Year:

  1.  3
    Citizen Science and Scientific Objectivity: Mapping Out Epistemic Risks and Benefits.Baptiste Bedessem & Stéphanie Ruphy - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (5):630-654.
    Given the importance of the issue of scientific objectivity in our democratic societies and the significant development of citizen science, it is crucial to investigate how citizen science may either undermine or foster scientific objectivity. This paper identifies a variety of epistemic risks and benefits that participation of lay citizens in scientific inquiries may bring. It also discusses concrete actions and pending issues that should be addressed in order to foster objectivity in citizen science programs.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  1
    The Lost Liquid Cosmogony of Johannes Daniel Schlichting.Justin Begley - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (5):571-609.
    The focus of this paper is a fascinating but hitherto unstudied 1742 manuscript treatise by Johannes Daniel Schlichting titled “Sapientiæ Problema” that contains something extremely rare in the mid-eighteenth century: a full-blown speculative cosmogony. As this article reveals, Schlichting developed a distinctive vital liquid matter in an effort to account for the generation of all natural bodies and combat the stamina-based theories that were dominant in his day. He hoped that his treatise would be published in the Philosophical Transactions of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  2
    Models, Parameterization, and Software: Epistemic Opacity in Computational Chemistry.Frédéric Wieber & Alexandre Hocquet - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (5):610-629.
    Computational chemistry grew in a new era of “desktop modeling,” which coincided with a growing demand for modeling software, especially from the pharmaceutical industry. Parameterization of models in computational chemistry is an arduous enterprise, and we argue that this activity leads, in this specific context, to tensions among scientists regarding the epistemic opacity transparency of parameterized methods and the software implementing them. We relate one flame war from the Computational Chemistry mailing List in order to assess in detail the relationships (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  5
    Why Did Memetics Fail? Comparative Case Study.Radim Chvaja - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):542-570.
    Although the theory of memetics appeared highly promising at the beginning, it is no longer considered a scientific theory among contemporary evolutionary scholars. This study aims to compare the genealogy of memetics with the historically more successful gene-culture coevolution theory. This comparison is made in order to determine the constraints that emerged during the internal development of the memetics theory that could bias memeticists to work on the ontology of meme units as opposed to hypotheses testing, which was adopted by (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  5
    The Multiple Dimensions of Multiple Determination.Klodian Coko - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):505-541.
    Multiple determination is the epistemic strategy of establishing the same result by means of multiple, independent procedures. It is an important strategy praised by both philosophers of science and practicing scientists. Despite the heavy appeal to multiple determination, little analysis has been provided regarding the specific grounds upon which its epistemic virtues rest. This article distinguishes between the various dimensions of multiple determination and shows how they can be used to evaluate the epistemic force of the strategy in particular cases. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  6.  21
    Are Experts Representative of Non-Experts? Elective Modernism, Aspects of Representation, and the Argument From Inductive Risk.Jaana Eigi - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):459-481.
    The approach to expert communities and political representation of non-experts in Harry Collins and Robert Evans’ elective modernism reflects the conviction that experts are not representative of ordinary citizens. I use an analysis of aspects of representation and the argument from inductive risk to argue that experts can be seen as representative of non-experts, when we understand representation as resemblance based on shared social perspectives and acknowledge the inevitable involvement of such perspectives in decisions under inductive risk. This, in turn, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  7
    Mess in Science and Wicked Problems.Jutta Schickore - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):482-504.
    This paper discusses the claim that science is “messy.” Part I argues first, that a good portion of today’s discussions about messy science is just a portrayal of familiar features of science in new terms. In the paper, I refer to this as “messy science talk.” Second, Part I draws out rhetorical functions of messy science talk, namely the denigration of science in the popular media and the celebration of the maverick. Part II identifies one way in which it is (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  20
    The Reflex Machine and the Cybernetic Brain: The Critique of Abstraction and its Application to Computationalism.M. Chirimuuta - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (3):421-457.
