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  1.  5
    Peter Winch: “Unity: Presupposition or Demand?”.Steven Burns - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):109-118.
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  2.  6
    Wittgenstein’s Conception of Hypotheses in Chapters XII and XXII of ‘Philosophical Remarks’ and the Function of Language.Florian Franken Figueiredo - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):163-188.
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  3.  14
    Reconsidering the Alleged Cases of Knowledge From Falsehood.Kok Yong Lee - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):151-162.
    A number of philosophers have recently proposed several alleged cases of “knowledge from falsehood,” i.e., cases of inferential knowledge epistemised by an inference with a false crucial premise. This paper examines such cases and argues against interpreting them as cases of knowledge from falsehood. Specifically, I argue that the inferences in play in such cases are in no position to epistemise their conclusions.
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  4.  7
    Roy Holland and Henri Bergson.H. O. Mounce - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):206-209.
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  5.  9
    Logic and Value in Wittgenstein’s Philosophy.Peter Stiers - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):119-150.
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  6.  5
    Sofia Miguens (Ed.), The Logical Alien: Conant and His Critics (Harvard University Press, 2020). 1081 Pp, Price £47.95 Hb. [REVIEW]Hugo Strandberg - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):210-214.
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  7.  19
    Bootstrapping Conceptual Normativity?Tim Thornton - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):189-205.
    Both anti-reductionist and reductionist accounts of linguistic meaning and mental content face challenges accounting for acquiring concepts as part of learning a first language. Anti-reductionists cannot account for a transition from the pre-conceptual to conceptual without threatening to reduce the latter to the former. Reductionists of a representationalist variety face the challenge of Fodor’s argument that language learning is impossible. This paper examines whether Ginsborg’s account of ‘primitive normativity’ might provide some resources for addressing these issues. I argue that primitive (...)
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  8.  17
    On a Wrong Picture of Knowing: On Certainty and Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy1.William H. Brenner - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (1):43-59.
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  9.  6
    A Parsons Tale: Tractarian Reflections on a Semantical Paradox.Peter S. Dillard - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (1):60-70.
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  10.  20
    Contingentism Versus Necessitism: The Tractatus Standpoint.Pasquale Frascolla - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (1):3-18.
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  11.  3
    Andrew Gleeson and Craig Taylor (Eds.),Morality in a Realistic Spirit: Essays for Cora Diamond (Routledge, 2020). Vi + 260, Price £ 120 Hb. [REVIEW]Lars Hertzberg - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (1):99-105.
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  12.  6
    Wittgenstein on Aspect‐Recognition in Philosophy and Mathematics.Michael Hymers - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (1):71-98.
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  13.  16
    The Tractatus and the Riddles of Philosophy.Gilad Nir - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (1):19-42.
    The notion of the riddle plays a pivotal role in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus . By examining the comparisons he draws between philosophical problems and riddles, this paper offers a reassessment of the aims and methods of the book. Solving an ordinary riddle does not consist in learning a new fact; what it requires is that we transform the way we use words. Similarly, Wittgenstein proposes to transform the way philosophers understand the nature of their problems. But since he holds that these (...)
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  14. Analysis of Akhavan's Philosophical Viewpoints in "Khane Hashtom".Parvaneh Adelzadeh & Kamran Pashaie Fakhri - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):268-288.
    In this article, we argue that two poems of the "Khane Hastom" of Akhavan Sales are the reconstruction of the atmosphere of ancient Iran and special special attention is paid to the philosophy of Zoroaster. He seeks to revive the culture of ancient Iran and the philosophy and religion of Zoroaster and Mazdak in order to give a different meaning to the social justice or justice of the past. According to Akhavan, the view of the thoughts, existence and death of (...)
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  15. Study of Behavior and Behaviorism in Wittgenstein’s Thought.Morteza Afsahi, Mohammadreza Abdollahnejad & Mahmoud Sufiani - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):17-29.
