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  1.  17
    II—Must There Be an Empirical Basis for the Theorization of Racialized Subjects in Race-Gender Theory?Tommy J. Curry - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 121 (1):21-44.
    This article argues that non-ideal theory fails to deliver on its promise of providing a more accurate account of the real world by which philosophers can address problems of racism, sexual violence, and poverty. Because non-ideal theory relies on abstractions of groups which are idealized as causes for social phenomena, non-idealists imagine that categories like race or gender predict how groups behave in the real world. This article maintains that non-idealist abstractions often result in inaccuracy and makes the case that (...)
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  2.  10
    III—The Wonder Of Signs.Adrian Haddock - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 121 (1):45-68.
    Anscombe raises a difficulty for the very idea of quotation. Davidson seeks to dissolve this difficulty. But the difficulty is real. And its lesson is that, in quotation, language takes itself as its topic in a non-objectifying manner. The idea of a non-objectifying manner of being a topic is crucial, not merely for understanding quotation, but for understanding the distinctive form of sensory consciousness in which language is perceived.
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  3.  7
    IV—Moral Knowledge and Empirical Investigation in Late Ming China.Leigh K. Jenco - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 121 (1):69-92.
    This essay begins to explore the philosophical grounds on which Chinese literati thinkers came to legitimate, and in some cases value, alternative ways of life in the early modern era. In this essay I examine arguments from two such scholars, the flamboyant iconoclast Li Zhi 李贄 and his lifelong friend, the historian and classicist Jiao Hong 焦竑, to show how this interest in the empirical world led them away from their commitments to moral universalism and toward an appreciation of the (...)
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  4.  4
    Are Citizens Causally Responsible for Voting Outcomes?Christina Nick - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 121 (1):101-109.
    Can we hold citizens causally responsible for the outcomes of their voting decisions? They could stand in the causal relationship required for such responsibility either collectively or individually. Recent accounts ascribing responsibility to citizens have primarily taken the collective route because of a major obstacle to using an individualistic approach, namely, the problem of overdetermination: the actions of each citizen do not make an individual difference to, and therefore cannot be a cause of, the overall political outcome. I suggest, drawing (...)
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  5.  14
    The Dual Erasure of Domestic Epistemic Labour.Emilia L. Wilson - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 121 (1):111-125.
    There is growing interest in a category of domestic labour frequently termed ‘emotional labour’. I argue that this labour is, in fact, primarily a form of epistemic labour. I argue that domestic epistemic labour is the target of dual erasure. Firstly, as invisible domestic labour, it is underrecognized and undervalued. Secondly, it is not recognized as epistemic, due to women’s epistemic oppression. ‘Emotional labour’, as a catch-all for feminized labour, perpetuates the dominant ideological conception of emotion as feminine and anti-epistemic. (...)
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  6.  16
    The Disrespectfulness of Weighted Survival Lotteries.Joseph Adams - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):395-404.
    If we can save the lives of only one of multiple groups of people, we might be inclined simply to save whichever group is largest. We may worry, though, that automatically saving the largest group fails to take each saveable individual sufficiently into account, offering some of these individuals no chance at all of being rescued. Still wanting to give larger groups higher chances of survival, we may then say that we ought to employ a proportionally weighted lottery to determine (...)
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  7.  49
    XII—The Distinction in Kind Between Knowledge and Belief.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):277-308.
    Drawing inspiration from a well-attested historical tradition, I propose an account of cognition according to which knowledge is not only prior to belief; it is also, and crucially, not a kind of belief. Believing, in turn, is not some sort of botched knowing, but a mental state fundamentally different from knowing, with its own distinctive and complementary role in our cognitive life. I conclude that the main battle-line in the history of epistemology is drawn between the affirmation of a natural (...)
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  8.  49
    Vagueness-Induced Counterexamples to Modus Tollens.Tom Beevers - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):405-416.
    I argue that vagueness produces counterexamples to modus tollens. I begin by outlining cases where indicative and counterfactual conditionals seem intuitively to be determinate even when their antecedents are borderline and their consequents are determinately false. Accepting these intuitions has some revisionary implications; however, rejecting them leads to unacceptable consequences for our knowledge of conditionals. I thus take it that we should accept that our intuitions are reliable. I show it follows that modus tollens fails. I conclude by defending this (...)
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  9.  53
    X—Why Trust Science? Reliability, Particularity and the Tangle of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):237-252.
    In evaluating science, philosophers tends to focus on general laws and on their truth. I urge a shift in focus to the reliability of the panoply of outputs science produces and in tandem, from the general to the particular. Here I give five arguments to support this, including many, many scientific outputs, which must be supposed reliable if we are to warrant our general principles, aren’t truth-apt; and reliability invites the crucial question, ‘Reliable for what?’ Getting clear the particular purpose (...)
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  10.  20
    XI—Rights Externalism and Racial Injustice.Derrick Darby - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):253-276.
    Rights externalism, a view I defend in Rights, Race, and Recognition, takes social recognition to be a condition for being a rights bearer. I vindicate this view by answering two recent critics. I concede some ground, particularly with respect to their reservations about what we gain, but argue that claims about what we stand to lose are overblown. I conclude that rights externalism is not detrimental to the critique of racial injustice, and that embracing it has noteworthy virtues. The most (...)
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  11.  18
    XV—On Consistency and Existence in Mathematics.Walter Dean - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):349-393.
    This paper engages the question ‘Does the consistency of a set of axioms entail the existence of a model in which they are satisfied?’ within the frame of the Frege-Hilbert controversy. The question is related historically to the formulation, proof and reception of Gödel’s Completeness Theorem. Tools from mathematical logic are then used to argue that there are precise senses in which Frege was correct to maintain that demonstrating consistency is as difficult as it can be, but also in which (...)
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  12.  10
    XIV—Two Puzzles in The Early Christian Constitution Of The Self: Reflections on Agency in Foucault’s Interpretation of Cassian.Béatrice Han-Pile - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):329-347.
    I tease out two early Christian puzzles about agency: agential control: how can agents self-constitute if their primary experience of themselves is not one of control, as in Greek antiquity, but of relative powerlessness? And ethical expertise: how can agents constitute themselves as ethical agents if they cannot trust themselves to recognize, and act in the light of, the good? I argue, first, that Foucault saw the importance of these puzzles and focused on extreme obedience as affording a possible resolution; (...)
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  13.  50
    XIII—Dutch Book and Accuracy Theorems.Anna Mahtani - 2021 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 120 (3):309-327.
    Dutch book and accuracy arguments are used to justify certain rationality constraints on credence functions. Underlying these Dutch book and accuracy arguments are associated theorems, and I show that the interpretation of these theorems can vary along a range of dimensions. Given that the theorems can be interpreted in a variety of different ways, what is the status of the associated arguments? I consider three possibilities: we could aggregate the results of the differently interpreted theorems in some way, and motivate (...)
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