    Objections to the computational theory of cognition, inspired by twentieth century phenomenology, have tended to fixate on the embodiment and embeddedness of intelligence. In this paper I reconstruct a line of argument that focusses primarily on the abstract nature of scientific models, of which computational models of the brain are one sort. I observe that the critique of scientific abstraction was rather commonplace in the philosophy of the 1920s and 30s and that attention to it aids the reading of The (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  2
    Experimenting with Matter in the Works of Gabriel Plattes.Oana Matei - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (3):398-420.
    This paper investigates the relation between Gabriel Plattes’ cosmology and theory of matter, on the one hand, and his method of experimentation, on the other. In my view Plattes based his cosmology and theory of matter on specific “principles of nature” expressed as alchemical qualitative relations between bodies, and these principles formed the theoretical framework for his experimental method and technologies. I also claim that Plattes’ method of experimentation has heuristic purposes, acting as a tool to instantiate and illustrate these (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  2
    Kuhn, Condorcet, and Comte: On the Justification of the “Old” Historiography of Science.J. C. Pinto de Oliveira - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (3):375-397.
    Despite the importance of the “historiographical revolution” in Kuhn’s work, he did not carry out a specific study about it. Without a systematic investigation into it, he even affirms that the “old” historiography of science is unhistorical, suggesting its summary disqualification in the face of his “new historiography” of science. My wider project, of which this paper is a part, is to better discuss the issue of the justification of the NHS. In this paper, I discuss the justification of the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  4
    Women and the Workplace. Collaborative Networks of Women Geneticists in Mexico in the 1960s and Early 1970s.Ana Barahona - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):201-222.
    This paper will address the collaborative networks and the gendered organization of the scientific work at the first Unit on Human Genetics of the Mexican Institute for Social Security. There, women and men had different tasks, duties and authority according to their gender and individual and professional skills. I will focus on physician Susana Kofman, who specialized in cytogenetics with Jérôme Lejeune and Jean de Grouchy in France, and physician Leonor Buentello, who graduated in virus genetics in Germany. This narrative (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  4
    Special Issue: Heredity and Evolution in an Ibero-American Context.Ana Barahona & Marsha L. Richmond - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):119-126.
    The history of science within the Ibero-American context has not received significant attention from historians of science. In the case of historical studies of science in Spain and Latin America, research has primarily been carried out under the umbrella of “centers and peripheries,” indicating that despite their historiographical and epistemological importance, narratives on science within certain national contexts have analytical limitations. Recent research has indicated a need to reconstruct transnational stories that account for how knowledge produced in developing countries forms (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  3
    Modern Evolutionary Biology and Brazilian Population Genetics: Theodosius Dobzhansky at the University of São Paulo.Tito Brige de Carvalho - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):223-243.
    On the one hand, much has been written on Theodosius Dobzhansky’s central role in the development of the field of population genetics and modern evolutionary theory, as well as on his sociopolitical worldview in the middle of the Twentieth Century. On the other hand, much has also been written on Dobzhansky’s role in the institutionalization of genetics in Brazil, where he spent a considerable amount of time. Unfortunately, these literatures developed without any points of intersection or cross-reference. This article places (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  3
    Dobzhansky and Dreyfus’s Group: The Introduction of Natural Population Genetics Studies in Brazil.José Franco Monte Sião & Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):244-276.
    An important center in which genetic research started and was carried out in Brazil during the 20th century was situated at the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Linguistics of the University of São Paulo, led by André Dreyfus. Beginning in 1943, the Ukrainian geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky visited Dreyfus’s group four times. This paper evaluates the impact of Dobzhansky’s visits on the studies of genetics and evolution developed by the members of Dreyfus’s group during the 1940s and the 1950s. The study (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  15.  3
    Science, Sensibility and Gender in Argentina, 1820–1852.Adriana Novoa - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):318-340.
    This article analyzes how scientific thinking evolved in Argentina during the 1820s and 1830s. I will focus on liberals’ association of science with the emergence of a new male sensibility that feminized the role of men in society. This gendered scientific culture explains how liberals clashed in the 1830s with the policies of the governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, whose hyper masculinist model based on the authority of the father was perceived not only as anti-civilization, but also (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  2
    South American Fieldwork/Cytogenetic Knowledge: The Cytogenetic Research Program of Sally Hughes-Schrader and Franz Schrader.Marsha L. Richmond - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):127-169.