    In this article, we will deal with Wittgenstein’s view concerning the nature of mental states. As we know, Wittgenstein's position in this respect has been regarded by some of his commentators as something like behaviorism. In order to assess their claims, we will first turn to behaviorism in modern psychology as well as philosophical behaviorism, and then state Wittgenstein's own position about behaviorism by emphasizing on the point that, on Wittgenstein's view, "mental phenomena are neither reducible to, nor totally separable (...)
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  16. The Sacred Manifastiveness in Islamic Mosques and Hindu Temples.Ali Alishir & Mohammad Ali Dibaji - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):289-318.
    The Existence problem has been one of the greatest questions which has always occupied human thought; Such as this occupation has been represented either by mythical interpretations in prehistorical art periods or by gnostic interpretations in medieval ages, or in the determinations of empirical science since seventeenth century. Apart from scientific interpretation, among these interpretations, those two first ones has insisted on the sacredity of universe. In contemporary period which empirical sciences reduces all of the Existence hierarchy into material world (...)
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  17. Nietzsche: A Philosopher of Culture or Anti-Culture?Mohammad Mehdi Ardebili - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):1-16.
    The title of the present article describes its main problematic. The text begins with Nietzsche's various uses of culture. From his first serious texts, such as the Birth of Tragedy, to the mystical fragmentations of the last days before insanity, and even to the last unpublished writings of The Will to Power, Nietzsche has always been involved with "culture." This conflict, however, is not a conflict with a concept alongside other concepts, but something beyond it, a confrontation with the density (...)
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  18. Analysis of Ibn Rushd's Influence on Ibn Maimon in How Reason is Used in Shari'a.Abbas Bakhshandeh Bali - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):30-44.
    The relationship between reason and sharia has been one of the most important and controversial issues among religious thinkers. The main question of this article is "What is the effect of Ibn Rushd on Ibn Maimon in using reason in Shari'a?" Some of the points that we achieved in this research indicate the deep influence of Ibn Rushd on Ibn Maimon in the discussion of reason and Shari'a. In various passages of his works, Ibn Rushd warns of the dangers of (...)
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  19. Assessment of Thaddeus Metz’s Theory About Meaning of Life.Mohammadreza Bayat & Tahereh Eshraghi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):45-63.
    Thaddeus Metz, an analytical philosopher, has established his theory of the meaning of life via two interrelated conceptual activities: first, he distinguishes the realms human life into two animal and rational, second, he assumes that pleasure and meaning are relative criteria to each realm. Hence, he argues the of an individual is meaningful if it meets three requirements; First, that individual has some degree of a positive approach to goodness, truth and beautifulness. Second, such approaches do not require that individual (...)
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  20. Establishment of Kant’s Peace Through International Rule of Law.Parisa Daneshfar & Heibatollah Najandimanesh - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):115-129.
    Kant’s Cosmopolitan and apriori approach has influenced the formation of government and universal peace theories and international organizations such as the United Nations which have an important place in the establishment of peace and international rule of law. His views about universal peace are rooted in his epistemology and critiques. According to Kant, among human beings, the transformation from the natural state of war to the state of peace takes place in stages. At the international approach, law is legitimized by (...)
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  21. The Concept of Evil From the Point of View of Ibn Maimun and Ghazali.Ebrahim Ghodrati, Mohammad Reza Adli, Abdolhossein Tarighi & Bakhshali Ghanbari - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):319-336.
    The purpose of this article is to study the issue of evil from the perspective of Ibn Maimon in Judaism and Imam Muhammad al-Ghazali in Islam. Ibn Maimun does not consider evil to be issued from God because he believes that anti-existence has no actuality and all evils are non-existent to which no act belongs unless the matter has existed by its nature and therefore matter causes corruption and evil. With Ibn Maimon, he considered evil to be material, and God (...)
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  22. A Reflection on the Epistemological 'Utility and Necessity' of Discussions of 'The Origin of Ideas and Concepts'.Ahmad Hamdollahi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):97-114.
    In the Hume period and beyond, through some of his views The Idea has been formed in the minds of some scholars that "the explanation of the way in which ideas or concepts originate is a way or the only way to secure their reality and epistemological validity" That is to say "if we cannot explain how a concept or idea originates, it will lack epistemological validity". By adopting this Idea, the fate of very important issues such as the possibility (...)
