The so-called uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) have been implemented in several countries, including Spain and France, to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. These protocols allow obtaining kidneys, livers and lungs of patients who do not survive cardio-pulmonary resuscitation performed in out-of-hospital settings. Simultaneously with the development and recent proliferation of these protocols, some emergency teams have begun to employ unconventional methods of CPR, with still uncertain but promising results. The coexistence of these two possibilities (...) raises some questions: At what point should attempts to save a patient with circulatory arrest be abandoned so that this individual can begin to be considered as a potential organ donor? How to manage potential conflicts of loyalties that may arise within emergency and procurement teams? How should the information to the families of those patients and potential organ donors be managed? This article gathers the conclusions of a workshop in which an interdisciplinary working group addressed these and other questions related to DCDD and non-conventional CPR. (shrink)
An examination of the contemporary Italian movement associated with M. P. Sciacca, and the serious application of dialectical and phenomenological methods to unveil the structure of "intentionality" or "spirit." An appraisal of Sciacca together with a sample critique of Dante follows a competent summary of the prevailing positions.--D. B. B.
Desde o século XIX o catolicismo foi assinalado por uma divisão interna advinda das demandas pastorais de como a Igreja Católica deveria se situar e responder aos novos desafios lançados pela modernidade. Uns entendiam que ela deveria dialogar com modernidade, abrindo-se àquelas perspectivas positivas do projeto moderno, outros negavam qualquer possibilidade de tal diálogo, vendo nos valores modernos apenas anticristianismo e perdição, defendendo o lançamento de anátemas aqueles que, possivelmente, se desviassem da ortodoxia. O Concílio Vaticano II (1962-1965) pode ser (...) compreendido como um campo de lutas simbólico-normativas, no qual estas duas tendências colocaram-se frente a frente nos inúmeros debates. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal apresentar brevemente a atuação de dois bispos brasileiros conservadores no concílio: D. Antônio de Castro Mayer e D. Geraldo de Proença Sigaud (1962-1965). Para tanto, apresentaremos algumas das principais intervenções dos bispos na assembleia conciliar, chamando atenção para os temas em que travaram maior combate, como liberdade religiosa, liturgia e organização hierárquica da Igreja.Since the 19th century Catholicism has been marked by internal divisions arising from the pastoral demands of how the Catholic Church should position itself and deal with the new challenges launched by modern times. Some people understood that the Catholic Church was supposed to evolve with modern times and open itself to new perspectives related to the modern project. Others denied any possibility of dialogue with the modern times and believed that modern values would encourage scepticism and anti Christianity, defending also the excommunication of those who deviate from orthodoxy. The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) can be understood as a symbolic-normative battle field, in which two divergent positions are in continuous confrontation. This article aims to briefly present the opinions of two Brazilian conservative Bishops in the Council: D. Antônio de Castro Mayer and D. Geraldo Proença Sigaud (1962-1965). For this purpose, the main points made by the Bishops at the Conciliar Assembly, will be outlined. Therefore, the focus of the article will be on the more controversial themes discussed at that time, such as religious freedom, liturgy and hierarchical Church organization. Keywords: Brazilian bishops. Catholic conservatism. Second Vatican Council. Coetus Internationalis Patrum. (shrink)
SUMMARYThis article considers how chemical analyses were employed not only to study and describe mineral waters, but also to promote new spas, and to reinforce the scientific authority of experts. Scientists, jointly with bath owners, visitors and local authorities, created a significant spa market by transforming rural spaces into social and economic sites. The paper analyses the role developed by the chemist AntonioCasares in the commodification of mineral water in mid-19th century Spain. His scientific publications and water (...) analyses put a new economic value on some Spanish mineral waters and rural springs. First the paper explores the relationship between geographic factors, regulation, and spa development in 19th century Spain, and considers how scientific work improved the economy of some rural areas. Then the transformation of numerous country springs into spas, and the commodification of baths as places between science and leisure is examined. Finally the location of spas across the borders of medicine and chemistry is shown, together with the complex field operations required to study mineral waters. This paper reveals an intense circulation of knowledge between the field, laboratories and scientific publications, as well as the essential role developed by experts like Casares, who not only contributed to the study of rural springs but also to their economic transformation. (shrink)