Results for 'Mark R. Blair'

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  1.  11
    Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive‐Motor Skill Learning.Joseph J. Thompson, C. M. McColeman, Ekaterina R. Stepanova & Mark R. Blair - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):467-484.
    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action is delayed relative to the other actions in the (...)
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  2.  76
    Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia Benefits Rule-Based Category Learning.Marcus R. Watson, Mark R. Blair, Pavel Kozik, Kathleen A. Akins & James T. Enns - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1533-1540.
    Researchers have long suspected that grapheme-color synaesthesia is useful, but research on its utility has so far focused primarily on episodic memory and perceptual discrimination. Here we ask whether it can be harnessed during rule-based Category learning. Participants learned through trial and error to classify grapheme pairs that were organized into categories on the basis of their associated synaesthetic colors. The performance of synaesthetes was similar to non-synaesthetes viewing graphemes that were physically colored in the same way. Specifically, synaesthetes learned (...)
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  3.  19
    Errors, Efficiency, and the Interplay Between Attention and Category Learning.Mark R. Blair, Marcus R. Watson & Kimberly M. Meier - 2009 - Cognition 112 (2):330-336.
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  4.  18
    Waiting and Weighting: Information Sampling is a Balance Between Efficiency and Error-Reduction.Kimberly M. Meier & Mark R. Blair - 2013 - Cognition 126 (2):319-325.
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  5. The Impact of Category Type and Working Memory Span on Attentional Learning in Categorization.Mark R. Blair, Lihan Chen, Kimberly M. Meier, Michael J. Wood, Marcus R. Watson & Ulric Wong - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
  6.  43
    Anti-Linguisticism and Phenomenology.R. G. Blair - 1976 - Idealistic Studies 6 (1):69-84.
    I propose to examine the possible relevance of phenomenological method to the consideration of another approach to philosophy which is usually thought of as the descendant of a tradition of thought quite alien to it. This second approach I shall call “the anti-linguistic method.” The name constitutes a terminological safeguard against the dangerous step of ascribing a definite methodological view to the Wittgenstein of the Investigations, although the anti-linguistic method seems to me to be close to what Wittgenstein’s method would (...)
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  7.  15
    Notes on St. Mark and St. MatthewCorpus Notitiarum Episcopatuum Ecclesiae Orientalis Graecae. I Band: Die Genesis der Notitia Episcopatuum. [REVIEW]W. M. R., A. Pallis & Ernst Gerland - 1933 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 53:155.
  8. A Cognitive Developmental Approach to Morality: Investigating the Psychopath.R. Blair - 1995 - Cognition 57 (1):1-29.
    Various social animal species have been noted to inhibit aggressive attacks when a conspecific displays submission cues. Blair (1993) has suggested that humans possess a functionally similar mechanism which mediates the suppression of aggression in the context of distress cues. He has suggested that this mechanism is a prerequisite for the development of the moral/conventional distinction; the consistently observed distinction in subject's judgments between moral and conventional transgressions. Psychopaths may lack this violence inhibitor. A causal model is developed showing (...)
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  9. Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys With Psychopathic Tendencies?R. J. R. Blair, E. Colledge & D. G. V. Mitchell - 2001 - Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29 (6):499-511.
    This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex func- tioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the Intradimensional/ (...)
     
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  10. Risky Decisions and Response Reversal: Is There Evidence of Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Psychopathic Individuals?D. G. V. Mitchell, E. Colledge & R. J. R. Blair - 2002 - Neuropsychologia 40:2013–2022.
    This study investigates the performance of psychopathic individuals on tasks believed to be sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) functioning. Psychopathic and non-psychopathic individuals, as defined by the Hare psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, The Hare psychopathy checklist revised, Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems, 1991] completed a gambling task [Cognition 50 (1994) 7] and the intradimensional/extradimensional (ID/ED) shift task [Nature 380 (1996) 69]. On the gambling task, psychopathic participants showed a global tendency to choose disadvantageously. Specifically, they showed an (...)
     