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  23. Ethical Embodied Subject: Foucault and Levinas.Bayan Karimi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):354-369.
    Foucault and Levinas are one of the most prominent and important thinkers who have put emphasis on the necessity of the fundamental critique of rational subjectivity. This is an approach that according to these two thinkers since the time of Descartes up to this day has suppressed the ethical capability of body in the interest of consciousness. Foucault and Levinas have studied and analyzed the ethical criterion of the embodied subject and in this respect, they have presented the fundamental and (...)
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  24. Explaining and Criticizing the Paradigmatic Approach in Western Educational Thoughts.Mohammad Rabi Sam Khanian & Irandokht Fayyaz - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):166-188.
    Effective implementing of educational activities requires acquiring educational theories. Numerous theories have emerged throughout history from the past to the present. Understanding these theories is not an easy task. So the central question in studying educational ideas is how to understand educational theories, or in other words, educational theology. The paradigmatic approach is one of the procedures related to theorizing or theory that can help us read and understand thought, especially educational thoughts. The paradigmatic perspective in explaining scientific theories plays (...)
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  25.  3
    Experimental Ego From the Perspective of Brentano and Husserl.Seyyed MohammadAmin Madayen - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):370-385.
    Of the most disputed debates in the philosophy‌‌‌‌, is the question of quiddity of the human psyche‌‌‌‌, which reflects the nature of the man. In the present article human psyche‌‌‌‌, which also can be referred to as ego‌‌‌‌, is discussed from the perspective of empiricism and more specifically‌‌‌‌, psychologism. After having a definition of the psychologism‌‌‌‌, this subject is to be debated from the viewpoint of the early Husserl and Brentano. Thereafter‌‌‌‌, we would have a concise discussion about the ego‌‌‌‌, (...)
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  26. Meaningless of Metaphysics in Kant's View.Aliasghar Morovvat - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):386-403.
    This Kant’s sentence that “Understanding is uncontent without Intuition and Intuition is blind without Understanding” is very famous. On this opinion, some contemporary commentators as Strawson, Warnock, Ewing proposed Kant as leather of positivism and folk language in which them transcendental metaphysics rejected as some meaningless sentences. In this paper I want to show there are some principal sentences as “Reason’ Ideas are belonging to faith”, “they are thinking” and “hierarchical use of ideas” that prove meaningful of transcendental metaphysics. Moreover, (...)
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  27. Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s the Philosophy of Art and the Contemporary Artist or Audience of Artwork.Maryam Peighami, Jalal Paykani, Mahin Rezaee & Zeinab Shakibi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):64-79.
    Nasr’s philosophy of Art contains several affirmative components such as connecting with tradition, the sacredness, the truth of being, utility of art in ordinary life and etc. First we have explained those components. on the other hand, his theory contains several negative components such as the critic of the modern art, the critic of utilitarianism, the critic of the artist’s central role and etc. These aspects, too, have been explained in this paper. Following description, we have deal with this question: (...)
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  28. Religions Diversity and the Problem of the Religious Other.Qodratollah Qorbani - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):337-353.
    Religions diversity is an unavoidable and objective fact. We also live within such a fact. The requirement of such a living is to acquire a common understanding of the self and the Other. Such an understanding is relied on rethinking of some significant factors like moral, humanly, cultural and religious commonalities and differences of the self and the Other. There are, theoretically, some questions ahead related to rethinking our living in the world of religious diversity, questions concerning truthiness and salvation, (...)
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  29. Life-World: Husserl and Rethinking of Meaning of Philosophy and the Task of Modern Philosopher.Zahra Ramezanlu, Hassan Fatzade & Shamsolmoluk Mostafavi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):130-146.
    Husserl thinks of philosophy as a general, fundamental and apodictic science of world. He set out to found transcendental phenomenology as general philosophy or apodictic science, but he ought to explain the possibility of objective knowledge of world as to reach to this point. Concerning about crisis in modern western culture, Crisis projects his view of philosophy and of duty of philosopher in context of a critics of modern philosophy and science concerns about crisis in modern western culture. So he (...)
