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  1. The Disappearance of Form? Some Methodological Considerations on a Lost Conceptual Dimension in Biology.Mathias Gutmann - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):666-680.
    The concept of form belongs—apparently—to an older stage of biological concept formation. Paradoxically, it is even the insistence on the reference to form that shows its very disappearance.1 The more the functionalization2, systematization, and finally algorithmization of modern biology3 advances, in the sense of systems biology, synthetic biology and bioinformatics, the less audible the call for a rehabilitation of the concept of form becomes.This technomorphic tendency, to deal with living entities in terms of artifacts, increasingly brought the concept of transformation (...)
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  2.  1
    Model Operations: Morphogenesis and the Design Process.Carolin Höfler - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):602-626.
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  3.  3
    The Epistemology of Biomimetics: The Role of Models and of Morphogenetic Principles.Ulrich Krohs - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):583-601.
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  4. BioTechnology as BioParody – Strategies for Salience.Alfred Nordmann - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):568-582.
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  5. Morphogenesis – "The Riddles of Form" in Twenty-First Century Science.Marco Tamborini - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):559-567.
    Over the past decades, the notions of organic form and morphology—a scientific field historically associated with the eighteenth century polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe —have stealthy re-assumed a central role in various scientific disciplines. Although the study of organic form was apparently excluded from the main stage of evolutionary theory and biological sciences during the second half of the twentieth century, since morphology was considered as a descriptive and ancillary science unable to contribute to the neo-Darwinian synthesis of evolution1, morphological (...)
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  6.  2
    The Material Turn in the Study of Form: From Bio-Inspired Robots to Robotics-Inspired Morphology.Marco Tamborini - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):643-665.
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  7.  2
    Forms as Forces: The Causal Regime of Morphology in Biology.Georg Toepfer - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (5):627-642.
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  8.  7
    Fishing for Genes: How the Largest Gene Family in the Mammalian Genome Was Found.Ann-Sophie Barwich - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):359-387.
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  9.  2
    Constructing Strangeness: Exploratory Modeling and Concept Formation.Arianna Borrelli - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):388-408.
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  10.  4
    Exploratory Models and Exploratory Modeling in Science: Introduction.Grant Fisher, Axel Gelfert & Friedrich Steinle - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):355-358.
    That science is more than the unilinear application of general theories to specific empirical circumstances is, one hopes, no longer something that is controversial or requires detailed argument. To be sure, there were times when devising universally applicable theories was seen as the most worthy task of science, with less lofty activities such as experimentation and scientific modeling being relegated to the underbelly of “proper science.” Arguing for a pluralistic recognition of the diversity of scientific practices, methods, and goals, might—at (...)
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  11.  3
    Paper, Plaster, Strings: Exploratory Material Mathematical Models Between the 1860s and 1930s.Michael Friedman - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):436-467.
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  12.  26
    Exploring Minds: Modes of Modeling and Simulation in Artificial Intelligence.Hajo Greif - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):409-435.
    The aim of this paper is to grasp the relevant distinctions between various ways in which models and simulations in Artificial Intelligence (AI) relate to cognitive phenomena. In order to get a systematic picture, a taxonomy is developed that is based on the coordinates of formal versus material analogies and theory-guided versus pre-theoretic models in science. These distinctions have parallels in the computational versus mimetic aspects and in analytic versus exploratory types of computer simulation. The proposed taxonomy cuts across the (...)
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  13.  6
    Exploring Minds: Modes of Modelling and Simulation in Artificial Intelligence.Hajo Greif - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):409-435.
    -/- The aim of this paper is to grasp the relevant distinctions between various ways in which models and simulations in Artificial Intelligence (AI) relate to cognitive phenomena. In order to get a systematic picture, a taxonomy is developed that is based on the coordinates of formal versus material analogies and theory-guided versus pre-theoretic models in science. These distinctions have parallels in the computational versus mimetic aspects and in analytic versus exploratory types of computer simulation. The proposed taxonomy cuts across (...)
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  14.  1
    Biological Control Variously Materialized: Modeling, Experimentation and Exploration in Multiple Media.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):468-492.
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  15.  2
    On the Exploratory Function of Agent-Based Modeling.Meinard Kuhlmann - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):510-536.
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  16.  19
    Exploring Scientific Inquiry Via: Agent-Based Modelling.Dunja Šešelja - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):537-557.
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  17.  1
    Two Exploratory Uses for General Circulation Models in Climate Science.Joseph Wilson - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (4):493-509.
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  18.  7
    The Nature of Cartesian Logic.Roger Ariew - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (3):275-291.
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  19.  5
    A New Logic: Bacon's Novum Organum.Elodie Cassan - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (3):255-274.
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  20.  6
    Introduction: Logic and Methodology in the Early Modern Period.Elodie Cassan - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (3):237-254.
    Being mainly concerned with the origins and development of formal logic, current “histories of logic” often devote scarce, if any, space to logic in the early modern period. In standard narratives, emphasis is put, on one side, on Aristotle’s Organon and on the Stoics’ logic of propositions, and on the other side, on the development of mathematical logic from Boole and Frege on. The picture often emerging from such reconstructions represents early modern philosophers—net of their criticisms of Aristotelian syllogism— as (...)
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  21.  5
    Logic and the Movement of Reasoning: Pierre Gassendi on the Three Acts of the Mind.Sorana Corneanu - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (3):292-326.