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  11.  39
    Affect and the Moral‐Conventional Distinction.R. J. R. Blair - 1997 - Journal of Moral Education 26 (2):187-196.
    Abstract The effect of inducing negative, positive or neutral affect on the recall of moral and conventional transgressions and positive moral and conventional acts was examined. It was found that inducing negative affect was associated with higher recall of moral transgressions while inducing positive affect was associated with higher recall of positive moral acts. Affect induction condition did not have a significant effect on the recall of the conventional transgressions or positive acts. The results are interpreted within the Violence Inhibition (...)
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  12.  41
    Referring. [REVIEW]H. K. R. - 1969 - Review of Metaphysics 22 (3):574-574.
    This book considers some of the problems of a logical nature about reference which have troubled contemporary philosophers--particularly problems about existence, identity, and definite descriptions. It deals with five philosophers who have been especially concerned with these logical problems: Meinong, Frege, Russell, Strawson, and Quine. The pivotal chapters concern Russell's theory of descriptions and Strawson's well-known critique of that theory in his paper "On Referring." According to Linsky, some of Strawson's criticisms of Russell hit their mark; but not all (...)
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  13.  13
    An Introduction to Hegel's Metaphysics. [REVIEW]J. G. R. - 1972 - Review of Metaphysics 25 (4):768-769.
    The title of this work evokes suspicion: how can Soll aim at one "part"--metaphysics--of a philosophy such as Hegel's? How would one go about introducing only Hegel's metaphysics? One might, with some validity, go about discussing Hegel's metaphysics ; but how would one, assuming his reader's general unfamiliarity with Hegel, introduce his "metaphysics," and that alone? Alas, one's worst fears are soon realized: the opening sentence reads, "Hegel's method is best approached by asking what he was trying to accomplish with (...)
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  14. Arguments That Aren't Arguments.P. A. Minkus, J. A. Blair & R. H. Johnson - 1980 - Informal Logic: The First International Symposium, Ed. Ja Blair and Rh Johnson 69:76.
     
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  15.  14
    Chapter 11: Strategic Advantage and Social Anathema? [REVIEW]Brad Johnson, B. R. Baliga & John D. Blair - 1986 - Journal of Business Ethics 5 (1):51 - 61.
    The United States is at a crossroad in its treatment of Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code, which deals with reorganization of bankrupt organizations. It is vital that the issues surrounding the debate be properly framed. This paper attempts to do just that by reviewing the evolution of bankruptcy law, assessing the impact of Chapter 11 leniency on societal stakeholders, considering bankruptcy as a strategic option, and addressing the ethical and societal issues that arise from the use of Chapter 11 (...)
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  16. Did Cain Fail to Represent the Thoughts of Abel Before He Killed Him.R. James & R. Blair - 2003 - In B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. pp. 143--170.
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  17. Ideology and Utopianism in Wartime Japan.R. M. Mark - 1994 - Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 21:2-3.
  18. The Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Morality and Psychopathy.R. J. R. Blair - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (9):387-392.
  19. The Psychopath. Emotion and the Brain.R. J. R. Blair, D. Mitchell & K. Blair - 2005 - Blackwell.
    Psychopaths continue to be demonised by the media and estimates suggest that a disturbing percentage of the population has psychopathic tendencies. This timely and controversial new book summarises what we already know about psychopathy and antisocial behavior and puts forward a new case for its cause - with far-reaching implications. Presents the scientific facts of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Addresses key questions, such as: What is psychopathy? Are there psychopaths amongst us? What is wrong with psychopaths? Is psychopathy due to (...)
     