    The marriage of Sally Peris Hughes and Franz Schrader in November 1920 launched a highly successful scientific collaboration that lasted over four decades. The Schraders were avid naturalists, adroit experimentalists, and keen theoreticians, and both had long, productive, and fruitful careers in zoology. They offer an extraordinarily rich case study that provides an insightful view of the work carried out in several areas of the life sciences from the 1920s to the 1960s—fieldwork, cytology, cytogenetics, and entomology—as well as critical aspects (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  2
    From Darkness to Gloom: The Feminine Presence in the Teaching of Human Evolution in Mexico.Erica Torrens Rojas - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):341-373.
    The main objective of this paper was to analyze gender representation in Mexican elementary education materials from 1960 to the present, particularly on the topic of human evolution, as this is a fundamental subject for the understanding of our ancestry as a species, and for its relationship with questions about human nature. Using gender as a category and an approach that included both qualitative and quantitative methods, a comparison of three generations of textbooks for elementary school and “monographs” was carried (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  1
    Women in Early Human Cytogenetics: An Essay on a Gendered History of Chromosome Imaging.María Jesús Santesmases - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):170-200.
    Alongside the renowned male pioneers of medical cytogenetics, many women participated in investigations at the laboratory bench and the bedside, both in Europe and the Americas. These women were committed to this new biological and clinical practice—cytogenetics, the origins of contemporary genetic diagnosis—and contributed to the creation of new biological concepts and settings centered on the study of chromosome imaging. This paper will review the contributions made by a group of woman scientists from a wide geographical distribution, situating their names (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  3
    Women and Partnership Genealogies in Drosophila Population Genetics.Marta Velasco Martín - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):277-317.
    Drosophila flies began to be used in the study of species evolution during the late 1930s. The geneticists Natasha Sivertzeva-Dobzhansky and Elizabeth Reed pioneered this work in the United States, and María Monclús conducted similar studies in Spain. The research they carried out with their husbands enabled Drosophila population genetics to take off and reveals a genealogy of women geneticists grounded in mutual inspiration. Their work also shows that women were present in population genetics from the beginning, although their contributions (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20.  17
    Value-Free yet Policy-Relevant? The Normative Views of Climate Scientists and Their Bearing on Philosophy.Torbjørn Gundersen - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (1):89-118.
    The proper role of non-epistemic values such as moral, political, and social values in practices of justification of policy-relevant hypotheses has recently become one of the central questions in philosophy of science. This strand of research has yielded conceptual clarifications and significant insight into the complex and notoriously contentious issue of the proper relationship between science, non-epistemic values, and policymaking. A central part of this discussion revolves around whether scientists should aspire for the value-free ideal, according to which non-epistemic values (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. The Case Study Method in Philosophy of Science: An Empirical Study.Moti Mizrahi - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (1):63-88.
    There is an ongoing methodological debate in philosophy of science concerning the use of case studies as evidence for and/or against theories about science. In this paper, I aim to make a contribution to this debate by taking an empirical approach. I present the results of a systematic survey of the PhilSci-Archive, which suggest that a sizeable proportion of papers in philosophy of science contain appeals to case studies, as indicated by the occurrence of the indicator words “case study” and/or (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  22.  11
    Knowledge Missemination: L. Susan Stebbing, C.E.M. Joad, and Philipp Frank on the Philosophy of the Physicists.Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (1):1-34.
    In their major work, The Grand Design, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow expressed the opinion of presumably many working physicists, philosophers of physics and even educated laymen when they said, "philosophy is dead. Philosophy has not kept up with modern developments in science, particularly physics. Scientists have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge." Their examples of the fields that have been conquered by physicists include most of the perennial philosophical questions: "what is the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  17
    Intersubjective Accountability: Politics and Philosophy in the Left Vienna Circle.Thomas Uebel - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (1):35-62.
    The question of the political potential possessed by the philosophies of the Vienna Circle is complex for more than one reason. It is so partly due to the politically heterogeneous membership of the Circle, partly due to the difficult if not extreme political circumstances under which they had to operate, and partly due to the variable meanings of the parameter "political," some of which are and some of which are not compatible with, in turn, variable versions of the doctrine of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues