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  1.  77
    Francis Hutcheson on Liberty.Ruth Boeker - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:121-142.
    This paper aims to reconstruct Francis Hutcheson's thinking about liberty. Since he does not offer a detailed treatment of philosophical questions concerning liberty in his mature philosophical writings I turn to a textbook on metaphysics. We can assume that he prepared the textbook during the 1720s in Dublin. This textbook deserves more attention. First, it sheds light on Hutcheson's role as a teacher in Ireland and Scotland. Second, Hutcheson's contributions to metaphysical disputes are more original than sometimes assumed. To appreciate (...)
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  2.  3
    ‘Plainly of Considerable Moment in Human Society’: Francis Hutcheson and Polite Laughter in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland.Kate Davison - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:143-169.
    This article focuses on Francis Hutcheson's Reflections Upon Laughter, which was originally published in 1725 as a series of three letters to The Dublin Journal during his time in the city. Although rarely considered a significant example of Hutcheson's published work, Reflections Upon Laughter has long been recognised in the philosophy of laughter as a foundational contribution to the ‘incongruity theory’ – one of the ‘big three’ theories of laughter, and that which is still considered the most credible by modern (...)
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  3.  3
    What the Women of Dublin Did with John Locke.Christine Gerrard - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:171-193.
    William Molyneux's friendship with John Locke helped make Locke's ideas well known in early eighteenth-century Dublin. TheEssay Concerning Human Understandingwas placed on the curriculum of Trinity College in 1692, soon after its publication. Yet there has been very little discussion of whether Irish women from this period read or knew Locke's work, or engaged more generally in contemporary philosophical debate. This essay focuses on the work of Laetitia Pilkington and Mary Barber, two of the Dublin women writers of the so-called (...)
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  4.  3
    Poverty and Prosperity: Political Economics in Eighteenth-Century Ireland.Marc A. Hight - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:73-96.
    I draw attention to a group of thinkers in Ireland in the first half of the eighteenth century that made significant contributions to the philosophy of political economy. Loosely organized around the Dublin Philosophical Society founded in 1731, these individuals employed a similar set of assumptions and shared a common interest in the well-being of the Irish people. I focus on Samuel Madden, Arthur Dobbs, and Thomas Prior and argue for two main theses. First, these Irish thinkers shared a number (...)
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  5.  5
    From Serena to Hypatia: John Toland's Women.Ian Leask - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:195-214.
    This paper focusses on John Toland's influential Hypatia, an account of the neo-Platonist philosopher and mathematician murdered in ancient Alexandria; it also considers segments of his Letters to Serena, and suggests various conjunctions between the two texts which confirm Toland's genuine and sustained feminist commitment. As I try to establish, Toland's concern is as much about contemporaneous events as it is about ‘disinterested’ history: by promoting Hypatia as the representative of philosophy in its perennial struggle with superstition and priestcraft, Toland (...)
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  6.  1
    Peter Browne on the Metaphysics of Knowledge.Kenneth L. Pearce - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:215-237.
    The central unifying element in the philosophy of Peter Browne is his theory of analogy. Although Browne's theory was originally developed to deal with some problems about religious language, Browne regards analogy as a general purpose cognitive mechanism whereby we substitute an idea we have to stand for an object of which we, strictly speaking, have no idea. According to Browne, all of our ideas are ideas of sense, and ideas of sense are ideas of material things. Hence we can (...)
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  7.  1
    Preface.Kenneth L. Pearce & Takaharu Oda - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:1-6.
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  8.  6
    Berkeley's Criticisms of Shaftesbury and Hutcheson.Samuel C. Rickless - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:97-119.
    In this paper, I attempt to clarify the nature and purpose of Berkeley's criticisms of Shaftesbury's and Hutcheson's ethical systems in the third chapter ofAlciphron, explaining the extent to which those criticisms rely on the truth of idealism and considering whether Berkeley or his philosophical opponents have the better of the arguments. In the end, I conclude that some of Berkeley's criticisms are based on confusion and misunderstanding, others are likely contradicted by the empirical evidence, and yet others are unconvincing. (...)
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  9.  2
    Does Berkeley's Immaterialism Support Toland's Spinozism? The Posidonian Argument and the Eleventh Objection.Eric Schliesser - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:33-71.
    This paper argues that a debate between Toland and Clarke is the intellectual context to help understand the motive behind the critic and the significance of Berkeley's response to the critic in PHK 60-66. These, in turn, are responding to Boyle's adaptation of a neglected design argument by Cicero. The paper shows that there is an intimate connection between these claims of natural science and a once famous design argument. In particular, that in the early modern period the connection between (...)
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  10.  1
    John Austin SJ (1717–84), The First Irish Catholic Cartesian?Jacob Schmutz - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:239-271.
    Early-Modern Irish Catholics exiled on the European continent are known to have often held prominent academic positions in various important colleges and universities. This paper investigates the hitherto unknown Scholastic legacy of the Dublin-born Jesuit John Austin, a famous Irish educator who started his career teaching philosophy at the Jesuit college of Rheims in 1746–47, before returning to the country of his birth as part of the Irish Mission. These manuscript lecture notes provides us first-hand knowledge about the content of (...)
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  11.  9
    The Irish Context of Berkeley's 'Resemblance Thesis'.Peter West & Manuel Fasko - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:7-31.
    In this paper, we focus on Berkeley's reasons for accepting the ‘resemblance thesis’ which entails that for one thing to represent another those two things must resemble one another. The resemblance thesis is a crucial premise in Berkeley's argument from the ‘likeness principle’ in §8 of the Principles. Yet, like the ‘likeness principle’, the resemblance thesis remains unargued for and is never explicitly defended. This has led several commentators to provide explanations as to why Berkeley accepts the resemblance thesis and (...)
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  12.  6
    Iris Murdoch and Common Sense Or, What Is It Like To Be A Woman In Philosophy.Hannah Marije Altorf - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:201-220.
    Philosophy is one of the least inclusive disciplines in the humanities and this situation is changing only very slowly. In this article I consider how one of the women of the Wartime Quartet, Iris Murdoch, can help to challenge this situation. Taking my cue from feminist and philosophical practices, I focus on Murdoch's experience of being a woman and a philosopher and on the role experience plays in her philosophical writing. I argue that her thinking is best characterised with the (...)
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  13.  3
    ‘Removing the Barriers’: Mary Midgley on Concern for Animals.David E. Cooper - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:249-262.
    This paper focuses on Mary Midgley's influential discussions, over more than thirty years, of the relationship between human beings and animals, in particular on her concern to ‘remove the barriers’ that stand in the way of proper understanding and treatment of animals. These barriers, she demonstrates, have been erected by animal science, epistemology and mainstream moral philosophy alike. In each case, she argues, our attitudes to animals are warped by approaches that are at once excessively abstract, over-theoretical and guilty of (...)
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  14.  62
    Depicting Human Form.Clare Mac Cumhaill - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:151-167.
    This paper involves constructive exegesis. I consider the contrast between morality and art as sketched in Philippa Foot's 1972 paper of the same name, ‘Morality and Art’. I then consider how her views might have shifted against the background of the conceptual landscape afforded by Natural Goodness, though the topic of the relation of art and morality is not explicitly explored in that work. The method is to set out some textual fragments from Natural Goodness that can be arranged for (...)
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  15.  45
    Love and Unselfing in Iris Murdoch.Julia Driver - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:169-180.
    Iris Murdoch believes that unselfing is required for virtue, as it takes us out of our egoistic preoccupations, and connects us to the Good in the world. Love is a form of unselfing, illustrating how close attention to another, and the way they really are, again, takes us out of a narrow focus on the self. Though this view of love runs counter to a view that those in love often overlook flaws in their loved ones, or at least down-play (...)
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  16.  31
    Revisiting Modern Moral Philosophy.Jennifer A. Frey - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:61-83.
    This essay revisits Elizabeth Anscombe's ‘Modern Moral Philosophy' with two goals in mind. The first is to recover and reclaim its radical vision, by setting forth a unified account of its three guiding theses. On the interpretation advanced here, Anscombe's three theses are not independently intelligible; their underlying unity is the perceived necessity of absolute prohibitions for any sound account of practical reason. The second goal is to show that Anscombe allows for a thoroughly unmodern sense of ‘moral' that applies (...)
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  17.  18
    Virtues as Perfections of Human Powers: On the Metaphysics of Goodness in Aristotelian Naturalism.John Hacker-Wright - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:127-149.
    The central idea of Philippa Foot’s Natural Goodness is that moral judgments belong to the same logical kind of judgments as those that attribute natural goodness and defect to plants and animals. But moral judgments focus on a subset of human powers that play a special role in our lives as rational animals, namely, reason, will, and desire. These powers play a central role in properly human actions: those actions in which we go for something that we see and understand (...)
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  18.  4
    A Philosopher of Singular Style and Multiple Modes.John Haldane - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:31-60.
    Elizabeth Anscombe was one of the most gifted and productive philosophers of the decades following the Second World War. Her writings present challenges to readers: some of them are very difficult to comprehend while others seem philosophically-minded yet situated outside of philosophy as such. There are also the issues of whether she had a philosophical method and of the influence of Wittgenstein on the manner of her approach. A summary and estimate of Anscombe’s enduring contributions is presented before exploring the (...)
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  19.  21
    Volunteers and Conscripts: Philippa Foot and the Amoralist.Nakul Krishna - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:111-125.
    Philippa Foot, like others of her philosophical generation, was much concerned with the status and authority of morality. How universal are its demands, and how dependent on the idiosyncrasies of individuals? In the early years of her career, she was persuaded that Kant and his twentieth-century followers had been wrong to insist on the centrality to morality of absolute and unconditionally binding moral imperatives. To that extent, she wrote, there was indeed ‘an element of deception in the official line about (...)
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  20.  4
    The Women Are Up to Something.Benjamin J. Bruxvoort Lipscomb - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:7-30.
    In this essay, I offer an interpretation of the ethical thought of Elizabeth Anscombe, Philippa Foot, Mary Midgley, and Iris Murdoch. The combined effect of their work was to revive a naturalistic account of ethical objectivity that had dominated the premodern world. I proceed narratively, explaining how each of the four came to make the contribution she did towards this implicit common project: in particular how these women came to see philosophical possibilities that their male contemporaries mostly did not.
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  21.  22
    The Elusiveness of the Ethical: From Murdoch to Diamond.Sabina Lovibond - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:181-200.
    Cora Diamond is a powerful witness to the originality of Iris Murdoch's writings on ethics, showing how Murdoch is at variance with contemporary orthodoxy not just in respect of particular doctrines, but in her questioning of mainstream assumptions as to what constitutes the subject-matter of moral philosophy. Diamond celebrates Murdoch as an ally in her campaign against the ‘departmental’ conception of morality – the idea that moral thought is just one branch of thought among others – and highlights Murdoch's enduring (...)
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  22.  5
    Relationality in the Thought of Mary Midgley.Gregory S. McElwain - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:235-248.
    For over 40 years, Mary Midgley has been celebrated for the sensibility with which she approached some of the most challenging and pressing issues in philosophy. Her expansive corpus addresses such diverse topics as human nature, morality, animals and the environment, gender, science, and religion. While there are many threads that tie together this impressive plurality of topics, the thread of relationality unites much of Midgley's thought on human nature and morality. This paper explores Midgley's pursuit of a relational notion (...)
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  23.  3
    Philosophical Plumbing in the Twenty-First Century.Liz Mckinnell - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:221-233.
    Mary Midgley famously compares philosophy to plumbing. In both cases we are dealing with complex systems that underlie the everyday life of a community, and in both cases we often fail to notice their existence until things start to smell a bit fishy. Philosophy, like plumbing, is performed by particular people at particular times, and it is liable to be done in a way that suits the needs of those people and those whom they serve. I employ Mary Midgley's philosophy (...)
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  24.  1
    Preface.Anthony O'Hear - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:1-5.
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  25.  3
    Evolution as a Religion: Mary Midgley's Hopes and Fears.Anthony O'Hear - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:263-277.
    This paper considers Mary Midgley's views on evolution, especially as developed in her book Evolution as a Religion. In this she continues the critical campaign she waged against Dawkins’ notion of the selfish gene, but broadens her attack out to encompass many other thinkers, who are predicting dramatic and revolutionary futures for humanity, based supposedly on what evolutionary science tells us. Midgley argues that no such conclusions are scientifically warranted – hence evolution as a religion. Her own attempts to absolve (...)
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  26.  8
    Aristotelian Necessity.Candace Vogler - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:101-110.
    At the center of contemporary neo-Aristotelian naturalism is the thought that we can account for a great deal of ethics by thinking about what is needful in human life generally. When we think about practices like promising, virtues like justice or courage, and institutions that serve to produce, maintain, and help to reproduce well-ordered social life we can make some headway we consider the sense in which our topic makes some forms of human good possible and even, in some cases, (...)
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  27.  13
    Anscombe on Brute Facts and Human Affairs.Rachael Wiseman - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:85-99.
    In ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ Anscombe writes: ‘It is not profitable at present for us to do moral philosophy. It should be laid aside at any rate until we have an adequate philosophy of psychology, in which we are conspicuously lacking’. In consideration of this Anscombe appeals to the relation of ‘brute-relative-to’ which holds between facts and descriptions of human affairs. This paper describes the reorientation in philosophy of action that this relation aims to effect and examines the claim that this (...)
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