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  20.  97
    Responding to the Emotions of Others: Dissociating Forms of Empathy Through the Study of Typical and Psychiatric Populations.R. J. R. Blair - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (4):698-718.
    Empathy is a lay term that is becoming increasingly viewed as a unitary function within the field of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, a selective review of the empathy literature is provided. It is argued from this literature that empathy is not a unitary system but rather a loose collection of partially dissociable neurocognitive systems. In particular, three main divisions can be made: cognitive empathy , motor empathy, and emotional empathy. The two main psychiatric disorders associated with empathic dysfunction are (...)
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  21. What Emotional Responding is to Blame It Might Not Be to Responsibility.R. J. R. Blair - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (2):pp. 149-151.
  22.  17
    The Emergence of Psychopathy: Implications for the Neuropsychological Approach to Developmental Disorders.R. BlaiR - 2006 - Cognition 101 (2):414-442.
  23. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Implications for Judgments of Responsibility.R. James R. Blair - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (3):149-157.
    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder associated with specific forms of emotional dysfunction and an increased risk for both frustration-based reactive aggression and goal-directed instrumental antisocial behavior. While the full behavioral manifestation of the disorder is under considerable social influence, the basis of this disorder appears to be genetic. At the neural level, individuals with psychopathy show atypical responding within the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the roles of the amygdala in stimulus-reinforcement learning and responding to emotional expressions and vmPFC (...)
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  24. Passive Avoidance Learning in Individuals with Psychopathy: Modulation by Reward but Not by Punishment.R. J. R. Blair, D. G. V. Mitchell, A. Leonard, S. Budhani, K. S. Peschardt & C. Newman - 2004 - Personality and Individual Differences 37:1179–1192.
    This study investigates the ability of individuals with psychopathy to perform passive avoidance learning and whether this ability is modulated by level of reinforcement/punishment. Nineteen psychopathic and 21 comparison individuals, as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (Hare, 1991), were given a passive avoidance task with a graded reinforcement schedule. Response to each rewarding number gained a point reward specific to that number (i.e., 1, 700, 1400 or 2000 points). Response to each punishing number lost a point punishment specific (...)
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  25.  11
    Theta Band Activity in Response to Emotional Expressions and its Relationship with Gamma Band Activity as Revealed by MEG and Advanced Beamformer Source Imaging.Qian Luo, Xi Cheng, Tom Holroyd, Duo Xu, Frederick Carver & R. James Blair - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  26.  37
    Moral Judgment and Psychopathy.R. J. R. Blair - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):296-298.
    Recent interest in emotion as the basis for moral development began with work involving individuals with psychopathic tendencies, and a recent paper with this population has allowed fresh insights (Glenn, Iyer, Graham, Koleva, & Haidt, 2009). Two main conclusions suggested by this paper are: (i) that systems involved in different forms of morality can be differentiated; and (ii) that systems involved in justice reasoning likely include amygdala and/or ventromedial prefrontal cortex, even if the specifics of their functional contribution to justice (...)
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  27.  18
    A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia.Karina S. Blair & R. J. R. Blair - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (2):133-138.
  28.  14
    Should Affective Arousal Be Grounded in Perception-Action Coupling?R. J. R. Blair - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (1):109-110.
    Decety (2011) considers the cognitive neuroscience of empathy and, in particular, his three-component model of empathic responding. His position is highly influential with its emotional awareness/understanding and emotional regulation components representing clear extensions of previous theorizing on empathy. In this brief commentary, I will critically consider the third of his components: affective arousal. In particular, I will consider the implications of the literature to the proposed computations, based on perception—action coupling, that underlie this component of his model. I will suggest (...)
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  29.  44
    Empathy: A Unitary Circuit or a Set of Dissociable Neuro-Cognitive Systems?James R. Blair & Karina S. Perschardt - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):27-28.
    We question whether empathy is mediated by a unitary circuit. We argue that recent neuroimaging data indicate dissociable neural responses for different facial expressions as well as for representing others' mental states (Theory of Mind, TOM). We also argue that the general empathy disorder considered characteristic of autism and psychopathy is not general but specific for each disorder.
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  30.  23
    Attentional Asymmetries in a Visual Orienting Task Are Related to Temperament.Kelly G. Garner, Paul E. Dux, Joe Wagner, D. R. Tarrant, Christopher D. Chambers & A. Mark - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1508-1515.
    Spatial asymmetries are an intriguing feature of directed attention. Recent observations indicate an influence of temperament upon the direction of these asymmetries. It is unknown whether this influence generalises to visual orienting behaviour. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore the relationship between temperament and measures of spatial orienting as a function of target hemifield. An exogenous cueing task was administered to 92 healthy participants. Temperament was assessed using Carver and White's (1994) Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural (...)
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  31. Callous-Unemotional Traits Modulate the Neural Response Associated with Punishing Another Individual During Social Exchange: A Preliminary Investigation.Stuart F. White, Sarah J. Brislin, Harma Meffert, Stephen Sinclair & R. James R. Blair - 2013 - Journal of Personality Disorders 27 (1):99–112.
    The current study examined whether Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, a core component of psychopathy, modulate neural responses of participants engaged in a social exchange game. In this task, participants were offered an allocation of money and then given the chance to punish the offerer. Twenty youth participated and responses to both offers and the participant’s punishment (or not) of these offers were examined. Increasingly unfair offers were associated with increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity but this responsiveness was not modulated (...)
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  32.  23
    The Importance of Differentiation in Young Children’s Acquisition of Expertise.Mark Blair & Susan C. Somerville - 2009 - Cognition 112 (2):259-280.
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  33. Reduced Amygdala Response in Youths With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Psychopathic Traits: Decreased Emotional Response Versus Increased Top-Down Attention to Nonemotional Features.Stuart F. White, Abigail A. Marsh, Katherine A. Fowler, Julia C. Schechter, Christopher Adalio, Kayla Pope, Stephen Sinclair, Daniel S. Pine & R. James R. Blair - 2012 - American Journal of Psychiatry 169 (7):750-758.
    Youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala responses to fearful expressions under low attentional load but no indications of increased recruitment of regions implicated in top- down attentional control. These findings suggest that the emotional deficit observed in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits is primary and not secondary to increased top- down attention to nonemotional stimulus features.
     
