the eight types of uncertainty, both quantitative and non-quantitative formalizations are meaningful and available. For one of them, only non-quantitative formalizations seem to be meaningful, and for two neither quantitative (...)
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  17.  5
    Uncertainty and Planning: Cities, Technologies and Public Decision-Making.Stefano Moroni & Daniele Chiffi - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):237-259.
    Decision-making under uncertainty is sometimes investigated as a homogeneous problem, independently of the type of decision-maker and the level and nature of the decision itself. However, when the decision-maker is a public authority, there immediately arise problems additional to those that concern any other decision-maker. This is not always clearly recognised in orthodox discussions on decisions under conditions of uncertainty. This article investigates the methodological, strategic and procedural challenges of taking public decisions in such conditions. It focuses mainly on decisions (...)
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  18.  10
    Moral Uncertainty in Technomoral Change: Bridging the Explanatory Gap.Philip J. Nickel, Olya Kudina & Ibo van de Poel - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):260-283.
    This paper explores the role of moral uncertainty in explaining the morally disruptive character of new technologies. We argue that existing accounts of technomoral change do not fully explain its disruptiveness. This explanatory gap can be bridged by examining the epistemic dimensions of technomoral change, focusing on moral uncertainty and inquiry. To develop this account, we examine three historical cases: the introduction of the early pregnancy test, the contraception pill, and brain death. The resulting account highlights what we call “differential (...)
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  19.  8
    Non-Empirical Uncertainties in Evidence-Based Decision Making.Malvina Ongaro & Mattia Andreoletti - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):305-320.
    The increasing success of the evidence-based policy movement is raising the demand of empirically informed decision making. As arguably any policy decision happens under conditions of uncertainty, following our best available evidence to reduce the uncertainty seems a requirement of good decision making. However, not all the uncertainty faced by decision makers can be resolved by evidence. In this paper, we build on a philosophical analysis of uncertainty to identify the boundaries of scientific advice in policy decision making. We start (...)
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  20.  9
    Explorative Experiments: A Paradigm Shift to Deal with Severe Uncertainty in Autonomous Robotics.Viola Schiaffonati - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):284-304.
    This paper presents a case of severe uncertainty in the development of autonomous and intelligent systems in Artificial Intelligence and autonomous robotics. After discussing how uncertainty emerges from the complexity of the systems and their interaction with unknown environments, the paper describes the novel framework of explorative experiments. This framework presents a suitable context in which many of the issues relative to uncertainty, both at the epistemological level and at the ethical one, in this field should be reframed. The case (...)
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  21.  6
    Uncertainty in Integrated Assessment Modeling of Climate Change.Massimo Tavoni & Giovanni Valente - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):321-351.
    Integrated assessment models play a major role in the science and policy of climate change. Similarly to other widely used computational tools for addressing socially relevant problems, IAMs need to account for the key uncertainties characterizing processes and socio-economic responses. In the case of climate change, these are particularly complex given the very long-term nature of climate and the deep uncertainty characterizing technological and human systems. Here we draw from philosophical discussion of mathematical modeling of social problems and review the (...)
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  22.  3
    Racializing a New Nation: German Coloniality and Anthropology in Maharashtra, India.Thiago P. Barbosa - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):137-166.
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  23.  1
    People in Motion: Introduction to Transnational Movements and Transwar Connections in the Anthropological and Genetic Study of Human Populations.Iris Clever, Jaehwan Hyun & Elise K. Burton - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):1-12.
    The essays in this special issue shed new light on the transnational movement and exchange of researchers, data, theories, and scientific objects in the anthropological and genetic study of human populations in the twentieth century. Historians have long stressed how the study of race and human populations in this period served to create a national identity for emerging nation states. More recently, historical narratives of anthropology and human genetics have emphasized the global scale of research networks in these sciences. This (...)
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  24. Commentary: Nationalism and Transnationalism in Anthropological Research.Soraya de Chadarevian - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):194-198.
    The history of physical anthropology has most often been situated and studied in the context of specific colonial powers and nation states. At the same time, the study of human variation had as its scope to study human evolution on a global scale. It thus necessarily included transnational border crossings and scholarly exchanges of specimen collections that allowed researchers to study migration and differentiation patterns on a large scale. In addition, scientists working in a national context often sought international approval (...)
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  25. In the Name of Human Adaptation: Japanese American "Hybrid Children" and Racial Anthropology in Postwar Japan.Jaehwan Hyun - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):167-193.
  26.  1
    The Norwegian Association for Heredity Research and the Organized International Eugenics Movement. Expertise, Authority, Transnational Networks and International Organization in Norwegian Genetics and Eugenics.Jon Røyne Kyllingstad - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):77-107.
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  27.  2
    Blood Affairs: Racial Blood Group Research and Nation Building in Greece, 1920s–1940s.Ageliki Lefkaditou - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):48-76.
  28. Erratum.Marsha Richmond & Ana Barahona - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):199-199.
    Correction to: Maria Santesmases, "Women in Early Human Cytogenetics: An Essay on a Gendered History of Chromosome Imaging," in the special issue, "Heredity and Evolution in an Ibero-American Context," Perspectives on Science 28 : 170–200. In this article, on page 177, in the sentence beginning: "Among these was Barbara McClintock," the date of McClintock's publication should read "1930". On page 178, the caption of Figure 4 should read: "From McClintock 1930, pp. 792, 793; reproduced with permission...." To the References, on (...)
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  29.  4
    Transnational Isolates: Portuguese Colonial Race Science and the Foreign World.Ricardo Roque - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):108-136.
  30.  11
    Can Information Concepts Have Physical Content?Javier Anta - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 1 (1):1-21.
    In this paper, I analyze the physical content of the main information concepts in the history of physics of the last seven decades. I argue that this physical character should be evaluated not by appealing to analytical-linguistic confusion (Timpson 2013) or to the usefulness of its applicability (Lombardi et al. 2016), but properly from its capacity to allow us to acquire significant knowledge about the physical world. After systematically employing this epistemic criterion of physical significance I will conclude by rejecting (...)
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