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  30. Hermeneutical Transition of the Apriori Notion to Heidegger.Abdolreza Safari - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):249-267.
    Main concern of this essay is explanation of transition from mathematical system apriori to hermeneutical system, to Heidegger. On the base one of exegesis there is an overlapping between tow systems as conceived by Heidegger. But writer contrary to this interpretation depicts that no overlap between them. Because on the base of mathematical apriori notion, there is a static understanding and concepts in accord static rules will have to inference from it. But on the interpretation of hermeneutic apriori, many huge (...)
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  31. Inclusion Qua Fold Deleuzian Reading of Predicate-in-Notion Principle in Philosophy of Leibniz and Emergence of the Subject of Fold.Parisa Shakourzadeh & Ali Fath Taheri - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):230-248.
    This article, focusing on the inclusion- in- notion principle in the philosophy of Leibniz and its reading by Gilles Deleuze, claims that Deleuzian approach in the philosophical critique of the philosophy of Leibniz leads to recreation of the concept of the fold and the subject of fold in Leibnizian thought. To achieve this goal, we initially provide an in-depth study of this principle and its related principles in his philosophy and place emphasis upon their ontological aspect. Then we organize Deleuze’s (...)
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  32. Four Contemporary Interpretations on The Nature of Philosophy of Ibn Sina.Malek Shojaie & Nafise Badamchi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):209-229.
    According to the popular interpretation of the History of Islamic philosophy, Ibn Sina, along with philosophers such as Shaikh Al-Ishraq and Mulla Sadra, are known as the representatives of the three major philosophical currents of the Islamic world. This article, rather than entering the text of the controversies and philosophical issues concerning Islamic philosophy, from the perspective of metaphilosophy and historiography of philosophy, and for the first time to the approaches of interpretations of philosophy of Ibn Sina according to the (...)
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  33. Analysis of Akrasia From the Perspective of Alfred Mele and its Comparison with Aristotle's Point of View.Mohammad Taqdisi, Zahra Kazaei & Mohsen Javadi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):80-96.
    Akrasia, or moral weakness, for Aristotle and many contemporaries, including Alfred Mele, means the freely, intentionally action contrary to one's decisive better judgment, which occurs due to the weakness of the will and lack of self-control of the actor. Alfred Mele equates Akrasia with a weakness of will and Aristotle with a moral weakness. In addition to the fact that both philosophers consider Akrasia to be a carnal phenomenon. from both perspectives, the cause of Akrasia is the extreme influence of (...)
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  34.  9
    On the Problem of Relation Without Relata.Aboutorab Yaghmaie - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):404-425.
    The claim that there can be relations without relata, submitted by the radical ontic structural realist, mounts a serious challenge to her: on the one hand, the world is constituted, according to this sort of realism, just by structures and relations, and on the other hand, relations depend, mathematics says, on individual objects as relata. To resolve the problem, Steven French has argued that while the dependency of relations on relata is conceivable concerning the structure associated with the source of (...)
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  35. Justice as Fairness and Wide Economic Liberties: A Critical Reflection on the Possibility of Reconciliation Between Classical and High Liberal Traditions.Mostafa Zali - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (33):147-165.
    In arguing for justice as fairness, John Rawls distinguishes between two types of social institutions and, according to this distinction, proposes two principles of justice with a lexical order. According to the first principle, citizens have an equal right to the most adequate scheme of basic liberties. Then he arranges the list of basic liberties based on the necessary requirements to develop and exercise two moral powers. A new approach called market democracy claimed that, on Rawlsian assumption and justificatory framework, (...)
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  36.  29
    The Bang Was Not as Loud as I Had Expected.Ori Simchen - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations.
    In §442 of Philosophical Investigations Wittgenstein criticizes the application of Russell’s theory of descriptions to the sentence in the title without mentioning Russell or his theory. Wittgenstein is making a general point of wider interest. I have two aims. The first is to situate Wittgenstein’s critique within the larger theoretical setting of Russell’s theory of descriptions and Frege’s theory of indirect reference in light of the familiar problem of quantifying into attitude contexts. The second is to draw broader methodological implications (...)
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