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  22.  4
    Who Was the Founder of Empiricism After All? Gassendi and the 'Logic' of Bacon.Rodolfo Garau - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (3):327-354.
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  23.  7
    The Confined Atom: James Clerk Maxwell on the Fundamental Particles and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge.Charis Charalampous - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):189-214.
    This paper distinguishes in Maxwell’s thought between “atomic molecules” and “ultimate atoms,” and arrives at a set of properties that characterize each type of atom. It concludes that Maxwell is a mathematical atomist, an approach that entails the notion that although it is impossible to observe the ultimate atoms as free particles, we can nevertheless study them as mathematical observables, on the caveat that mathematical formalism remains tied to phenomenalism and to theoretical interpretations of such phenomena as, for example, mass (...)
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  24.  3
    Comparing Modern and Classical Perspectives on Spider Silks and Webs.Gabriele Greco, Virginia Mastellari, Chris Holland & Nicola M. Pugno - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):133-156.
    Spiders have always fascinated humankind as whilst they are often reviled, their product, the web and its silk, are commonly viewed in awe. As such, silks’ material properties and the fear and fascination surrounding the animals that spin it are seen to play an important role in the development of many cultures and societies. More recently this is even more so with the formalization of this inspiration in scientific and technical communities through biomimetics. The aim of this work is to (...)
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  25.  6
    Acids and Rust: A New Perspective on the Chemical Revolution.Franklin Jacoby - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):215-236.
    This paper uses scientific perspectivism as a lens for understanding acid experiments from the Chemical Revolution. I argue that this account has several advantages over several recent interpretations of this period, interpretations that do not neatly capture some of the historical experiments on acids. The perspectival view is distinctive in that it avoids discontinuity, allows for the rational resolution of disagreement, and is sensitive to the historical epistemic context.
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  26.  21
    Animism, Aristotelianism, and the Legacy of William Gilbert’s De Magnete.Jeff Kochan - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):157-188.
    William Gilbert’s 1600 book, De magnete, greatly influenced early modern natural philosophy. The book describes an impressive array of physical experiments, but it also advances a metaphysical view at odds with the soon to emerge mechanical philosophy. That view was animism. I distinguish two kinds of animism – Aristotelian and Platonic – and argue that Gilbert was an Aristotelian animist. Taking Robert Boyle as an example, I then show that early modern arguments against animism were often effective only against Platonic (...)
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  27.  5
    Stepping Forwards by Looking Back: Underdetermination, Epistemic Scarcity and Legacy Data.Adrian Currie - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (1):104-132.
    Debate about the epistemic prowess of historical science has focused on local underdetermination problems generated by a lack of historical data; the prevalence of information loss over geological time, and the capacities of scientists to mitigate it. Drawing on Leonelli’s recent distinction between ‘phenomena-time’ and ‘data-time’ I argue that factors like data generation, curation and management significantly complexifies and undermines this: underdetermination is a bad way of framing the challenges historical scientists face. In doing so, I identify circumstances of epistemic (...)
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  28.  13
    Regimes of Evidence in Complexity Sciences.Fabrizio Li Vigni - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (1):62-103.
    Since their inception in the 1980s, complexity sciences have been described as a revolutionary new domain of research. By describing some of the practices and assumptions of its representatives, the present article shows that this field is an association of subdisciplines laying on existing disciplinary footholds. The general question guiding us here is: On what basis do complexity scientists consider their inquiry methods and results as valuable? To answer it, I describe five “epistemic argumentative regimes,” namely the ways in which (...)
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  29.  12
    Scenarios as Tools of the Scientific Imagination: The Case of Climate Projections.Michael Poznic & Rafaela Hillerbrand - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (1):36-61.
    Climatologists have recently introduced a distinction between projections as scenario-based model results on the one hand and predictions on the other hand. The interpretation and usage of both terms is, however, not univocal. It is stated that the ambiguities of the interpretations may cause problems in the communication of climate science within the scientific community and to the public realm. This paper suggests an account of scenarios as props in games of make-belive. With this account, we explain the difference between (...)
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  30.  9
    Interpreting the History of Evolutionary Biology Through a Kuhnian Prism: Sense or Nonsense?Koen B. Tanghe, Lieven Pauwels, Alexis De Tiège & Johan Braeckman - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (1):1-35.
    Traditionally, Thomas S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is largely identified with his analysis of the structure of scientific revolutions. Here, we contribute to a minority tradition in the Kuhn literature by interpreting the history of evolutionary biology through the prism of the entire historical developmental model of sciences that he elaborates in The Structure. This research not only reveals a certain match between this model and the history of evolutionary biology but, more importantly, also sheds new light on (...)
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  31.  16
    Interpreting the History of Evolutionary Biology Through a Kuhnian Prism: Sense or Nonsense?Koen Tanghe, Lieven Pauwels, Alexis De Tiège & Braeckman J. - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (1):1-35.
    Traditionally, Thomas S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) is largely identified with his analysis of the structure of scientific revolutions. Here, we contribute to a minority tradition in the Kuhn literature by interpreting the history of evolutionary biology through the prism of the entire historical developmental model of sciences that he elaborates in The Structure. This research not only reveals a certain match between this model and the history of evolutionary biology but, more importantly, also sheds new light (...)
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