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  34. New Books. [REVIEW]S. F., R. R., E. A. Menneer, B. Russell, Gustav Spiller, J. Mark Baldwin, T. E. & Alfred W. Benn - 1900 - Mind 9 (33):114-130.
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  35.  12
    Physical Manipulation of the Brain.Henry K. Beecher, Edgar A. Bering, Donald T. Chalkley, José M. R. Delgado, Vernon H. Mark, Karl H. Pribram, Gardner C. Quarton, Theodore B. Rasmussen, William Beecher Scoville, William H. Sweet, Daniel Callahan, K. Danner Clouser, Harold Edgar, Rudolph Ehrensing, James R. Gavin, Willard Gaylin, Bruce Hilton, Perry London, Robert Michels, Robert Neville, Ann Orlov, Herbert G. Vaughan, Paul Weiss & Jose M. R. Delgado - 1973 - Hastings Center Report 3 (Special Supplement):1.
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  36.  23
    Putting Cognition Into Sociopathy.R. J. R. Blair & John Morton - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-548.
    We make three suggestions with regard to Mealey's work. First, her lack of a cognitive analysis of the sociopath results in underspecified mappings between sociobiology and behavior. Second, the developmental literature indicates that Mealey's implicit assumption, that moral socialisation is achieved through punishment, is invalid. Third, we advance the use of causal modelling to map the developmental relationships between biology, cognition, and behaviour.
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  37.  20
    The Sanctuary of Athena Nike in Athens: Architectural Stages and Chronology. [REVIEW]R. A. Tomlinson & I. S. Mark - 1995 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 115:238-238.
  38. Dolan, RJ, 109 Fletcher, EC., 109 Frackowiak, RSJ, 109 Frith, CD, 109 Frith, U., 109.W. Badecker, S. C. Baker, J. M. Beale, R. J. R. Blair, F. Cara, N. Chater, F. C. Keil, M. Miozzo, P. Mitchell & Da Norman - 1995 - Cognition 57:329.
     
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  39.  7
    Imagination and Freedom in Spinoza and Sartre.R. G. Blair - 1970 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 1 (2):13-16.
  40.  39
    A Methodological Problem in Rheology.A. Graham, G. W. Scott Blair & R. F. J. Withers - 1960 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11 (44):265-288.
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  41.  22
    The Editor has Review Copies of the Following Books. Potential Reviewers Should Contact the Editor to Obtain a Review Copy (Rhaynes@ Phil. Ufl. Edu). Books Not Previously Listed Are in Bold-Faced Type. [REVIEW]A. Blair, D. Hitchcock, M. Cerf, D. Gibbon, B. Hubert, R. Ison, J. Jiggins, M. Paines, J. Proost & N. Roling - 2001 - Agriculture and Human Values 18:243-244.
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  42.  16
    Jbs Jbs Jbs.Heather H. Mcclure, Charles R. Martinez Jr, J. Josh Snodgrass, J. Mark, Roberto A. Jiménez Eddy, Laura E. Isiordia, Thomas W. Mcdade, Hans Vermeersch, Guy T.‘Sjoen & Jm Kaufman - 2010 - Journal of Biosocial Science 42 (4).
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  43.  8
    Thurstone's Method of Study of the Learning Curve.R. V. Blair - 1918 - Psychological Review 25 (1):81-83.
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  44.  17
    A Methodological Problem in Rheology: I: Experimental Evidence on the Rheology of Complex Alloys and its Philosophical Significance.A. GrAseam, G. W. Scoot Blair & And R. F. J. Withers - 1961 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11 (44):265-280.
  45.  2
    A Note on Eva Schaper's and Patrick A. Heelan's Papers.R. G. Blair - 1972 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 3 (3):284-285.
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  46.  9
    JME Referees in 1993.Barbara Applebaum, Andrew Blair, Don Cochrane, Mike Cross, Deborah K. Deemer, John Gibbs, Mark Halstead, Charles Helwig, Marilyn Johnson & Lesley Kendall - 1994 - Journal of Moral Education 23 (2):225.
  47.  12
    Computations in Extraversion.C. Fine & R. J. R. Blair - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):521-523.
    We make two suggestions with regard to Depue & Collins's target article. First, regarding the functioning of MOC13, we provide data indicating that, contrary to D&C's apparent position, this structure is not necessary for instrumental conditioning. Second, we suggest that D&C's approach would be advanced by reference to formal computational theory, in particular the work of Grossberg. We suggest that an integration of Grossberg 's and D&C's models can provide a more complete account of extraversion.
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  48.  5
    The Amygdala's Response to Face and Emotional Information and Potential Category-Specific Modulation of Temporal Cortex as a Function of Emotion.Stuart F. White, Christopher Adalio, Zachary T. Nolan, Jiongjiong Yang, Alex Martin & James R. Blair - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  49.  3
    The Influence of Valence and Decision Difficulty on Self-Referential Processing.Harma Meffert, Laura Blanken, Karina S. Blair, Stuart F. White & James R. Blair - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  50.  2
    The Importance of Differentiation in Young Children.Mark Blair & Susan C. Somerville - 2009 - Cognition 112 (2):22.
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